Year-book of Nature and Popular Science for 1872

Front Cover
John Christopher Draper
Scribner, Armstrong & Company, 1873 - 333 pages
 

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Contents

The Temperature of the Sun
9
Movements of the Sun
10
Effect of Elevation on the Spec trum of the Sun
11
The Brightness of Uranus
12
The Estimated Number of Com ets
13
Spectra of Comets
14
The Position of Auroras
15
Spectra of Auroras and Zodiacal Lights
16
Condition of the Atmosphere at tending Polar Lights
17
Heat
18
The Greenland Moteors
19
New Experiments on the Heat of the Spectrum
21
ITeat in the Violet Rays
22
Heat Disengaged in Precipitation
23
Artificial Freezing
24
Philosophy of the Oxygen Light
25
The Electric Light
26
Light Phosphorescence and Invisible Rays
27
Phosphorescence in Ova
28
The Rainbows of Lake Geneva
31
The Spectrum of Hydrogen
32
ency of Water
33
The Color of the Sky
35
Electricity
36
Electricity Developed by Torsion
37
The Lightning Stroke
38
Action of Electricity on Notilucaa
39
Action of the Sun on the Com pass Needlo
40
Iron Telegraph Posts
41
Production of Sound in Electro magnets
42
Sensitive Flames
43
Physics
45
Spheroidal Condition of Water
46
Temperature of the Air
47
Influence of the Pressure of the Air on the Tides
49
Vapors in the Air
50
The Chloride of Cobalt Hygrom eter
53
Icicles in the Air
54
Evaporation and Ice Formation
55
Specialists in Chemistry
57
Introduction 136 to 138
59
Molecular Change in Tin
60
Solubility of Alkaline Metals in Ammonia
61
Incandescence and Spectrum of Iodine Vapor
62
Absorptionpower of Red Phos phorus
63
Use of Ozone in Organic Chem istry
64
Dissociation of Carbonic Acid
65
Native Glaubers Salt
66
Impure Tinware
67
Purification of Water
68
210
69
Preparation of Boiled Oil
70
Extraction of Oil from Wool
71
Preparation of Ammonia
72
Extempore Powder Factory
73
Lithofracteur
74
Explosion of Guncotton
75
Miners Safetylamps
76
Printing from Photographs with out Light
77
Copying Designs
79
Imperishable Designs
80
225
81
Puddling with Petroleum
82
Iron Electrotypes
83
Platinum Bronze for Cooking vessels
84
Burned Iron 65
85
Organic Chemistry 250 259
87
Preparation of Blood Crystals
88
Abictine
89
Theories of Fermentation
90
Another Theory of Fermentation
91
Dumas Resum6 of Experiments on Alcoholic Fermentation
92
Origin of the Ferment in Grape juice
93
Fermentation Stopped
94
Sulphurous Acid in Distilling
95
Lobos Islands Guano
96
273
98
Action of Light on Sugar
99
Petroleum Oils
100
Inexplosive Petroleum
101
Pulverized Cod Liver Oil
102
Purifying the Water of Streams
103
Disinfectants and Deodorizers 292 302
105
Iodine
106
Adulteration of Gas
107
Drying Gases
108
Spectra of Cruorine and Car mine
109
Sulphide of Hydrogen in Blow pipe Analysis
110
Quantitative Determination of Arsenic III
111
Care in Filtration
112
Geology
113
321 The Lava of Vesuvius
114
Expansion of Rock in Quarrying
115
Deposit of Corundum
116
Natural Illuminating Gas
118
354
119
Degeneracy of Species
120
Fossil Animals of California
121
Commonsense and Geology
122
Mont Blanc
123
Temperature of the Earth
124
Dynamic Geology 359 371
126
Earthquakes and Auroras
127
Changes in Vesuvius during the recent Eruption
128
Ancient Riverbeds
129
South American Glaciers
130
The Yellowstone National Park
131
Open Northern Seas
132
Livingstones Discoveries
133
Geographical Problems
135
The Oil Regions
136
German Arctic Explorations
137
ARTICLES
138
Making Experimental Apparatus
139
Scientific and Classical Methods
140
Teaching by Lectures
142
State Aid to Science
143
Science and Theology
144
Decline of Original Investigation in England
145
Laboratories in Japan
146
Scientific Societies
147
Equalizing Education
148
The Future of Education
