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tainly in the latter part of the third century. For Tatianus, because a heretic, I reckon not in this number. And if any man say, that before his fall he wrote many books; I say, it is true; but withal would have it remembered, that he was Justin Martyr's scholar, and therefore in all probability of his master's faith, rather than against it. All that is extant of him one way or other, is but this in St. Jerome De Script. Eccles.-Justini Martyris sectator fuit.

Now for the other part of the minor, that the forementioned fathers did believe and teach this doctrine. And first for Papias, that he taught it, is confessed by Eusebius, the enemy of this doctrine (1. iii. Hist. Eccl. c. 33.) in these words: "Other things besides the same author (Papias) declares, that they came to him as it were by unwritten tradition, wherein he affirms, that after the resurrection of all flesh from the dead, there shall be a kingdom of Christ continued and established for a thousand years upon earth, after a human and corporeal manner." The same is confessed by St. Jerome, another enemy to this opinion (De Script. Eccles. s. 29.): "Papias, the auditor of John, bishop of Hierapolis, is said to have taught the Judaical tradition of a thousand years, whom Irenæus and Apollinarius followed." And in his preface upon the commentaries of Victorinus upon the Apocalypse, thus he writes: "Before him Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, and Nepos, bishop in the parts of Egypt, taught as Victorinus does, touching the kingdom of the thousand years."

The same is testified by Irenæus (1. v. cont. hær. c. 33.) where having at large set forth this

doctrine, he confirms it by the authority of Papias, in these words: “Papias, also, the auditor of John, the familiar friend of Polycarpus, an ancient man, hath testified by writing these things in the fourth of his books; for he hath written five." And concerning Papias thus much.

That Justin Martyr was of the same belief, is confessed by Sixtus Senensis (Biblioth. Stæ. 1. vi. An. 437.) by Faverdentius, in his premonition before the five last chapters of the fifth book of Irenæus ; and by Pamelius in Antidoto ad Tertul. parad. parador. 14.

That S. Melito, bishop of Sardis, held the same doctrine, is confessed by Pamelius in the same place and thereupon it is, that Gennadius Mussiliensis, in his book De Eccles. Dogmatibus, calls the followers of this opinion Melitani; as the same Pamelius testifies in his notes upon that fragment of Tertullian, De spe Fidelium.

Irenæus's faith in this point is likewise confessed by Eusebius in the place before quoted, in these words: "He (Papias) was the author of the like error to most of the writers of the church, who alleged the antiquity of the man for a defence of their side, as to Irenæus, and whosoever else seemed to be of the same opinion with him. By S. Jerome, in the place above cited De Script. Eccles. s. 29. Again, in lib. Ezek. xi. in these words: "For neither do we expect from heaven a golden Jerusalem (according to the Jewish tales, which they call Deuterosis) which also many of our own have followed;" especially Tertullian, in his book De spe Fidelium; and Lactantius in his seventh book of Institutions, and the frequent expositions of Victorinus Pictavionensis; and of late Severius,

in his dialogue, which he calls Gallus; and to name the Greeks, and to join together the first and last, Irenæus and Apollinarius." Where we see he acknowledges Irenæus to be of this opinion; but that he was the first that held it, I believe that that is more a Christian untruth, than Irenæus's opinion a Judaical fable. For he himself acknowledges in the place above cited, that Irenæus followed Papias; and it is certain and confessed, that Justin Martyr believed it long before him: and Irenæus himself derives it from-Presbyteri, qui Johannem discipulum Domini viderunt; from priests, which saw John, the disciple of the Lord. Lastly, by Pamelius, Sixtus Senensis, and Faverdentius, in the places above quoted.

Seeing, therefore, it is certain, even to the confession of the adversaries, that Papias, Justin Martyr, Melito, and Irenæus, the most considerable and eminent men of their age did believe and teach this doctrine; and, seeing it has been proved as evidently as a thing of this nature can be, that none of their contemporaries opposed or condemned it; it remains, according to Cardinal Perron's first rule, that this is to be esteemed the doctrine of the church of that age.

My second reason I form thus: Whatsoever doctrine is taught by the fathers of any age, not as doctors, but as witnesses of the tradition of the church (that is, not as their own opinion, but as the doctrine of the church of their times) that is undoubtedly to be so esteemed, especially if none contradicted them in it; but the fathers above cited teach this doctrine, not as their own private opinion, but as the Christian tradition, and as the doctrine of the church, neither did any

contradict them in it; ergo, it is undoubtedly to be so esteemed.

The major of this syllogism is Cardinal Perron's second rule and way of finding out the doctrine of the ancient church in any age; and if it be not a sure rule, farewell the use of all antiquity. And for the minor, there will be little doubt of it to him that considers, that Papias professes himself to have received this doctrine by unwritten tradition, though not from the apostles themselves immediately, yet from their scholars, as appears by Eusebius in the forecited third book, chapter 33.

That Irenæus grounded it upon evident Scripture, and professes that he learnt it (whether mediately or immediately, I cannot tell) from presbyters, qui Johannem discipulum Domini viderunt, priests or elders, who saw John the Lord's disciple, and heard of him what our Lord taught of those times (of the thousand years); and also, as he says after, from Papias, the auditor of John the chamber-fellow of Polycarpus, an ancient man, who recorded it in writing.

Faverdentius's note upon this place is very notable. Hinc apparet (saith he), &c. From hence it appears, that Irenæus neither first invented this opinion, nor held it as proper to himself, but got this blot and blemish from certain fathers. Papias, I suppose, and some other inglorious fellows, the familiar friends of Irenæus, are here intended.

I hope then, if the fathers, which lived with the apostles, had their blots and blemishes, it is no such horrid crime for Calvin and the century writers to impute the same to their great-grandchildren. Etas parentum pejor avis progeniem fert

vitiosiorem. But yet these inglorious disciples of the apostles, though perhaps not so learned as Faverdentius, were yet certainly so honest, as not to invent lies, and deliver them as apostolic tradition. Or, if they were not, what confidence can we place in any other unwritten tradition?

Lastly, That Justin Martyr grounds it upon plain prophecies of the Old Testament, and express words of the New. He professeth, That he, and all other Christians, of a right belief in all things, believe it; joins them who believe it not, with them who deny the resurrection; or else says, that none denied this, but the same who denied the resurrection; and that indeed they were called Christians, but in deed and in truth were


Whosoever, I say, considers these things, will easily grant, that they held it not as their own opinion, but as the doctrine of the church, and the faith of Christians.

Hereupon I conclude, whatsoever they held, not as their private opinion, but as the faith of the church, that was the faith of the church of their time; but this doctrine they held, not as their private opinion, but as the faith of the church; ergo, it was and is to be esteemed the faith of the church.

Trypho. Do ye confess, that before ye expect the coming of Christ, this place Jerusalem shall be again restored, and that your people shall be congregated, and rejoice together with Christ, and the patriarchs, and the prophets? &c.

Justin Martyr. I have confessed to you before, that both I and many others do believe, as you well know, that this shall be; but that many

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