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Chancellor of the Exchequer announces on the 28th that the Government

do not intend to press the Resolution for increasing the Income Tax-His

Statement of the Financial Prospects of the Country-Speeches of Mr.

Wakley, Mr. Cobden, Lord John Russell, Mr. Disraeli, and other Members

— The public feeling is turned by these discussions to the unequal pres-

sure of the Tax as then existing—Mr. Horsman proposes a Plan for gra-

duating the Tax in respect to different kinds of Property—The Chancel-

lor of the Exchequer and Lord John Russell oppose the Motion-It is re-

jected on a Division by 316 to 141-Mr. Hume moves that the Tax be

renewed for One Year only, instead of Three—Sir Charles Wood opposes

the Motion General Discussion on the Income Tax-Sir Robert Peel de-

fends his own Measure and Policy–He is answered by Lord George Ben-

tinck-Mr. J. Wilson defends, in an elaborate Speech, the Free-Trade

Measures of Sir Robert Peel-Mr. Disraeli argues on the other side—Mr.

Gladstone vindicates the recent Commercial Changes in an able Speech-

Speeches of Mr. Cobden and Lord John Russell The Debate, after two

Adjournments, ends in the defeat of Mr. Hume's Motion by a Majority of

235—Sir B. Hall moves that the Income Tax be extended to Ireland-

Summary of his Arguments-It is opposed warmly by the Irish Members,

and resisted by the Government—Majority against it 80—Unsatisfactory

position of the Finances, with an anticipated Deficit—The Chancellor of

the Exchequer promises to make a definite statement before the close of

the Session - On the 25th of August he enters fully into the state of the

Revenue, and announces his plan for supplying the Deficiency-Proposi-

tion to raise 2,031,226). by a Loan-Dissatisfaction created hy this Pro-

posal-Mr. Hume strongly objects, and again urges retrenchment of the

Expenditure—He renews his objections on the 29th, when the Bill for

giving effect to Sir Charles Wood's Plan is before the House-Speeches of

the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Henley, Mr. Drummond, Mr.

Spooner, Mr. Cobden, Mr. A. Smith, and Lord John Russell-Mr. Hume's

Motion for rejecting the Bill is negatived by 66 to 45, and the latter is

passed

CHAPTER III.

Alteration of the Navigation Laws-Announcement respecting them in the

Queen's Speech - Mr. Labouchere, on the 15th of May, explains the Mi-

nisterial Scheme in a Committee of the whole House - His Speech-Lord

George Bentinck declares his Opposition to the Plan, which is commented

upon by various Members on either side-Mr. Herries moves a Resolution

on the 29th of May, in favour of maintaining the fundamental principles

of the Navigation Laws, The Debate is prolonged for three nights by Ad-

journment—Speeches of Mr. Herries, Mr. Labouchere, Mr. Alderman

Thompson, Mr. Baillie, Mr. Robinson, Mr. Gibson, Mr. W. E. Gladstone,

Mr. Cardwell, Sir C. Wood, Lord George Bentinck, Mr. Cobden, Mr. Dis-

raeli, and Sir Robert Peel-Upon a Division, the Resolution is lost by

294 to 177—In consequence of the delay which had occurred, Mr. Labou-

chere, on the 12th August, announcesøthe Postponement of the Measure

till the next Session-Jewish Disabilities Removal Bill-Circumstances

which led to the Introduction of this Measure—The Second Reading

being moved on the 7th February, Mr. Augustus Stafford moves, as an

Amendment, that it be read a Second Time that day Six Months--Lord

Burghley seconds the Amendment-Speeches of Mr. W. P. Wood, Mr.

Milnes, Sir W. Molesworth, Lord Mahon, Mr. Walpole, Mr. Shiel, Mr.

