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A Source History
From Discovery (1492) to End of Reconstructio· 1877)
HOWARD WALTER CALDWELL
Professor of American History.
University of Nebraska;
CLARK EDMUND PERSINGER
Associate Professor of American History,
AINSWORTH AND COMPANY
Plan and Purpose. An attempt has been made in these pages to present a fairly consecutive and connected history of the evolution of the American Nation and people. Not all phases of this evolution have been included, as it is believed that the true place of a source book is primarily to emphasize and intensify the salient and dominant movements in the growth of the United States. Only in an incidental way has any attempt been made to give, for example, the development of the financial history of the country, or to trace its constitutional growth. The central theme has been political and social ideas and ideals, and the process of their evolution from the original or European beginnings into the more perfected forms of the last quarter of the nineteenth century. An attempt has been made, in the analysis of the book into chapters, sections, and subordinate divisions, to emphasize the more important periods and problems and to show their relationships in such a manner as to aid the student in seeing our history as a whole, and in its progressive development.
How to Use. This history of the United States is not planned or intended to be used as the sole source of information. It may be used in either of two ways: (1) As the basis of class-work, each student to have a copy of the work, to be supplemented by informal lectures, or by readings in narrative texts and reference works, or by a combination of the two; or (2), It may be made to supplement a narrative text, used as the basis of class-work. Circumstances and the teacher's preference will determine which of the two methods ought to be chosen in any particular case. In order to facilitate such complementary use, page references to many of the best high-school texts have been added
to each section. Whichever plan is adopted, the student ought to learn, through experience and practice, that the narrative text is based on the sources; and thus also to acquire, in a modest way, the ability to do, and to form his own conclusions and judgments. The teacher must see that slavish acceptance of the written word does not become a habit; and it is believed that no surer corrective can be applied than to take an occasional "section" and work it over from the source-book first, then refer to the narrative texts and works of trained historians for comparison, elaboration, and correction. In case the second plan is chosen, then the following method is suggested. When used in connection with a secondary text, the reading in the text on each section should be covered first, and then a study made of the source extracts pertaining to the subject or subjects covered. Better results will be obtained if the student reads the source material on each lesson twice, the first time rather rapidly covering the entire assignment without regard to questions; the second time seeking to answer each question as it appears. The teacher may exercise his own judgment as to the use of the questions given or of others of his own making. The only important thing is that questions be such as to bring out the really significant points in any movement, and not to waste time and energy on disconnected and unimportant detail.
Explanatory Introductions. Each of the four chapters of the volume is introduced with an explanatory paragraph or paragraphs in which an attempt is made briefly to summarize or interpret, as a whole, the movement or period covered by the chapter. Likewise, each section is introduced with a summary or interpretation of the particular phase of the period it presents. These explanatory introductions are intended for the use of both teacher and pupil, but it is expected that the teacher will assist the pupil in arriving at a clear understanding of them. It will be found
profitable to read the explanations both before and after studying the source matter within each section and chapter.
The Three Lists of Questions. At the end of each section will be found three lists of questions. The first list (designated I) consists of short questions, to be answered directly from some particular or single portion of the quoted material. The second list (designated II) contains comparison questions, requiring answers from more than one citation within a section, sometimes from more than one section or chapter. The third list (designated III) is intended to be answered from secondary reading, or at least from information obtained, in whole or in part, outside of the pages of this book. The teacher must use judgment as to the number of questions any class shall be called upon to answer from lists II and III of any section, especially where written questions are called for. Far more use may be made of the last list in a full-year course than in a one-semester one, or when considerable secondary or library reading is done instead of work in a single secondary text.
Abbreviations, Marks, etc. In almost no case is any document quoted in its entirety. To mark omissions, a line of dots (...) is inserted. In order to make the quotations read intelligibly, it has frequently been found necessary to insert a word not found in the original document. In all cases, such inserted words are included in brackets [ ]. Care has been taken not to allow omissions or insertions to alter in the slightest the meaning of the original quotation.
For Whom Designed. As stated on the title page, this book is designed for advanced students of high-school grade, for students of Normal schools, and for beginning classes in colleges. It is believed that it will be found especially useful in all schools where library facilities are somewhat meager. In the hope that it may aid in solving