149
Compulsory Education
151
The Right of Opinion
152
to 408
153
Curious Valuation
154
Double Nature of the Body Poli tic
155
Cooperation and Savingsbanks
156
Insurance Losses
157
Dry Walls
166
A New Stove
167
Substitute for Spermoil
168
Spontaneous Combustion by Iron Rust
169
Ammonia in Housekeeping
170
Clothing and Fabrics 457 461
171
Washing with Soda
172
General Biology
173
Function of Organic Matter in Soils
174
Action of Coaldust on Flowering Plants
175
Cultivation of Strawberries
176
um
177
Evolution of Carbonic Acid dur ing the Ripening of Fruit
178
Sensation in Plants
180
Motion in Plants
181
Movements of the Cilia3 of Dro seras
183
The Sleep of Plants
184
Life in Girdled Trees
185
Fig Leaves
186
Fluid in the Pitchers of Nepen thes
187
Guarana
188
Cellulose produced in the Dark
189
Action of Electricity on the Colors of Flowers
190
Arrest of Potato Rot
192
Action of Lightning on Trees
193
Rust in Peachtrees
194
Death by Frost
195
Iron in the Food
197
Preserving Meats
198
Meat Extracts
199
Dessication of Fruits and Vegeta bles
200
53G Influence of Diet on Milk
201
Roasting Coffee
202
California Wines
203
Action of Alcohol on the Tissues
204
Muscular Expression
205
Action of the Muscles in Walk ing
206
New Development of Bone
207
Restoration of the Brain in Birds
208
Mimicry
209
Language
210
Sensation in the Mouses Ear
211
Recurrent Vision
212
Jelly Fish
214
Effect of Transplantation on Oysters
215
Preservation of Food by Ants
216
Phosphorescent Eggs
217
Silkworm Culture
218
Parasites on Inseots
219
Stones in the Stomach of Cod fish
222
The Eel a true Hermaphrodite
223
Snakes in Ireland
224
Retention of Eggs by Birds
225
Eggs in the Ovary of the Hen
226
The Trachea of the Curassow
227
Newly Discovered Animals
228
Destruction of Sheep by Leeches
229
Animals in London
230
The Course in Biology in London
231
Zoological Station at Naples
234
Origin of Lowest Organisms
235
Place of Mind in Nature
236
New Species
239
Fertile Hybrid
240
Cellulose in Animals
241
Specific Heat of Eggs
242
Parthenogenesis
243
Experiments in Parthenogenesis
244
Can a Bird Reason?
245
Reason in Animals
246
Intelligence in Monkeys
247
Mind in Men and Animals
248
The Unity of the Human Species
250
Peopling New Lands
251
Hiunan Equality
252
Organic Differences between the Sexes
253
Ancient Representation of the Soul
254
Darwinism in the Asylum
255
Relative Lengths of the Arm and Forearm
258
The Australians
259
Definition of Man
260
Stone Monuments of England
261
Dust in Cities
264
Malarial Poison
265
Malaria in Massachusetts
266
Origin of Malarial Poison
267
Poison of the Cobra
268
Consumption
269
ANewEntozoon
270
A Curious Disease of Thibet
271
Poisonous Colors
272
Soap a Cause of Skin Disease
273
Seasickness
274
Fatty Liver
275
Spectacles
276
Spectacles for Divers
277
An Extraordinary Surgical Oper ation
278
The Doctrine of Signatures
279
Absorption of Calomel
280
Elevation of Fractured Bone by the Pressure of the Air
281
Alkaloids in Opium
282
Vaccine Lymph in Smallpox
283
Tolerance of Tobacco
284
Aphasia
285
Eccentricity
286
Use of the Ophthalmoscope in Nervous Diseases
287
Test of Imbecility
288
Death by Fire
289
A New Balloon
291
New Vessels of War
292
Magnetism in Iron Ships
293
Propulsion of Canalboats
294
Artificial Stone
295
Strength of Building Materials
296
Decay of Stone and Brick
297
Sewage as a Cement
301
Dolomite Lime
302
Artificial Marble
303
Crossing the Channel
304
Tunnel under Gibraltar
305
Applications of Dynamite
306
Experiments on Boilers
308
Economizing Heat in Boilers
309
Nonconductmg Packing
310
Transportation by Pipes
311
A New Mill
312
Distillation by Cold
313
Manufacture of Grindstones
314
Removing Stoppers in Petroleum Pipes
315