Newdegate, Sir Robert Peel, and other Members—The Second Reading is

carried by a Majority of 73—l'pon a subsequent stage, Mr. Goring moves

an Amendment condemnatory of the Bill-After some Discussion it is

Affairs of Ireland-Disaffected and critical state of that Country during the

Spring of 1848-Progress of Insurrection Movements of Mr. Smith

O'Brien and his confederates—Ignominious Failure of the projected Out-

break-Policy of the Government and state of Public Opinion in this

Country on the Subject-Adoption of Coercive Measures-Announcement

of a Bill for the Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act-Debate in the

House of Lords upon a Motion made by the Earl of Glengall—Decisive

Declaration of the Marquis of Lansdowne on behalf of the Government-

Remarks of Lord Brougham, Lord Stanley, and other Peers—Unanimous

feeling of the House-Lord John Russell, on the 24th July, moves for

Leave to bring in a Bill vesting extraordinary powers in the Lord Lieu-

tenant-His Speech on the state of Ireland and the features of the Crisis

- He is warmly supported by Sir Robert Peel—Mr. Disraeli, Mr. Hume,

Mr. B. Osborne, Sir D. Norreys, Sir Lucius O'Brien, and many other Eng-

lish and Irish Members, speak in favour of the Bill-Mr. Feargus O'Con-

nor delivers a vehement Repeal Speech against it-Mr. S. Crawford moves

an Amendment, which is lost on a Division, only Eight Members voting

for it—The Bill is passed through all its Stages on the same Day, and is

sent up to the House of Lords—The Marquis of Lansdowne, on the 26th,

introduces the Bill, with a Speech similar in effect to that of Lord J. Rus-

sell-Lord Brougham, the Earl of Wicklow, the Earl of Glengall, and

other Peers support the Bill, which is then carried through all its Stages

without any Opposition-Debate in the House of Commons on the Con-

dition of Ireland, originating in a Resolution proposed by Mr. Sharman

Crawford for the Redress of Grievances—His Speech-Answer of Lord

John Russell—Speeches of Mr. H. Herbert, Mr. Fagan, Mr. Monsell, and

Mr. Osborne—The Debate is adjourned—Declarations of Sir George Grey,

Sir William Somerville, and Lord John Russell respecting the Irish Church

–After further Debate, the Resolution moved by Mr. S. Crawford is

negatived by 100 to 24—Bill for facilitating the Transfer of Encumbered

Estates--Speech of the Lord Chancellor explaining the Bill-Speeches of

the Earl of Roden, Earl Fitzwilliam, Lord Stanley, Lord Campbell, and

Lord Monteagle—The Bill is read a Second Time-It is much debated in

the House of Commons—Sir Lucius O'Brien, Mr. Napier, Mr. Henley, and

other Members oppose the Bill—The Solicitor-General, Mr. B. Osborne,

Sir J. Graham, Mr. Monsell, Mr. Sadleir, and Mr. P. Wood, support it-

An Amendment moved by Mr. Napier is defeated by 197 to 52—The

Amendments made in the House of Commons are opposed in the House of

Lords by Lord Stanley and Lord Monteagle, but adopted on a Division by

27 to 10, and the Bill is passed

[94
CHAPTER V.

Domestic Affairs.—Extraordinary Tranquillity of this Country during the

Continental Revolutions-Attempts made by the Chartists to disturb the

Peace-Demonstration of the 10th of April, and its harmless Result-Ex-

cellent Moral Effect produced thereby—Disorderly Assemblies and sedi-

tious Speeches in the Metropolis and other Places--Measures adopted by

the Government— The Great Chartist Petition to Parliament, and Pro-

ceedings respecting it-Report of the Committee on Public Petitions ex-

posing the Misrepresentations as to the Signatures—Personal Dispute in

the House between Mr. Cripps and Mr. Feargus O'Connor-Interference

of the Speaker and Explanations of the Parties.-Crown and Govern-

MENT SECURITY BILL introduced by the Home Secretary-Objects of the

Measure-Speech of Sir George Grey-Observations of Mr. J. O'Connell,

Mr. F. O'Connor, and other Members—The Bill is brought in-Lord John

Russell moves the Second Reading on the 10th of April – Mr. Smith

O'Brien appears in Parliament for the last Time, and speaks against the

Bill—Sir George Grey answers him in an animated Speech-Speeches of

Mr. Thompson, Sir R. Inglis, and other Members—The Second Reading is

carried by 452 to 35—The Clause making “ Open and Advised Speaking"

of Treasonable Matter felonious is much objected to in Committee- Mr.

