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ended the Andes, contributed by their ions to augment the vegetable riches -ut, in their time, geology as a science ence. Of the structure of the giant pe scarcely anything was understood; nown beneath the earth in the New elated to her mines of gold and silver. mboldt to supply all that was wanting, of his Personal Narrative. In this, her of his works, he shows his power ure in all her grandeur and variety.

discoveries of Humboldt's able coad, M. Bonpland, afford not only a com

botany of the equinoctial regions of t of other places visited by the traage thither. The description of the and the geography of its vegetation, Discovered by Humboldt and Bonpland he observation of discerning travellers

same route before them. Indeed, the e Canary Islands presents a picture emplated without the deepest interest, paratively indifferent to the study of

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rcely necessary to remind the reader when this work was first published in 1 of the Spanish Colonies from the ther with subsequent political events,

changes in the governments of the ies, as well as in the social condition

One consequence of these changes has te some facts and observations relating commercial, and statistical, interspersed

However useful such matter might inal publication, it is wholly irrelevant

CHE First abode at Cumana—Banks

CHA Peninsula of Araya-Salt-marshe


Mountains of New Andalusia—V

of the Cocollar-Missions of

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vern of the Guacharo—Nocturnal Birds. 251


Mountain and Forest of Santa Maria-

0-Port of Cariaco . . . 272


and Manners of the Chaymas-Their Lan-

of the Nations which inhabit New Andalusia

i by Columbus . .

ana-Earthquakes—Extraordinary Meteors 343

to La Guayra-Morro of Nueva Barcelona
d from La Guayra to Caracas . . 360

Provinces of Venezuela-Diversity of their
and Valley of Caracas-Climate :


Mountains in the vicinity of the Town-
summit of Silla-Indications of Mines , 412

Many years have elapse
the interior of the New C
youth to the study of nat
beauties of a country gua
ancient forests, I experien
have amply compensated f
laborious and often agitat
endeavoured to impart to i
Steppes,' and in the ' Essay
not the only fruits I reape
the design of contributing
I had long prepared myself
principal object of my journ
with instruments of easy a
ablest makers, and I enjoye
ment which, far from prese
constantly honoured me w
dence. I was aided by a co
it was singularly propitiou
labour, that the zeal and eq
amidst the fatigues and d

Under these favourable ci
for ages have remained alm

of Europe, I might add ev

collected a considerable nu

which may throw some i

advance the study of natur

I had in view a two-fold |

publish the historical narr
countries I had visited ; ar
to elucidate a science of v
outline, and which has bee

as—Connexion of those Phenomena with the
ons of the West India Islands . . 445

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tory of the World, The last of these t I was passionately and I flattered my species to those al kingdoms; but pr long observed, to 1 the discovery of ar ing than an obser table world, on th of the height whi the Cordilleras.

The natural scii together all the p. species, which m botany, and the s by the introduct of plants what de rocks constitutin hend the laws ob mine the age of in the most dist: acquainted with mountains, and c of oryctognostica the natural hist plants have to to the air whic geography of pl scriptive botany of science, to at the knowledge o

I have been g inquiries; they i of my preparato narratives of ti modern literatu ened in the ins possessed of su of every advant me, that the i not keep pace , the eighteenth science, particu the atmosphere saw with regret that whilst thi

INTRODUCTION. World, Theory of the Earth, or Physical Geography. these two objects seemed to me the most important. onately devoted to botany and certain parts of zoology, red myself that our investigations might add some new nose already known, both in the animal and vegetable but preferring the connection of facts which have been d, to the knowledge of insulated facts, although new, r of an unknown genus seemed to me far less interestobservation on the geographical relations of the vegeon the migrations of the social plants, and the limit which their different tribes attain on the flanks of is. I sciences are connected by the same ties which link ne phenomena of nature. The classification of the 1 must be considered as the fundamental part of je study of which is rendered attractive and easy luction of natural methods, is to the geography t descriptive mineralogy is to the indication of the ting the exterior crust of the globe. To compreobserved in the position of these rocks, to deterof their successive formations, and their identity istant regions, the geologist should be previously h the simple fossils which compose the mass of

of which the names and character are the object ral knowledge. It is the same with that part of tory of the globe which treats of the relations each other, to the soil whence they spring, or h they inhale and modify. The progress of the ants depends in a great measure on that of de3 and it would be injurious to the advancement cempt rising to general ideas, whilst neglecting

particular facts. ided by these considerations in the course of my ere always present to my mind during the period - studies. When I began to read the numerous

els, which compose so interesting a part of , I regretted that travellers, the most enlightzated branches of natural history, were seldom ient variety of knowledge to avail themselves e arising from their position. It appeared to ortance of the results hitherto obtained did

the immense progress which, at the end of ury, had been made in several departments of - geology, the history of the modifications of d the physiology of animals and plants. I d all scientific men have shared this feeling) mber of accurate instruments was daily in

creasing, we were still tains and elevated plai aërial ocean; of the li circle and on the bor intensity of the magneequally important.

Maritime expeditions ferred just celebrity on nomers who have bee share the dangers of eminent men have gi configuration of countr and of the productions that maritime expeditic of geology and other p the interior of a cont sciences has been subo astronomy. During a seldom presents itself when, after lengthened stripped of its most be a barren coast, he perc verdure, but its distance only to excite regret.

Journeys by land are the conveyance of inst culties are compensated enumerate. It is not discover the direction gical constitution, the on the forms and habit the extent of continent are the riches of anim distant the central cha greater is the variety ii strata, the regular succe planet. As every bein particular type, so, in li impression in the arr: rocks, and also in the di and animals. The gres the globe, is the deteri laws of their relations w link the phenomena of 1

Having stated the ge ditions, I will now haste the collections and ob

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