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to the conveyance, that “Cases had occurred of goods taking a longer time to pass from Liverpool to Manchester, than from America to Liverpool. Cotton had been delayed eighteen, twenty-two, and even twenty-four days. Timber sent to the Old River Company in December, 1824, had not been delivered on the 14th of March following. Corn had been obliged to be landed and warehoused, for want of means of forwarding it into the interior. The new Quay Company had seventeen flats : between June and December, 1824, each of those flats made eighteen trips,-a trip a-week, and one to divide amongst the seventeen. Thus a vessel required a week to make a trip from Liverpool to Manchester, unload its cargo, take in another, and find its way back again."

I have no particulars of the general state of our manufactories about this period,-say 1824; but a gradual increase took place, and in 1838, the number of factories was 4,217; and in 1856, 5,117: the umber of looms in 1856 was 369,205, and that of spindles, 33,503,580. The number of horses-power used at this time was estimated at 161,495. The average value of cotton goods and yarn exported in the three years, 1853, 1854, and 1855, was £31,000,000. Woollen and worsted goods and yarn, £10,000,000. At the early part of the 18th century, our import of raw cotton was about £2,000,000; but by the extraordinary inventions and improvements of the steam engine and other machinery, we required in 1856 about that amount every two days, our consumption being 43,269 bales a-week, or 2,250,000 bales a year. Necessity is the mother of invention. -Great Britain may well rejoice, if not all the world, that men have been providentially raised up in the mechanical trades adequate to the apparent insurmountable difficulties of our inland transit. I need not mention the names of George Stephenson and Timothy Hackworth, whose names will be handed

down to posterity for the establishing and bringing to a state of efficiency our present system of railways and locomotive engines,-the advantage of which is so well known, that it is almost needless to make any quotations; but by way of comparison to our old stage-coaches, waggons, and boats, I may state the following announcement which appeared in the Liverpool paper in 1757 :-"Warrington Flying Stage Coach sets out from the Red Lion Inn, Warrington, every Monday and Thursday morning, and arrives at the Bull Inn, in Wood street, London, every Wednesday and Saturday evening; and sets out from the Bull Inn, Wood street, London, every Monday and Thursday morning, and arrives at the Red Lion Inn, in Warrington, every Wednesday and Saturday evening. Each passenger to pay two guineas, one guinea as earnest, and the other guinea on taking coach; and every passenger to be allowed 14 lbs. of luggage; all above 14 lbs. to pay after three-pence a-pound. Outside passengers and chil. dren on safety to pay half-price. To be perforined if God permit, by Anthony Jackson and Henry Secrit.” It was also noticed in Williamson's Li. verpool Advertiser, April 15th, 1774, that_“The Manchester, Warrington, and Liverpool stage-coach began to run three times a-week on Monday, the 25th of April, 1774. It set out from the Spread Eagle, Salford, every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and returned from the Bull Inu, Dale street, Liverpool, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday." This coach started at seven in the morning, and the passengers dined at Warrington. Fare : inside, eight shillings; and only 14 lbs. of luggage allowed.

The “Edinburgh Courant" of 1754 advertised that the Edinburgh stage-coach, for the better accomodation of passengers, will be altered to a new genteel two-end glass coach machine, hung on steel springs, exceeding light and easy, to go to London in ten days in summer, and twelve in winter." The same distance is now performed by the locomotive in as many hours; and instead of leaving Salford for Liverpool at seven in the morning, and dining at Warrington in order to appease our hunger on the way, we can leave the same place at the same time, aul arrive at Liverpool in time for an early breakfast.

Things common, although absolutely necessary to our existence or well-being, are by the great majority little thought of, and apparently as little cared for; hence the absence of knowledge by so many of the magnitude of our railway system and engineering progress. In December, 1856 we had 8,708 miles of railway opened in the United Kingdom. In the six months previous to the 31st of December, there travelled on those rails 71,091,075 passengers; the total number of miles traversed amounted to 1021,784,747; there were also 17,487 holders of season tickets. Parcels conveyed, 4,546,021. Number of carriages, 27,602. Horses, 115,611, and of dogs, 164,429. There was also conveyed in the same time, 12,011,473 tons of general merchandise; and 21,801,482 tons of minerals, 1,050,622 head of cattle, 3,926,203 sheep, and 667,583 pigs.

