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&c., resolution to be binding on all, provided one than two of its members, or by reason of irreconcileable full third in number and value be present.

disagreement of opinion, the said committee is unable to 102. Creditors to vote according to balance due proceed in the discharge of its duties, or if the house resolve to them on account fairly stated.

that the general committee of elections be dissolved, the

general committee shall be thereby forthwith dissolved 103. Resolution to be submitted to the Commis 29. That every appointment to supply a vacaney in the sioners, and the Commissioners if they think it general committee, and every re-appointment of the general reasonable after hearing creditors for and against, committee after the dissolution thereof, shall be made by to approve and confirm the same, and to cause it to the Speaker by warrant, laid upon the table of the house or be filed, and to grant certificate of protection.

or before the third day on which the house meets after the 104. Estate to vest in trustee if any be appointed. and the warrant shall be subject to the disapproval of the

dissolution of the committee or notification of the vacancy, 105. Resolution to be enrolled, and copy of it to house, as is provided in the case of the first warrant før be evidence.

the appointment of the general committee; and upon any 106. Trustee to file account every six months, re-appointment of the general committee the Speaker may or oftener if required.

re-appoint any of the members of the former committee wig 107. If petitioning debtor has not made a true are then willing and not disqualified to serve on it. discovery, &c. he may be summoned and examined the first meeting of the general committee of elections, and

30. That the Speaker shall appoint the time and place of 108. If any difficulty arise as to execution of re- the committee shall meet at the time and place so appointed

; solution &c. à special meeting may be called. but no member shall act upon such committee until he have

109. When resolution or agreement has been been sworn at the table of the house, truly and faithfully to carried into effect, commissioner to give petition- perform the duties belonging to a member of the said com. ing debtor a certificate thereof and such certificate mittee, to the best of his judgment and ability, without fear to operate as a certificate of conformity. 110. Commissioners on being satisfied that trus- committee of elections unless four members be then present;

31. That no business shall be transacted by the general tee has fully performed his trust, to give him a and no appointment of a select committee by the general certificate thereof, and such certificate to be a full committee, shall be of force unless at the least four members release and accquittance for all matters done by such then present of the general committee agree in the appointtrustee.

ment. 111. Commissioners of the Treasury authorized to for the order and manner of conducting the business to be

32. That the general committee shall make regulationg grant superannuation allowances to commissioners transacted by them. and registrars of Court of Bankruptcy in Ireland. 33. That the general committee shall be attended by one Accounts of such allowances to be laid before Par- of the committee clerks of the house selected for that par. liament.

pose by the clerk of the house, and such coinmittee clerk 112. Nothing contained in act 3 and 4 Vict c. and manner as shall be directed by the committee

, and a

shall make a minute of all the proceedings, in such fora 105, s. 22, shall entitle a judgment creditor to any copy of the minutes so kept shall be laid before the House preference over other creditors. Saving such judg- of Commons, ments as have been the subject of some legal deci 34. That if at the time of the dissolution or suspension of sion before the passing of this Act.

the proceedings of the general comınittee there be any busi113. Recites 3 and 4 Vic. c. 105, s. 12. Judg- ness appointed to be transacted by such general committee ments shall before Ist day of

on any certain day, the Speaker may adjourn the transaction

1849 be entered of such business to such other day as to him seemis conon all warrants of attorney executed on or before venient. 1st November, 1840, if not already entered. Other 35. That every member more than 60 years old shall be wise such warrants of attorney shall in certain cases, excused from serving on election committees, provided that be deemed fraudulent and void.

on or before the reading over of the names of such excused 114 A book or index of the

names, descriptions such claim, he claim to be excused, by declaring in his place,

members, or upon his afterwards becoming entitled to make and additions of persons granting warrants of attor- or in writing under his hand delivered to the clerk at the ney to be kept which shall be open to inspection on table, that he is more than 60 years old ; but no member payment of sixpence.

shall be so excused who does not claim to be excused before 115. Lord Chancellor to settle fees, &c.

he is chosen to serve. 116. Construction of act.

