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Ladies' Garland—Botany.


would have been wanting had she followed an arrangement more strictly scientific. The Lectures are fortyeight in number, and they derive no inconsiderable claim to public attention from the high reputation of the Troy Female Seminary; and the fact that the author, during the absence of the principal in Europe, is considered competent to sustain the high duties and responsibilities of the seminary, will not be overlooked by those judicious persons who love to identify authors with their productions. The plates in the book were engraved from drawings executed by Miss Lee, the teacher of drawing in the same institution; they are numerous and sufficiently descriptive to portray the arcana of Botanical classification.

We cannot, as we would wish, enlarge on the sublime and lovely traits of creating wisdom which a flower or a fruit garden discloses. We linger with pleasure along the shadowy walks in the early morning, or in the coolness of sober evening, and as the fragrant zephyr, laden with the aroma of spicy buds, kisses our cheeks, we cannot but feel a tranquillity allied to celestial enjoyment. We feel that nature is our friend, and woos us to gentle musings, and heavenward aspirations. Around us are a thousand forms of beauty, giving no audible sound save the whisper of waving plumes, and leaves, and tremulous, fruit-laden boughs; yet all is most eloquent in effect, and proclaims the praise of a blessed Creator, fairer than even the fairest of his beautiful creatio

Can a young lady walk in the aromatic flower garden without thinking of Eden, and the plaintive farewell of her who had lost her innocence?

Must I thus leave thee, Paradise? thus leave
Thee, native soil, these happy walks and shades,
Fit haunt of Gods, where I had hope to spend,
Quiet, though sad, the respite of that day,
That must be mortal to us both? Oh flowers
That never will in other climate grow,
My early visitation and my last

At even; which I bred up with tender hand,
From the first opening bud and gave ye names;

Who now shall rear ye to the sun, or rank

Your tribes, and water from th' ambrosial fount? Milton.

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Leopards, like all of their race, appear to be of exceedingly uncertain tempers; and we have more than one instance recorded of their attacking individuals, when they have been incautiously left at liberty. The celebrated John Hunter had a fortunate escape, in a contest with two leopards that were confined in a yard of his house. They broke loose, attacked some dogs, and were climbing the wall when the great anatomist heard the uproar; and, rushing into the yard, seized upon both of them, and secured them without injury.

The average length of the leopard is under four feet, and his height about two feet. The general color of his skin, and the arrangement of the spots, is exceedingly beautiful. The yellowish fawn ground, which gradually becomes a perfect white on the under parts of the body, is covered with black spots, of a round or oval -form, on the head, neck, limbs, and back; while on the sides, and part of the tail, the spots unite in ten ranges of distinct roses, sourrounding a central area of a somewhat deeper color than the general ground. In

The Leopard.

63 the Panther, there are only six or seven ranges of these


The natural habits of the leopard, like those of all the cat tribe, are compounded of ferocity and cunning. He preys upon the smaller animals, such as antelopes, sheep, and monkeys;-and he is enabled to secure his food with great success, from the extraordinary flexibility of his body. The leopards in the Tower, who have a tolerably large cage, bound about with the quickness of a squirrel, so that the eye can hardly follow their movements. In Africa, they are sometimes found of extraordinary size and rapacity. Their relative size principally distinguishes the leopard and the panther, the latter being ordinarily the larger. M. Cuvier considers them distinct species; although they are doubtless often mistaken by travellers, from their great similarity.

We have been favored, by a gentleman who was formerly in the civil service at Ceylon, with the following description of an encounter with a leopard or panther, which in India are popularly called tigers :—

"I was at Jaffna, at the northern extremity of the Island of Ceylon, in the beginning of the year 1819; when, one morning, my servant called me an hour or two before my usual time, with, 'Master, master! people sent for master's dogs-tiger in the town!' Now, my dogs chanced to be some very degenerate specimens of a fine species, called the Poligar dog, which I should designate as a sort of wiry-haired greyhound, without scent. I kept them to hunt jackals; but tigers are very different things; by the way, there are no real tigers in Ceylon; but leopards and panthers are always called so, and by ourselves as well as by the natives. This turned out to be a panther. My gun chanced not to be put together; and while my servant was doing it, the collector, and two medical men, who had recently arrived, in consequence of the cholera morbus having just then reached Ceylon from the continent, came to my door, the former armed with a fowling-piece, and the two latter with remarkably blunt hog-spears.


