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THE

CENSUS OF GREAT BRITAIN

IN

1851;

COMPRISING AN ACCOUNT OF

THE NUMBERS AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE PEOPLE,

THEIR AGES,

CONJUGAL CONDITION,

OCCUPATIONS,

AND

BIRTHPLACE;

WITH

RETURNS OF THE BLIND, THE DEAF-AND-DUMB, AND THE

INMATES OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS.

AND

An Analytical Index.

REPRINTED, IN A CONDENSED FORM, FROM THE OFFICIAL REPORTS AND TABLES.

LONDON:
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS.

1854.

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LONDON :

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.

PREFACE.

The following pages embody the principal results of the recent Enumeration of the People of Great Britain. A great national undertaking like the Census, at once comprehensive and costly in its machinery and operation, cannot fail to yield information, not only essential to all who take part in the political questions of the day, but of interest and value to every one who bestows any attention on the progress and position of the country, or desires to possess even the most elementary knowledge of the numbers and social condition of its inhabitants.

The Official Returns of the Census, in which, in addition to the great results elicited by the inquiry, a large amount of detail is required to be given, are necessarily voluminous, and consequently expensive ; only a limited impression, moreover, is printed by the Government, so that, after the Members of the Legislature and persons holding office under the Crown are supplied, few copies remain for the general public. In reproducing, therefore, in a convenient form, and at a moderate price, the most material and interesting portions of the highpriced official folios, the Editor feels that he has been engaged in a work of utility, and that much valuable information connected with the general results of the Census, now brought within a small compass, will find its way into the hands of many to whom it would otherwise be inaccessible.

In the present work the Reports of the Registrar-General and his coadjutors are only slightly condensed ; but it is proper to observe that tables and footnotes, illustrating and supporting statements advanced in the original text, have, in several instances, been omitted, to adapt the book for popular reading. For the same reason the per-centages and proportions are frequently stated in whole

numbers in lieu of the decimal quantities given in the original; which, however all who desire minute accuracy on such points should consult. A series of Table of great value and interest will be found in the Appendix to the present volume some of them have been recast to suit the altered circumstances of this publication, but the majority are reprinted in the original form.

The Editor is greatly indebted to the REGISTRAR-GENERAL for the encouragement given to this somewhat novel and adventurous enterprise in reproducing inaterials derived from “ Blue Books,” and for his kindness in allowing the present work to go forth with the sanction of his express authority.

T. M.

London, 16th August, 1854.

CONTENTS OF REPORT.

PAGE

I. OBJECTS OF THE CENSUS, AND MACHINERY EMPLOYED.

Objects contemplated by the Inquiry. Local machinery and various officers employed. Formation

of Enumeration Districts. Proceedings of Enumerators. Householder's Schedule, and Forms for
collecting Statistics of Religious Worship and Education. Revision of the Returns by local
officers. Transmission of Documents to Central Office, and further Revision of them there

.

.

6

II. NUMBERS AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE PEOPLE.

PERSONS. ABSENT FROM GREAT BRITAIN AND FROM THEIR USUAL PLACES OF ABODE.—The Army,

Navy, and Merchant Seamen. British Subjects in Foreign States. Displacements of the

Population; Migration. Great Exhibition of 1851
NUMBER OF THE PEOPLE.- Proportion of the Sexes and Increase of Population. Period in which

the Population would double itself. Law of Population
FAMILIES AND HOUSES.-Definition of "Family.” Occupiers. Peculiarity of English Houses..

Persons to a Family and to a House: Definition of “House.” Families and Houses in different
parts of the Country. Families in the Houses of Fourteen English Subdistricts. Persons in

Public Institutions and in vessels, barges, barns, tents, &c. •

Towns. Designation of collections of Dwellings. Number, Population, and Distribution of

Towns of various classes. The Metropolis and large Towns. Population, in 1801 and 1851,

in six classes of Towns.

12

DENSITY AND PROXIMITY OF THE POPULATION.-Average distance of the Population from each

other and from a central point,

TERRITORIAL SUBDIVISIONS.— Islands; their Situation, Number, and Population. The Northmen.

Island of St. Kilda. The Subdivisions of Britain ; Counties, Hundreds, Sessional Divisions ;

Municipal Cities and Boroughs; Parliamentary Boroughs ; Townships, Parishes, and Manors;

Dioceses and Ecclesiastical Subdivisions. Changes in the ancient territorial Subdivisions of the

Country; in Counties and in Boroughs. Recent Subdivisions ; Poor Law Unions, Registration

Districts, County Courts’ Districts. Registration Counties and Divisions

16

GENERAL RESULTS OF THE INQUIRY INTO THE NUMBERS OF THE PEOPLE,-- Addition of ten millions

to the Population in half a century. Can the Population be sustained ? Intimate connexion

between Town and Country. Vast system of Towns in which half the Population lives. 25

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IV. CONJUGAL OR CIVIL CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE..

Marriage and Family. Importance af Inquiry. aş, to Conjugal Condition. Husbands and Wives:

Proportions at different Ages and in various parts of Great Britain. Age of Husband and
Wife. Average Age of Husbands and Wives in Great Britain. Relative Ages. Equality and
Disparity of Age of Husband and Wife. Widowers and Widows. Average Duration of Life
in Widowhood. Increase of Widows as Age advances. The Unmarried ; Bachelors and

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