S. Martin, Mr. Horsman, Mr. Hume, Mr. Osborne, and other Members

strongly opposed to it—Speech of Sir. R. Peel with reference to events in

France—The Bill passes the Third Reading by a great Majority-Debate

upon the Second Reading in the House of Lords--Speeches of Lord Stan-

ley, Lord Brougham, Lord Campbell, the Duke of Wellington, Lord Den-

man, and other Peers.-ALIENS REMOVAL Bill introduced by the Marquis

of Lansdowne-Explanations and Debate on the Second Reading-In the

House of Commons the Bill is opposed by Sir W. Molesworth-Remarks

of Lord Dudley Stuart, the Attorney-General, Mr. Urquhart, Dr. Bowring,

and other Members—The Second Reading is carried by a Majority of 119.

EXTENSION OF THE ELECTIVE FRANCHISE-Popular Movement on this

Subject and Exertions of Mr. Hume-A Resolution in favour of further

Reform in Parliament is proposed by that Gentleman on the 21st of June

-His Speech on that occasion-He is answered by Lord John_Russell,

who opposes the Motion-Speeches of Mr. H. Drummond, Mr. Fox, and

Mr. Disraeli— The Debate is adjourned and resumed on the 6th of July-

Speeches of Mr. B. Osborne, Mr. Serjeant Talfourd, Mr. Cobden, Mr. F.

O'Connor, Mr. Milnes, Mr. Sidney Herbert, Mr. Muntz, and Mr. C. Vil-

liers—On a Division, Mr. Hume's Motion is rejected by 351 to 84 [123

Moore, and other Members—The Bill is read a Second Time, a majority of

79 voting in its favour_Further opposition in Committee, and on the

Third Reading-The Bill is passed. AFFAIRS OF ITALY AND SICILY :-

Lord Stanley brings forward a Motion in the House of Lords respecting

the intervention of the British Government in the Sicilian Insurrection-

The Marquis of Lansdowne answers the Charge on the part of the Govern-

mentObservations of the Earl of Minto, the Duke of Argyle, Earl of

Malmesbury, and other Peers—Proceedings on the same subject in the

House of Commons-Declaration of Lord Palmerston respecting the In-

tervention of England-Mr. Disraeli, on the 16th August, enters into a

full review of the whole field of Italian Politics and British Intervention

-Remarks upon Lord Minto's Mission and the real objects of Lord Pal-

merston's Mediations-Lord Palmerston vindicates his own conduct and

policy at great length. AFFAIRS OF SPAIN :—Abrupt Dismissal of Sir H.

Bulwer, the British Ambassador-Circumstances which led to this event

-The subject is brought before the House of Lords by Lord Stanley-

His Speech-Answer of the Marquis of Lansdowne-Remarks of Lord

Brougham, the Earl of Aberdeen, and other Peers—Mr. Bankes brings

the matter before the House of Commons by a Resolution disapproving of

the Policy of our Government-Speeches of Mr. Shiel, Lord Mahon, Mr.

Disraeli, 'Lord John Russell, Sir R. Peel, and Lord' Palmerston—The

Motion is ultimately withdrawn-Close of the Session :- Mr. Disraeli,

on the 30th August, reviews the events of the expiring Session in an

animated and humorous Speech, satirizing the failures and disap-

pointments of the Government–Lord John Russell parries the attack

with much dexterity-Remarks of Mr. B. Osborne and Mr. Hume-Pro-

rogation of Parliament by the Queen in person, on the 5th of September

-Address of the Speaker to the Throne-Her Majesty's Speech-Close of

the Session.

[155

FRANCE.—Position of the Guizot Ministry-State of Parties in France-Un-

popularity of the King — Death of Madame Adelaide, the King's Sister-
Surrender of Abd-el-Kader in Algeria-Violation of the Promise made to