36. That in the first session of every parliament, on the 117. Act may be altered this session.

next meeting of the house after the last day allowed for receiving election petitions, and in every subsequent session on the next meeting of the house after the Speaker has laid

on the table his warrant for the appointment of the general (Continued from p. 184.)

committee of elections, the clerk of the house shall read 26. That after the appointment of the general committee over the names of all the members who have so claimed to every member appointed shall continue to be a member of be excused. the committee until the end of that session of parliament,

37. That every member having leave of absence shall be or until he cease to be a member of the House of Commons, excused from serving on election committees ; and if any or until he resign his appointment (which he may do by letter member offer any other excuse, either at the reading over to the Speaker,) or until the general committee report that of the said names or at any other time, the substance of the he is disabled by continued illness, or until the committe be allegations shall be taken down by the clerk, in order that dissolved

the same may be afterwards entered on the journals, and 27. That in every case of vacancy in the general committee the opinion of the house shall then be taken thereon; and if of elections the Speaker, on the first day on which the house the house resolve that the said member ought to be excused meets after such vacancy is known by him, shall make he shall be excused from serving on election committees for known the vacancy to the house, and thereupon all proceed such time as to the house seems fit, but no member shall be ings of the general committee shall be suspended until the so excused who does not claim to be excused before he is vacancy is supplied.

chosen to serve; and every member who has served on one 28. That if the general committee of elections report to election committee, and who within seven days after such the house that, by reason of the continued absence of more committee has made its final report notifies to the clerk of

the general committee his claim to be excused from so serv 44. That when leave of absence for a limited time has ing again, shall be excused during the remainder of the ses. been granted by the house to any member, the general comsion, unless the house resolve, upon the report of the mitttee of elections may transfer the name of such member general committee, that the number of members who have from the panel in which it has been placed to some other not so served is insufficient; but no member shall be deemed panel subsequent in rotation, having regard to the length to have served on an election committee who on account of of time for which such leave of absence has been granted, joability or accident has been excused from attending the and to the number of select committees then about to be same.

appointed 38. That every member who is a petitioner complaining 45. That whenever any member of the chairmen's panel of an undue election or return, or against whose return a ceases to be a member of the house, or is by leave of the petition is depending, shall be disqualified to serve on elec- house discharged from continuing upon the chairmen's panel, tion committees during the continuance of such disqualifica- or is so discharged by reason of service, the general comtion.

mittee shall select another member to be placed upon the 39. That the clerk of the House of Commons shall make chairmen's panel; and in case it at any time appear to the out an alphabetical list of all the members, omitting the general committee that the chairmen's panel is too small, names of such members as have claimed to be excused from they may select two, four, or six additional members to serving on election committees; and the clerk shall also place upon it, so nevertheless that the chairmen's panel distinguish in such list the name of every member then ex shall not at any time consist of more than eighteen members, cused or disqualified, and shall also note in the list every without the leave of the house first obtained. cause of such excuse or disqualification, and the duration 46. That all election petitions received by the house shall thereof; and such list shall be printed, and distributed with be referred to the general committee of elections, for the the votes of the house, and the names of all the members purpose of choosing select committees, to try such petitions ; so omitted shall be also printed, and distributed with the and the Speaker shall communicate to the house and to the votes.

general committee every report by the examiner of recog40. That during three days next after the day of the dis. nizances to him concerning the recognizances to any election tribution of such corrected list further corrections may be petition; and in every case in which any election petition is made by leave of the Speaker, if it appear that any name withdrawn, or the examiner of recognizances reports to the has been inproperly left in or struck out, or that there is Speaker that the recognizances are objectionable, the order any other error in such list.

