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of radicalism, and a spirit of superficiality, pervading all ranks?

These two appear to be opposed to each other, at least if I take the former word in its real signification; but we would rather have it understood in its conventional acceptation, and then it will not be difficult to prove that one of these evils brings on the other.

The radical spirit referred to, is one of insubordination, one which strikes at the foundation of all constituted authorities, and seeks to overturn them. It has already changed, in a great measure, the appearance of things on the surface of society. Where do we now see the deference, and respect, and reverence, to parents and superiors, the deep unbesitating obedience which was formerly manifested ? In the place of this, do we not constantly see children, almost from their cradles, setting up their own judgment, and presuming to take the law into their own hands? Forgetting Him who has said, “ Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right.” Amongst the family domestics, the same spirit is seen: the old devoted servants of former days are rarely to be met with ; the spirit of insubordination leads them, at the least occasion for displeasure, to seek for themselves new situations, where they hope to escape from the galling bondage of yielding obedience. Thus, there are none of the feelings of clanship and devotedness, which once made the servants, parts, as it were, of the family, whose obedience sprung from the highest principle of grateful love; who had its interests equally at heart with their own, and who considered the one inseparable from the other.

Still lower down, in the order of society, we find the poorest classes constantly struggling to get the upper-hand, resisting every thing like submission to “ the powers that be, which are ordained of God;"-fancying that independence of their superiors, or equality with them, would constitute happiness.

Again, the same tendency is manifested in the efforts which are making to pull down the constituted ecclesiastical authorities; whatever is venerable, and elevated, and revered, becomes the mark for this spirit of evil to assail, this levelling foe to attack. And just in proportion to the dignity of the object, is the virulence of the opposition which is made. Thus the church becomes a more favourite theme of abuse than the mere worldly systems of human legislation—“ speaking evil of dignities” ceases to be considered as a sin against God.

But let us look a little into the minor developement of this principle, in order to trace its operation : the same insubordinate spirit, which wants to pull down consecrated authorities, wants also to set itself up in their place. The children of persons in comparatively humble life, those engaged in little vocations in trade,-instead of being brought up, as they once were, to honest and simple labour, are trained in every way to imitate their superiors; they must learn the same accomplishments, and endeavour to ape them as much as possible. From an inner room, behind a little shop, where the inmates would formerly have been occupied in mending or ironing the household linen, the sound of a piano is now to be heard, and the inharmonious accompaniment of an unmusical voice; whilst the walls are adorned with paintings, which tax ones politeness to discover whether they are meant for roses or cauliflowers, sylphs or evil-spirits.

Besides this, what a fearful love of shew and appearance is universally displayed; and perhaps in no class more than amongst servants. They not only imitate as closely as possible the dress of their mistresses, but even go beyond it: nay, in some families, the only distinction in appearance between the lady and her maid is, that the clothes of the former are much more plain and simple than those of the latter. The silk gowns, the lace veils, the ornaments, yea even the gold watches of female domestic servants, plainly point out, that there is a seeking after those things for themselves, after which they ought not to seek.

This levelling spirit shews itself in another form, in the efforts which are continually made by those professing godliness, to overstep the broad line of distinction, which should ever separate between the church and the world. These persons are not afraid, or ashamed, to have the same expence in their houses, the same outward shew and appearance, the same luxurious tables, as the children of this world. We see no difference in their dress ; they seem to consider the advice of St. Paul and St. Peter, as at least only suited to the times in which they wrote when they said, “ I will therefore that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety ; not with broidered hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array, but (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works.”

“ Whose adorning, let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing gold, or of putting on of apparel, but let it be the hidden man of the

heart, in that which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God, of great price; For after this manner, in the old time, the holy women also who trusted in God adorned themselves.”

Their children are educated in the same manner as those of worldly persons; the same point is made of mere accomplishments, the same quantity of time is devoted to their acquisition, and the same anxiety is manifested that they should be able to shine in the eyes of a world which they profess to trample under foot. Is not this a fearful exhibition of the spirit of the age? Does not all this prove that things are not in their right places, that there is a kind of universal dislocation, which requires a power beyond that of human wisdom, or legislative authority, to set it to rights?

But I have yet to prove, that this Radical spirit stands connected with the spirit of superficiality which I mentioned as the second characteristic of the age. The link which connects them seems to be this-If any one is pushing himself up into the place above him, he must try in some degree to fill that place ; and this can only be done by assuming an appearance of equality with bis superior-that is by imitating his habits, manners, and modes of life. The actual calling, and occupation of the aspirant do not enable him to do this, otherwise than superficially: but it must be donemand what follows? To talk about a thing as if you knew it, supercedes the necessity of studying the thing till you do know it, and the assumption of dignity and importance, takes the place of real dignity and importance. All is outside, there is no depth, no solidity any where. This spirit is nourished and fed by the literature of the age; or perhaps it would be more just to say, that these things act and react on each other. Books are called for, which will supply the greatest quantity of knowledge in the smallest possible compass. So that we might venture to promise to any one, who would write a duodecimo volume, entitled 'Every man his own Encyclopædia,' such a succession of editions, as no author, living or dead, could ever boast of. As an encouragement to such an undertaking, we have but to notice the universal acceptance of the works of the admirable Mr. Pinnock, by whose persevering industry, every branch of science has been brought within the compass of a few short catechisms; and these once committed to memory, are supposed, like the magic talismans of fairy legends, to transmute the possessors of their invaluable mental treasures, into mines of knowledge.

In this age of discoveries and advertisements, I am anxiously looking for the announcement of a machine, wbich will, without the labour of teaching or learning, but simply by the application of steam, enable all those, who are brought under its operation, to ceive at once all tha is necessary to be imbibed. I think that this will be a great improvement on the present system, because it will then be easy to ascertain, how much each of the vessels to be filled will really hold, and how much pressure they will bear. There is no doubt but that the system of management also will be thereby much simplified.

But suppose that some, convinced by these observations, turn round upon me and say, But what is the cause of all this mischief? Does it not arise

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