bim-His Letter at the end of the Year to Prince Louis Napoleon-Ex-

planation by M. Guizot as to Foreign Policy of his Government-Able

Speech on the Necessity of Reform, by M. Mesnard, in the Chamber of

Peers-Address as voted by the Chamber of Peers—Budget for Year

1849—Discussion in Chamber of Peers on Affairs of Switzerland-Elo-

quent Speech of Count de Montalembert M. Guizot on the English Al-

liance-Speech of Count d’Alton Shee on the Question of Reform of the

Electoral Law-Discussion in the Chamber of Deputies respecting the Sale

of Offices by the Government–Speeches of MM. Odillon Barrot and Gui-

zot-Victory of Ministers in the Chamber—Discussion on the Separate

Paragraphs of the Address—Speeches on Finance by MM. Dumon and

Thiers-Speech of M. Thiers on the Affairs of Italy-Reply by M. Guizot

-Speeches of MM. Thiers and Guizot on the Affairs of Switzerland-De-

claration of M. Duchatel condemning the Reform Banquets—Uproar in

the Chamber-Debate on Affairs of Poland-Statement by M. Guizot re-

specting Destination of Abd-el-Kader-Renewed Discussion on Reform

Demonstrations, and Scene of Confusion in the Chamber—The Opposition

refuse to vote-Majority for Ministers—Debate on Electoral Reform-

Speeches of MM. Guizot, Thiers, and others—The Address voted in the

Chamber of Deputies—State of Public Feeling at this time (194

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CHAPTER VIII.

Meeting of the Opposition Members—Announcement of a Reform Banquet

at Paris—The National Guards called upon to appear in Uniform-Pro-

hibition of the Banquet by Ministers—It is given up by the Opposition-

Address by General Jacqueminot to the National Guards-Act of Im-

peachment of Ministers-Disturbed state of Paris --- Resignation of M.

Guizot and his Colleagues-Collisions between the populace and the Mili-

tary-Joy of the Mob at the Downfall of the Ministry-Lamentable inci-

dent at the Hotel of the Minister des Affaires Etrangères--Cruel Strata-

gem of Lagrange and the Republicans--Its momentous Consequences

Barricades erected on the Morning of the 24th of February-Count Molé

is unable to form a Ministry—M. Thiers sent for by the King-Proclama-

tion by M. Thiers and M. Odillon Barrot— The Mob threatens the Tuile-

ries—The National Guards and Troops of the Line offer no Resistance-

Abdication of Louis Philippe—Terrible Scene in the Chamber of Deputies

-The Duchess of Orleans and the young Princes enter the Chamber-

Irruption of the Mob—Demand of a Provisional Government by M. Marie

-Speech of M. Odillon Barrot-Speeches of M. Ledru Rollin and M. de

Lamartine- The Mob masters of the Chamber-Nomination of a Provi.

sional Government—“To the Hôtel de Ville !”-Scene of tumultuous

Violence in the Chamber-Proclamation of the REPUBLIC at the Hôtel de

Ville-Sanguinary Contest at the Palais Royal-Escape of Louis Philippe

and the Royal Family—The ex-King and Queen arrive in England -

Farewell Address by the Duc d'Aumale to the Army in Algeria—The

Tuileries in the Hands of the Mob-Proclamations of the Provisional Go-

vernment—Distribution of Offices-All Vestiges of Monarchy swept away

-Abolition of Titles of Nobility-Respect shown for Private Property in

Paris-Devastations in the Provinces-Appointment of Barbès as Colonel

in the National Guard—The Populace and the Clergy-Clamours for the

“Red Republic” at the Hôtel de Ville-Courageous Firmness of M. de

Lamartine-Official Proclamation of the Republic_Was France repub-

lican at Heart ?—Decree convoking a Constituent National Assembly-

M. de Lamartine and the Foreign Policy of the New Government-His

Manifesto to Europe-Alarming Circulars issued by M. Ledru Rollin and

M. Carnot-Their Doctrines disclaimed by the Provisional Government-

Quarrel between the National Guard and the Government–The former

obliged to give way-Appointment of a Committee of Labour for the Ope-

ratives—National Workshops (Ateliers) established-Hostility to English

Workmen-Regulations for Payment of Taxes-Financial Position of

the Republic-Suspension of Cash Payments by the Bank of France, and

by Banks in the ProvincesLouis Blanc's Plan for the Organization of

Labour—The Communists or Socialists—Disturbance created by them on

the 16th of April-Election of Deputies for the National Assembly-Riots

in various Places-Views of the extreme Democrats.

[225

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pont (de l’Eure)—Oath of Allegiance abolished— Proclamation of the Re-

public in presence of the People-Election of Officers of the Assembly-

Policy of Provisional Government detailed in Speech of M. de Lamar-

tine-Election of Members of Executive Committee-Nomination of Mi-

nisters—Formation of Clubs in Paris-The Assembly invaded by the Mob

-Scene of Confusion in the Chamber-M. Hubert declares that the Na-

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