for referring such petition to the general committee of elec41. That the list so corrected shall be referred to the tions shall be discharged, and no further proceeding shall general committee of elections ; and the general committee be had upon such petition ; and the general committee shall shall select, in their discretion, six, eight, ten, or twelve make out a list of all election petitions in which the examimembers, whom they think duly qualified to serve as chair- ner of recognizances has reported to the Speaker that the men of election committees; and the members so selected recognizances are unobjectionable, and in which the proshall be formed into a separate panel, to be called the chair- ceedings are not suspended, in which list the petitions shall men's panel, which shall be reported to the house; and be arranged in the order in which the were so reported while the name of any member is upon the chairmen's panel upon; and in every case in which the proceedings in any he shall not serve on an election committee otherwise than petition inserted in such list are afterwards suspended the as chairman; and every member on the chairmen's panel petition shall be struck out of the list, and shall be again shall be bound to continue upon it till the end of the session, inserted at the bottom of the list at the end of such suspenor he cease to be a member of the house, or until, by leave of sion of proceedings. the house, he be discharged from continuing upon the chair 47. That when notice of the death or vacancy of the seat men's panel : provided that every member of the chairmen's of any member petitioned against, or that it is not the inpanel who has served on one or more election committees, tention of such meinber to defend his election or return, is and who notifies to the clerk of the general committee of given to the general committee of elections by the Speaker, elections his claim to be discharged, shall be so discharged; the general committee shall suspend their proceedings in the and every such member shall be excused from serving upon matter of the petition referred to in such notice, until 21 any election committee, either as chairman or otherwise, days after the day on which notice of such death or vacancy, during the remainder of the session ; but no member of the or intention not to defend, has been inserted in the Gazette, chairmen's panel shall be deemed to have served on an elec. under the provision herein-before contained, unless the petition committee who on account of inability or accident has tion of some person claiming to be admitted as a party in been excused from attending the same.

the room of such member be sooner referred to them. 42. That after the chairmen's panel has been so selected, 48 That when more than one election petition relating to the general committee shall divide the members on such list the same election or return are referred to the general cominto five panels, as to them seems most convenient, but so mittee of elections, they shall suspend their proceedings in that each panel may contain as nearly as may be the same the matter of all such petitions until the report of the exnamber of members, and they shall report to the house the aminer of recognizances upon each of such petitions, is redivision so made ; and the clerk shall decide by lot the order ceived by them; and upon receipt of the last of such reports of the panels so settled, and shall distinguish each of them they shall place such petitions at the bottom of the then list by a number denoting the order in which they were drawn; of election petitions, and such petitions shall be dealt with and the panels shall then be returned to the general com- as one petition. mittee of elections, and shall be the panels from which 49. That the general committee of elections shall choose members shall be chosen to serve on election committees. the committees to try the election petitions in the order in

43. That the general committee of elections shall correct which such petitions stand in such list, and they shall deterthe said panels by striking out of them the name of every mine how many committees shall be chosen in each week member who ceases to be a member of the house, or who for trying such petitions, and the days on which they will from time to time becomes entitled and claims to be wholly meet for choosing such committees, having regard to the excused from serving on election committees, and by insert number of select committees then sitting, and to the whole ing in one of the panels to be chosen by the general number of such committees then to be appointed, and they committee, at their discretion, the name of every new shall report to the house from time to time the days appointed member of the house not entitled and not having claimed to by them for choosing such committees. be wholly excused, and shall also distinguish in the manner 50. That if parliament is prorogued after any election aforesaid in the said panels the names of the members for petition has been presented, but before the appointment of the time being excused or disqualified for any of the reasons à select committee to try such petition, the general comaforesaid; and the general committee shall

, as often as they mittee of elections appointed in the following session shall, think tit, report to the house the panels as corrected; and within two days after their first meeting, in case the sureties as often as the general committee reports the said panels to have been then reported unobjectionable, appoint a day and the house they shall be printed, and distributed with the hour for selecting a committee to try the petition so standvotes.

ing over: provided that if the number of petitions so stand

12mo. price 28. 6d. --by Post, 3a. ing be so great that the times for selecting committees to A TREATISE ON THE LAW OF INTERPLEADER, try the whole thereof cannot, in the judgment of the gene containing all the Reported Cases in this country and in England ral committee, be appointed within two days after their first

with an Appendix, containing the Act 9 & 10 Vic. c, 61, with Forrea Affidavits,

Rules, Orders, and the Record on a Feigned Issue. By does meeting, the said general committee shall, within two days BLACKHAM, Esq., Law. after their first meeting, appoint the times for selecting EDWARD J. MILLIKEN, 15, COLLEGE GREEN, committees to try so many of the said petitions as the said general committee deems convenient, and shall afterwards,

Just published, Ith Edition, 12s 6d. cloth boards, as soon as conveniently may be, appoint the times for select- THE PRECEDENTS AND GENERAL ORDERS ing the committees to try the remainder of such petitions.