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Popular passages

Page 254 - ... the passage from the current to the needle, if not demonstrable, is thinkable, and that we entertain no doubt as to the final mechanical solution of the problem. But the passage from the physics of the brain to the corresponding facts of consciousness is unthinkable. Granted that a definite thought, and a definite molecular action in the brain occur simultaneously ; we do not possess the intellectual organ, nor apparently any rudiment of the organ, which would enable us to pass, by a process...
Page 254 - I do not think he is entitled to say that his molecular groupings and his molecular motions explain everything. In reality they explain nothing. The utmost he can affirm is the association of two classes of phenomena, of whose real bond of union he is in absolute ignorance. The problem of the connection of body and soul is as insoluble in its modern form as it was in the prescientific ages. Phosphorus is known to enter into the composition of the human brain, and a trenchant German writer has exclaimed,...
Page 144 - The Science of Modern times, however, has taken a more special direction. Fixing its attention exclusively on the Order of Nature, it has separated itself •wholly from Theology, whose function it is to seek after its Cause. In this, Science is fully justified, alike by the entire independence of its objects, and by the historical fact that it has been continually hampered and impeded in its search for the Truth as it is in Nature, by the restraints which Theologians have attempted to impose upon...
Page 239 - The hypothesis of Lamarck — that progressive changes in species have been produced by the attempts of animals to increase the development of their own organs, and thus modify their structure and habits — has been repeatedly and easily refuted by all writers on the subject of varieties and species...
Page 131 - During the months of June, July, and August the climate is pure and most invigorating, with scarcely any rain or storms of any kind, but the thermometer frequently sinks as low as 26°. There is frost every month of the year.
Page 144 - No logical proof can be adduced that the peculiar shapes of these flints were given to them by Human hands; but does any unprejudiced person now doubt it? The evidence of design, to which, after an examination of one or two such specimens, we should only be justified in attaching a probable value, derives an irresistible cogency from accumulation. On the other hand, the improbability that these flints acquired their peculiar shape by accident, becomes to our minds greater and greater as more and...
Page 145 - But when Science, passing beyond its own limits, assumes to take the place of Theology, and sets up its own conception of the Order of Nature as a sufficient account of its Cause, it is invading a province of Thought to which it has no claim, and not unreasonably provokes the hostility of those who ought to be its best friends.
Page 239 - Neither did the giraffe acquire its long neck by desiring to reach the foliage of the more lofty shrubs, and constantly stretching its neck for the purpose, but because any varieties which occurred among its...
Page 237 - There is no chemical distinction that holds; there is no structural distinction that holds ; there is no functional distinction that holds ; there is no distinction as to mode of existence that holds. Large groups of the simpler animals contain chlorophyll, and decompose carbonic acid under the influence of light as plants do. Large groups of the simpler...
Page 221 - Tetraodon and Diodon. Was there a way to come nearer to a correct solution of my doubts? As I had in former years made a somewhat extensive study of the pigment cells of the skin, in a variety of young fishes, I now resorted to this method to identify my embryos. Happily we had on board several pelagic fishes alive, which could afford means of comparison, but unfortunately the steamer was shaking too much and rolling too heavily, for microscopic observation of even moderately high powers.

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