* Cuvier, Règne Animal,

They insisted upon setting off without waiting for my gun, a proceeding not much to my taste. The tiger, (I must continue to call him so) had taken refuge in a hut, the roof of which, as those of Ceylon huts in general, spread to the ground like an umbrella; the only aperture into it was a small door, about four feet high. The collector wanted to get the tiger out at once. I begged to wait for my gun; but no-the fowling-piece (loaded with ball, of course) and the two hog-spears were quite enough. I got a hedge-stake, and awaited my fate, from very shame. At this moment, to my great delight, there arrived from the fort an English officer, two artillery-men, and a Malay captain; and a pretty figure we should have cut without them, as the event will show. I was now quite ready to attack, and my gun came a minute afterwards. The whole scene which follows took place within an inclosure, about twenty feet square, formed, on three sides, by a strong fence of palmyra leaves, and on the fourth by the hut. At the door of this the two artillerymen planted themselves; and the Malay captain got at the top, to frighten the tiger out, by unroofing it—an easy operation, as the huts there are covered with cocoa-nut leaves. One of the artillerymen wanted to go in to the tiger, but we would not suffer it. At last the beast sprang; this man received him on his bayonet, which he thrust apparently down his throat, firing his piece at the same moment. The bayonet broke off short, leaving less than three inches on the musket; the rest remained in the animal, but was invisible to us: the shot probably went through his cheek, for it certainly did not seriously injure him, as he instantly rose upon his legs, with a loud roar, and placed his paws upon the soldier's breast. At this moment the animal appeared to me to about reach the centre of the man's face; but I had scarcely time to observe this, when the tiger, stooping his head, seized the soldier's arm in his mouth, turned him half round, staggering, threw him over on his back, and fell upon him. Our dread now was, that if we fired upon the tiger, we might kill the man; for a moment there was a pause, when his comrade attacked the beast exactly in the same manner as the gallant fellow him

The Leopard.


self had done. He struck his bayonet into his head; the tiger rose at him-he fired; and this time the ball took effect, and in the head. The animal staggered backwards, and we all poured in our fire. He still kicked and writhed; when the gentlemen with the hog-spears advanced, and fixed him, while some natives finished him, by beating him on the head with hedge-stakes. The brave artilleryman was, after all, but slightly hurt; he claimed the skin, which was very cheerfully given to him. There was, however, a cry among the natives that the head should be cut off: it was; and, in so doing, the knife came directly across the bayonet. The animal measured scarcely less than four feet from the root of the tail to the muzzle. There was no tradition of a tiger having been in Jaffna before; indeed, this one must have either come a distance of almost twenty miles, or have swum across an arm of the sea nearly two miles in breadth; for Jaffna stands on a peninsula in which there is no jungle of any magnitude.

The leopard of India is called by the natives the "Tree Tiger," from its habit of ascending a tree when pursued, or for the purpose of enabling it to spring securely on its prey. It is doubtless able to effect this ascent, by the extraordinary flexibility of its limbs, which give it the power of springing upward;--for, in the construction of the feet, it has no greater facilities for climbing than the lion or the tiger. It cannot clasp a branch like the bear, because the bone called the clavicle is not sufficiently large to permit this action. The Indian hunters chase the leopard to a tree; but even in this elevated spot it is a task of great difficulty to shoot him; for the extraordinary quickness of the creature enables him to protect himself by the most rapid movements. The Africans catch this species in pitfalls, covered over with slight hurdles, upon which there is placed a bait. In some old writers on Natural History there are accounts of the Leopard being taken in a trap, by means of a mirror, which, when the animal jumps against it, brings down the door upon him. This story may have received some sanction from the disposition of the domestic cat, when young, to survey her figure n a looking glass.

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