CHANCERY in IRELAND), with the authority of the Masters; with

Practical Notes and References. By THOMAS JOHN BEASLEY, AN 51. That notice of the time and place at which the com- Solicitor. mittee will be chosen to try any election petition shall be N.B – This Edition contains all the Orders of the Court of Chanory published with the votes, not less than 14 days before the to faciliteite weite She Sections relating to the Master's Office de liberdade day on which such committee is appointed to be chosen ; and in case the conduct of the returning officer is complained Ormond Quay. London : Stevens and Norton, Bell-Yard, Lincoln'y

Dublin : T. O'GORMAN, Law Borkseller and Publisher, si, Upper of, such notice shall be sent to him through the post, not less than 14 days before the day on which such committee

NEW LAW BOOKS. is appointed to be chosen ; and every such notice shall direct

TREATISE ON THE LAW OF PROPERTY, * all parties interested to attend the general committee of administered by the HOUSE OF LORDS. By Sir E, B, SUGDEK, elections, by themselves or their agents, at the time and 1 vol royal 8vo. £l lls. 6d. boards. place appointed for choosing the select committee; and if | THE LAW OF HUSBAND AND WIFE. A Treatie (after any such notice has been published with the votes, on the Law of Husband and Wife as resprets Property, partly founded or sent to the returning officer as aforesaid,) the proceed- By J. E. WRIGHT, Esq. of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Lars here ings in the matter of such petition become suspended, notice royal 8vo. £2 10s boards. of such suspension shall be published with the votes ; and TREATISE ON THE LAW OF LEGACIES. By in case the returning officer is complained of, such notice the late R. S. DONNISON ROPER, Esq., Barrister-at-las, shall be sent to him through the post.

Gray's inn; and by H. H WHITE, Esq., Barrister at. Law, of the ML

dle Temple. Fourth Edition. 2 vols, royal 8vo. £3 3s. boards, 52. That if notice of the death or vacancy of the seat of


Che of of any member petitioned against, or that it is not the inten- | By H. ROSCOE, Esq.. of the Inner Temple Barrister-at. Law. Setemen tion of such member to defend his election or return, have Edition, with considerable additions, by E. SMIRKE, Faq. been inserted in the Gazette, by order of the Speaker, and

TREATISE ON THE LAW OF EVIDENCE, X no party has been admitted to defend such election or return, then, if the conduct of the returning officer is not complained American and other Foreign Laws By JOHN PITT TAYLOR, ER

administered in England and Ireland; with

Illustrations from the of, it shall not be necessary to insert such petition at the of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at. Law. 2 vols, royal 8vo £el. bottom of the then list of petitions, but the general com- A SELECTION OF LEADING CASES IN Various

Third Edition. Ry H mittee to try such petition after the expiration of the time Esgof the Inner Temple Law


of the Inner Temple

, allowed for parties to come in to defend such election or Barristers at. Law, 2 vols, royal Svo. £2 128, 6d. return, and not less than one day's notice of the time and UESTIONS FOR LAW STUDENTS on the Second place appointed for choosing such committee shall be given


Edition of Mr. Serjeant Stephen's New Commentaries on the Laws in the votes; and in such case it shall not be necessary to of England. By JAMES STEPHEN, Esq of the Middle Temple, Bars deliver to the clerk of the general committee of elections arister at. Law. 1 vol. 8vo, cloth boards, price 105, 6d. list of the voters intended to be objected to, as herein-after A TREATISE on the Law of EXECUTORS and


Esq., Barrister-at Law, Fourth Edition enlarged. 2 Fole, royal fre. 53. That the general committee of elections may change

EDWARD J. MILLIKEN, Law Bookseller and Publisher, 15, College

Green, Dublin. the day and hour appointed for choosing a select committee to try any election petition, and appoint some subsequent day and hour, if it be expedient so to do, giving notice in LEGAL AND HISTORICAL DEBATING SOCIETY. the votes of the day and hour so appointed; and in every

A Meeting of the Members of this Society will be held in their Room case in which any such change is made by them they shall No. 45, MOLESWORTH STREET, on FRIDAY EVENING, the oth forthwith report the same to the house, with their reasons. April. Chair to be taken at Eight o'Clock precisely.

