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mathematical studies to the young: they may or they may not be useful hereafter-this is not the end they were designed to answer if they have made him a man of thought. It is not to make them mathematicians that young men are taught mathematics; it is not to make them critics, historians, or poets that they are disciplined in the niceties of grammar, that they are instructed to make verbal distinctions, to learn a rule and to mark the exceptions to it. These studies are recommended and enforced, because we have found no better means than those provided by philology, logic, and mathematics, for that discipline of the mind which is the end and object of liberal education-for enabling it in all phenomena to recognise the idea, to state a question with clearness, and to argue upon it with perspicuity. We find these instincts at hand, and we comply with them, for none better have ever been devised, if our object be kept in view.

But at the same time the fact is forced upon our notice, that, under the circumstances of the age, there are subjects of the very first importance for the investigation of which is required a previous intellectual discipline of which our ancestors had no conception, and for which the arena is not prepared by philology or mathematics. An educated man must not in these days remain ignorant of those discoveries in the field of human knowledge which have rendered our age remarkable, and these can be only comprehended by a mind which has been disciplined by mechanical studies. These studies are required to educe those powers of the mind which will enable it hereafter to appreciate the intellectual wealth which lies within its reach. Hence the University of Cambridge for the degree of B.A. requires an examination in elementary mechanics not, on the principle already laid down, to make her students men of science, but to enable them to become 90. The principle is the same; the educing mental power as the end, certain exact instruction as the means. The object of our physician is not attained, if he direct the pedestrian occasionally to mount his horse.

A notion has sometimes prevailed that the primary object of a university is to act as the medium of a professed education, confining the word "professor” within much narrower limits than we are disposed to allow. That faculties relating to professional education have been established in all the universities of Europe, and that some of our universities have owed their celebrity to the professional schools established within them, and conducted by men of renown, is most true: nevertheless these professional schools have been the adjuncts of a university, and not the primary purpose of its institution. The principle, says Huber, has never been attacked that the university has its foundation in art. Never has a university, rightly constituted, permitted its members to advance to the higher departments of study, until they have first graduated in arts.

When we are called upon to reform a university, this is the first point upon which we insist; for not to insist upon this would be to give up the principle of a liberal education. Every student, by graduating in arts, gives proof that he has first received a liberal education-and then he is permitted to proceed to the higher departments of knowledge. There may be a university in which the higher departments of literature and science are uncultivated, and this is a very serious defect requiring reform; but still if the liberal education of its younger members be conducted with vigour, it has not forfeited the character of a miversity: but if this, the primary objeet of the institution, be lost sight of,—if professional degrees are granted without a previous graduation in philoBophy or arts,—then the retention of the title of a university will be a misnomer, until a reformation in this particular has taken place.


Universities, in the strict technical sense of the word, were the creation of the twelfth century. But although we cannot assign to them an earlier date than this as universities, still under the name of studia or gymnasia they had in reality a much earlier existence. All that was done in the twelfth century was to incorporate them. The word "universities being in common use to signify corporation, because a corporation implies the formation of one whole out of many individuals--this title was given to certain incorporated schools. And although for a long time & corporate town in Germany was spoken of as a universitas, the word gradually assumed its present signification, and is used to describe a certain class of educational institutions. The schools thus incorporated, even before their incorporation, possessed a curriculum of study which became known as the trivium and quadrivium. The trivium included grammar, logic, and rhetoric. The quadrivium, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. These were the seven arts in which men were required to graduate before proceeding to the higher departments of human learning. The extent of learning which was comprehended under these heads, must have varied in different ages. But here is the great principle which we have inherited. The instruments of mental exercise were the same then as now, - philology, mathematics, logic, and music.

It is very true that the science and the practice of music is no longer insisted upon, as one of the means of disciplining the mind at the universities. But you will observe that is the great instrument still retained in female education. It is through music that the female mind receives that education which the mind, as the mind, requires, distinct from any intrinsie value in the means employed, in order that it may be trained to exactness and vigour. In the upper and middle classes of society, musio is taught to the female members of the family as an almost universal practice; and this not for the purpose of making musicians, for although some may become such, there are many others who have no particular turn for wusic, and others again who in after life are seldom known to touch an instrument. The fact is indispatable, an acquaintance with music is almost indispensable in a governess; and in my opinion we can easily account for it. When first the female mind was educated, it was subjected to the same discipline as the mind of man. Queen Elizabeth, Lady Jane Grey, and other ladies of that age, were distinguished as scholars. They were subjected to the whole trivium and quadrivium. But it was soon found that, because the female mind is not subjected to that narrowing process which is attendant upon professional pursuits, it did not require the same amount of discipline as is requisite in the other sex. And so by degrees, while philology, logic, and mathematics were omitted in their course of mental discipline, music was retained as the form under which a liberal education is conducted, an education of which the first aim is to form habits of fixed attention, and which is met, if not satisfied, if even one subject be studied in its depth and fulness. Having seen now what the fundamental principle and primary object of academical culture is, I proceed to point out how the universities became, in the natural course of events, a seat of learning. Where books were few, a public library was even more valuable than at the present time, when for books of reference it is still of inappreciable value to learned nen. Libraries were, of course, soon established in the universities; and the university became the abode of men of literature and science. At the first establishment of the university, every master of arts was obliged to repay the expense of his edueation, in part, by himself becoming a teacher, or, 3 we now express it, a tutor. But when men of qarofessional eminence were fixed in the university, the graduates in arts perceived that they had themselves much to learn, especially in what related to the profession they were about to adopt. Men learned in the professions, therefore, opened their schools in the different departments of human knowledge, and became professors. They were a class of instructors superior to those whom the trivium and quadrivium required; who carried on their pupils to the higher departments of literature and science, and instructed them in the details and intricacies of professional study.


By comparing this brief historical account with the assertion I have quoted, that the university has its foundation in arts, you will at once perceive that I have no intention whatever of depreciating the professional system, which to render an academical institution perfect, must be combined with the tutorial. If we admit that the professors and their schools (the faculties as they are technically termed), are the branches, and branches on which the fruit is to be found, we do not depreciate the branches by not confounding them with the stem; neither do we unduly value the stem when we state that, withont the stem, the branches would not be so productive of fruit. From the altered state of society, the university will never become again the great school for professional education which it at one time was. The medical man will seek his professional education in the hospitals of a large town, the lawyer in the inns of court, the clergyman in his parish, the merchant in his counting-house.

But while the northern universities are engaged in giving new life to the trivium and quadrivium, the English universities are adopting measures for the revival of that professional system which the Scottish universities have never set aside. You ask for tutors—we for professors; and when we are provided with tutors and professors, all will be right, and the standard of academical culture will be

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