There were 946,664 passenger trains; the number of miles traversed by which amount respectively to 21,523,329 and 18,582,138. The gross total receipts from all sources of traffic on the railways of the United Kingdom dunng the half-year was £12,383,741, viz: £5,648,255 (3,583 excess fares) from passengers of all classes; £438,579 from luggage, parcels, carriages, horses, and dogs; £3,897,574 from general merchandise; £934,475 for minerals; and £255,823 from live stock, cattle, sheep, and pigs; and I may further say that it is estimated that the mechanical trades have, through the intervention of steam, given us nearly 1} million horses' power on our railways alone, saying nothing of the immense number sent to various parts of the world.

In 1856 out of 125,000,000 human beings who were conveyed on our railways, only 8 were killed and 282 wounded by causes beyond their own control. Have we not cause to be thankful for so efficient and safe a conveyance?

Mr. Edward Corderoy states that as nearly as can be computed, the sum total of the Railways in Europe is as follows:

Mileage Projectod.

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COUNTRIES.

Population.
complete.

TOTAL
Gt. Britain & Ireland 27,500,000 9,171 3,600 12,771
France..
35,783,059 4,060

2,970 7,030 Germany

20,687,600 3,058 660 3,718 Austria

39,411,300 1,593 520 2,113 Prussia 16,112,948 2,338 90

2,428 Russia 62,000,000 675

2,063 2,738 Holland 3,433,372 275

275 Belgium

4,549,000 936 140 1,076 Denmark, &c.

2,550,000
165

165 Sweden and Norway 4,811,018

446 523 Switzerland

2,392,740

335 340 675 Spain

14,216,219

500 2,000 2,500 Portugal

3,487,025
32

32 Italy, including Sardinia

20,500,000 1,010 480 1,490 Turkey, Greece, &c. 15,875,300

1,000 1,000 TOTALS 273,309,581 24,225 | 14,309 38,534 ESTIMATE OF RAILWAYS IN THE WORLD.

203

COUNTRIES.

Population.

Mileage Projected. TOTAL

complete. Europe..

270,000,000 24,225 14,309 38,534 Asia 600,000,000 400

3,758 4,158 Africa

60,000,000 108 95 North America, with

Canada and West
Indies

40,000,000 28,000 5,000 33,000 South America 20,000,000 300 895 1,195 Australia & Oceania 20,000,000 114

412

526 TOTALS... 1,010,000,000 53, 147 | 24,469 | 77,616 If we take Mr. Robert Stephenson's estimate that gths of an engine per mile of railway is required for

working the same, the number of locomotive engines we sbould, and probably have

In Europe. 15,140

In the World 33,216 I may observe in reference to another very im. portant application of the steam-engine, viz the propulsion of vessels on water, which has completely revolutionised our former system of mercantile navigation, that in 1787, William Symington, Engineer, of Falkirk, a man of great practical attainments, employed and encouraged by Mr. Patrick Miller, of Dalswinton, fitted up a steam-engine with cylinders of brass 4 inches diameter, and fixed the same in a small pleasure-boat on Dalswinton lake; the first trial was a successful one, and for a number of weeks Miller and his numerous visitors were much delighted with it,-and from its performance, Mr. Miller had the satisfactory assurance of the correctness of his former ideas of the possibility of applying steampower to the propulsion of his vessels. On the approach of winter, the machinery was removed from the boat, and placed in the library of Mr. Miller, where it is still preserved by his family as a monument of the earliest instance of navigation by steam in Great Britain. The following year a larger boat of 60 feet long was built and tried on the Forth and Clyde canal; the engines were made at the Carron Iron-works; and in December, 1789, after some breakages, on account of the lightness of its timbers, and repairs having been made, on the 25th of the same month it was again put in motion, and made way at the rate of seven miles an hour, without accident; but on account of the machinery being too heavy for the vessel, Mr. Miller gave orders for the removal of the same.

In 1801 Symington was engaged by Lord Dundas of Kerse, to go through a series of experiments, the result of which was the building of a steam-boat, the engine of which had a cylinder of 22 inches

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