Barristers, Law Students, and Graduates of the Universities of Dublin,

Oxford, and Cambridge, are eligible for admission. 54. That notice shall be published with the votes, of the

Members who bave changed their residences, or who have friends ta petitions for each week, and of the panel from which com- propose, are requested to communicate with the Secretary, mittees will be chosen to try such petitions, and each panel

JAMES F. WRIGHT, Esq. II, Lower Ormond Quar. shall serve for a week, beginning with the panel first drawn, and continuing so in rotation in the order in which they JAMES O'DRIS COLL, were drawn, and not reckoning those weeks in which no

PROFESSED TROWSERS MAKER, select committee is appointed to be chosen.

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No. 26.-Vol. I.

APRIL 28, 1849.


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Single Number, 9d. The Names of the Gentlemen who favour The Irish Jurist with Reports in the several Courts of

Law and Equity in Ireland, are as follows :

ROBERT LONG, Esq., Court of Chancery, in

Court of Exchequer

Joan BLACKHAM, Esq., and and cluding Bankruptcy


A. HICKEY, Esq., Barristers-atJoan Pitt KENNEDY, Esq., BarAppeals..........

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DUBLIN, APRIL 28, 1849.

Sir Edward Sugden endeavoured to reform Chancery practice, to abridge the period for the conduct

of a suit, to check jobbing in the appointment of HOUSE OF COMMONS-NOTICE OF

Receivers, to establish a code of rules for their MOTION.

guidance, and did, in fact, compile an admirable

set of orders for the management of the court prac“ Mr. Osborne_Select Committee to enquire into the state tice, in its various ramifications. But much more

of the law, as respects the appointment of Receivers of the Courts of Chancery and Equity Exchequer in Ire

was required. land, and the effect of the present laws and regulations

There is no lightning speed for the Court of of the said Courts, in the management of estates under Chancery. Causes, from the inertness of parties their control ; and how far the same has conduced to conducting them, will still "drag their slow length" the improvement of the said estates, and the condition along, and estates will still for years upon years of the tenantry, or the contrary."

either be subjected to the present wasting system Is a very few days, Mr. Osborne will move for a of receiverships, or to an improved one. Not Committee of the House of Commons, to enquire merely is this to be expected, but from the recent into the system adopted by the Court of Chancery course of legislation, which makes it easy to encumin the management of estates under its control, ber, difficult to sell, when the reverse would be with the ultimate object of proposing a plan for its right legislation, the entire encumbered property amendment.

of Ireland seems likely to fall an easy victim to We copy above the notice of motion, as it ap- the Court of Chancery. The increase of properties pears in the parliamentary papers, and we can placed under its control since 1835—when the 5 & entertain no doubt whatever that the Committee 6 W. 4, c. 55, was passed-has been inordinately will be appointed. Every person acquainted with great; it now shows a rental of one million and a the subject, admits the hugeness of the evil of the half sterling, and a surface of country covering present system, and the desirableness of its reform. nearly one ninth of the whole island. We have from time to time shewn how pernicious

The return of last session, from which we have it has been to owner, occupier, creditor, and the so often quoted, is indeed an instructive document; country.

it was the largest ever yet presented to parliament, It was adopted by the court under the extraor- the bare expense of printing it was, as estimated, dinary hallucination that its authority would be but over £1000. To save the country this expense, it short-lived, and that any description of manage has not been printed in full, and the little tabular ment would answer for a temporary purpose ; that, summary taken from it gives a most, inadequate in short, estates only required an ad interim pro idea of the facts capable of being developed, but tection provided they were kept safely, it mat- suggests a few salient points. We are satisfied tered little how they were kept.' The tediousness there is a mine of information to be not gleaned, of Chancery proceedings has long been proverbial, but gathered, from the document itself

, and we and property once under the control of the court, trust to see it printed in extenso, or in the form of was long before the day of its emancipation came

a digest. --emancipation from a dominion the most cum

Much knowledge can be, however, derived from brous, the most costly, the most unimproving, the the precis to which we have alluded. most deadly it was possible to conceive.

