« EelmineJätka »
Explanation of common abbreviations or contracting
Note, A point, or full sop, is always to be writ
ten after a word thus abbreviated.
Mrs. Mistress A. D. Anno Domini, or, Mty. Majesty
the year of our Lord Obj, Objection Acct. account
Qu. Question Abt. about
Rev. Reverend Agt.'against
S. T.P. Profeffor of, or, B. A. Batchelor of arts
Doctor in divinity Bp. Bishop
Sr. Sir B.D. Batchelorin divinity St. Saint Bart. Baronet
Sol. Solution Chap. Chapter
wch. which D. D. Doctor in divinity ye, the Dr. Doctor Efq. Esquire i. e. id eft, that is yr. your Empr. Emperor Hon. Honourable
&. and Xt. Knight
viz. videlicet, to wit, or, LL. D. Doctor of laws
that is to say M. D. Doctor of physic &c. et cetera, and the Mr. Master
rest, (or what follows)
yt, that yn. then
But one ought to avoid those contractions of words as much as possible, unless it be for one's own private use, and where it would be ridiculous to write them in letters at length: as, &c. for and
So forth, or the rest, Mr. for Master, Mrs. for Mistress, &c. It argues likewise a disrespect and slighting to use contractions to your betters, and is often puzzling to others, except in such cases as above mentioned.
A table of NUMBERS and FIGURES.
CUMBERS are usually expressed either by
these seven Roman capital letters, I. V X. L. C. D. M. which are called numerals, or by these ten characters, viz. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, which are called figures, and o, which is a cipher.
I. One. V. Five. X. Ten. L. Fifty, C. a Hun. dred. D. Five Hundred. M. a Thousand.
1 One. 2 Two. 3 Three. 4 Four. 5 Five 6 Six. 7 Seven. 8 Eight. 9 Nine. o Nothing.
Observe concerning the numeral letters, that if a less numeral letter be placed before a greater, it takes away from the greater so much as the lesser stands for ; but, placed after a greater, it adds so much to it as the lesser stands for ; as the letter V. stands for Five ; but having I. placed before it, it takes one from it, and makes both stand but for Four; thus, IV. But I. being set after V, adds One to it, and makes it thus, Six, VI.
Observe, concerning the characters or figures, that ciphers at the right hand of figures increase their value ten times; as i One, 10 Ten, 100 Hundred, 7 Seven, 7000 Seven Thousand; but at the left hand they lignify nothing at all, as 01,
oor, make One ; 002 but Iwo.-A figure at every remove from the right hand increases its value ten times as 9 Nine, 98 Ninety-eight, 987 Nine hun. dred and eighty-leven.
Note, Numbers are sometimes expressed by small Roman letters, as i. one, ii. two, xvi. sixteen, lx. sixty, &c.
Note also, Where books, chapters, sections, and verses, are cited, the numeral letters are generally used to lignify the book or chapter ; and the fi. gures to signify, the sections, verses, or smaller parts: as, Exod. xii. 17. Exodus, the twelfth chap. ther, and the seventeenth verse. So, B. IX. Sect. 24. signifies Book the ninth, and the twenty-fourth section.
Figures are also used to express the things follow
1. The order or succession of things, as, if, 2d, 3d, 4th, 1oth, 39th ; first, second, third, &c.
2. The fractions or parts of a thing, as į one half, į one third part, one fourth, or quarter,
three quarters, five eighths.
O N T E N T S.
vii The Introduction, containing some general directions for writing letters, and how to address persons of distinction in writing or difcourse, &c.
7 Some farther directions and observations on epiftolary
correspondence, and fubfcribing and directing letters 15 Some neceflary orthographicaldirections for writing cor
rectly s and when to use capital letters, and when not 11
P A R T I.
Miscellaneous Letters on the most useful and common
ib. 25 26
Letter I. From a brother at home to his fifter abroad
on a visit, complaining of her not writing
received from her mamma, advising her to persevere
in the Christian duties she had been instructed in IX. From a young lady to her mamma, requesting a
favour X. From a young gentleman to his papa, desiring that
he may learn to dance XI. From a young lady to her papa, who lately embark.
ed for the East indies, in the Company's fervice, but
was detained at Portsinouth by contrary winds
mother at home
36 38 41
XXIV. From Lady Goodford to her daughter, a girl of
fourteen years old, then under the care of her grand-
XXVIII. From an elder brother to a younger
XXXVII. From a father to his fon just beginning the
XXXIX. To an acquaintance, to borrow a sum of mo-