Properties coming under the court free from arrear, at once change their nature; and the column

of arrears in the Receiver's account, soon becomes of taking out a copy of the account, and appearing greater than that of receipts; on the average, in- by his solicitor in the Master's office. creasing from the date of his appointment, as we This requires to be altogether altered and rehave shewn, p. 66, eleven fold.

formed. Both owyer and creditor have a right to And this loss accrues to the estate, whilst the the fullest, easiest information, and that the accounts tenants, deprived of a fostering band, cease to of an estate under the management of the Court thrive. How could they thrive, when over a rental should be kept in the plainest and clearest manner, of nine hundred thousand per annum, not one and that they should at all times be open to the shilling is expended on improvements? How could inspection of every party interested in the cause or they thrive, when they live under a Court which matter. makes them pay £10 for a lease, and gives that The return also shews the enormous amount lease but for seven years, pending the cause ? The allowed annually in costs, and which, we think, an Court thus not only does not make improvements, analysis of the return would prove, falls short of but renders it hopeless that a tenant will improve the actual amount. He has no fixed interest in the soil, and how can It is impossible to suppose that a more inesit be expected that he will expend money upon a pensive system cannot be devised, than the present, farm, when his tenure is so short-lived and so -say, £30,000 for costs, and £50,000 for Ren insecure ?

ceivers' fees,—£80,000 a-year. We affirm, the Again, from its centralization, the Court cannot properties might be better managed for one-bali assist by employment. Thus, no employment, no the amount. improvement, no permanency, are afforded by the The Committee must grapple with this branch of ad interim proprietor.

the subject; this must be their peculiar duty. If Mr. Osborne's Committee does no more than They will see that the present body of Receivers alter this state of things, it will do much. Why are not men, generally speaking, at all adapted should not the Court do, in causes, what they do for their duties. How is it possible that practising in minor matters? The Chancellor--we presume, barristers, apothecaries, or attornies, residing in so convinced of the evils of the present seven Dublin, can efficiently discharge the onerous duties years' leasing system-by a very recent general of the management of landed property in Ireland? order, has directed, that, in all lunacy and minor And the great majority of Chancery Receivers are matters, leases should be granted for a fixed of such a class, or, if not, men totally unconnected period, even for a term of 21 years. The same with agriculture or the management of land. power should be exercised in all cases. This At present the Receivers are a multitudinous reform is exceedingly simple.

mass, indiscriminately selected, distinct heads over So is that of dispensing with the heavy cost for small properties, or if over large ones, often Donleases. At present the tenant is required to enter resident, whilst their bailiffs are a low, uneducated into recognizances himself, and two sureties, for class. It may be true, that as human nature is payment of the rent. This stringency is not reconstituted, the duty of a Receiver will be best quired in private estates, where rents are vastly performed where the remuneration is on an ad better paid ; and the practice should be abolished, valorem scale, and that object may be kept in vies and a much more wholesome one substituted, of as a premium to industry; but in our judgment giving a summary remedy by eviction in case of there should be a fixed salary, and the situation non-payment of rent. At present there is an abso- dependant upon the efficient discharge of the duties. lute encouragement held out to the tenant to fall What a happy change from the present system, if into arrear, the rent, according to the practice of the local manager were a good agriculturist, and a the Court, not being demandable for five months resident moral agent. This is perfectly practicable, until after it has become due. This is a senseless and forms one of the principal features of the propractice; the Receiver has no power to stir during posed change. Estates under the Court of Chanthat interval, except by special application, on a cery are now confessedly the most mismanaged and statement of facts. He should have a discretionary uncared for in Ireland-perhaps on the face of the power to collect when he can, but not to keep the whole habitable globe-they are hot-beds of destitomoney one hour beyond its receipt. Thus, he tion, covering with a blight every adjacent property. would not be urged on by an improper desire to Under the system we propose they would be pattern collect money and turn it to his own use until the estates ; agriculture, instead of relapsing, would day of accounting came, and would be, at the progress; the tenantry would not die of destitusame time, invested with a power, which, in case tion; the property given in pledge to the court of fraud or fraudulent preference, it is most desir- would either be restored to the owner in an imable for the Court, and

the sureties for the tenants, proved condition, or be sold, not as now at a dethe Receiver should have.

preciated, but at an enhanced value. Thus crediThe present system of accounting is also most tor and debtor, and the country at large, would be expensive, unsatisfactory, and objectionable. Nei-alike benefitted ther creditor, nor owner, nor any party interested, How excellent a change, and how easy of accomcan know anything of the management of the plishment. We shall dwell no longer on gloomy property, or of the progress made in the receipt of retrospects ; the evils have been great, they must the rents, until the Receiver comes to pass his be abated; we now look forward with the energy aecounts; and is even then unable to scrutinize, of hope to see them struck down and for ever. investigate, or object, without incurring the expense

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