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are obliged to pursue their scientific studies too much in independence of one another, without sufficient opportunities of conference and comparison, and without the stimulus, incitement, and encouragement which result from mutual counsel and intercourse. In that great, important, and enlightened manufacturing town in which I have the happiness to reside, there has lately been an exhibition of our chief articles of manufacture—and we have among us nearly a hundred different trades). Now, it was only on Tuesday last that a working man observed to me, that these exhibitions while on the one hand they offer a stimulus to invention, on the other sava a great waste of thought, for a man on visiting such an exhibition, very often finds, to his surprise
, some invention, some improvement in machinery completed, for the fabrication of which he has för months been devoting his spare moments of thought. He sees that thought in this direction is no longer required, and directs his energies into another channel. An exhibition of their mental treasures by scientific men would not only save time, but would lead to what is admirably accomplished in detail, but not as a whole-to method and order, principle and system, developement and arrangement.
How much has been effected in this respect by the British Association, all who have paid any attention to the proceedings of that valuable and learned body must be aware: and how much more will be effected if we raise our academical standard, and make our universities the homes of literature and science, it is not difficult to predict. Another reason why science itself will be benefited by its residence in the university, is this—that there it will find theology recognised as one of the sciences. Religion is not merely a sentiment; Christianity is not merely a purification of what we have in common with the Mahometan and Hindoo.
It is also a
will be an advantage to science, and an eternal
darnage both theology and science. Each science induce scientific men, as Bacon says, to study the book of God's word as well as the book of His works. research, that the reproach to which we have refened as brought against science in the modern tingtiished by their respect for truth revealed as for Bacon, and Newton, the Rev. Doctor proceededtific men of eminence have been sceptics or infidels, These examples are sufficient to show that if scient was not their scientific pursuits that made them Bible, and as he digs into nature to seek for scientific truth, to search the Scriptures for religious truth,
science, and requires scientific treatment. If there be meat for babes, there is also strong meat for men. We cannot but think that the charge, only very partially correct, which is sometimes brought against science, that its tendencies are to scepticism and infidelity, is to be traced to a very great extent to the fact that
, of late years, theology has been excluded froun the range of sciences, and be presented as something with which scientific men have no concem. Let it not be supposed that we desire to make science theological, that we are to ulike pursue its course independently, with perfect freedom frora all control, looking simply to its own ead
. We do not desire the professors of astronomy of geology, or chemistry, to theologise; they are skere to get into difficulties if they do. We do not mosquire the professor of divinity to make the Bible a book of natural philosophy; but we do desire to It was because theology was regarded as a science; and as such made an object of investigation and tines
, was never even hinted against the fathers of events in past ages. They were as much dis
sluding to the cases of Columbus, Copernicus, 80. Anything which shall induce a man when reading the stars, at the same time to study his
blessing to scientific men. Raise, then, your standard of academical culture, and recall science to the universities; and the various sciences, while each pursuing its own course independently and unfettered, will at least show respect, as in times of old, to what in old times was called the Art of Arts and the Science of Sciences.
The Rev. Doctor went on to describe the benefits which might be derived by such institutions as the present from a high standard of academic culture, and to remark that our education, in the proper sense of the word, never ceases, and is applicable to eternity as well as to time. He concluded with a hope that the labours may be blessed of those who, in England and Scotland, are endeavouring to raise the standard of academical education. Let us, he said, endeavour to improve and enlarge the sources of instruction—the fountain head; and if we succeed, the waters will flow forth, not only to irrigate the ground immediately beside them, but to "feed cleanse the cities of the earth, to move the wheels of literature, and to deepen the main sea of the world's knowledge."
My heart leaps up when I behold
A rainbow in the sky :
Or let me die !
THE WONDERS OF THE OCEAN.
THE DEAN OF CARLISLE. .
From whatever point of view we look upon the Inighty ocean,—whether we gaze upon it on a summer's day, calm and peaceful and "shining glorious, like a silver shield," or in a storm, when its waves are lashed into fury, and rush upon the beach till we are deafened by its roar,—we are equally filled with wonder and delight. But I am not about to speak to you of the poetry, or painting, or beauty of the ocean, or of its wondrous bosom bearing the commerce of the world, or of the fauna and flora of its depths. My aim is to give you a philosophical view of this grand object of contemplation, with which my own mind has been imbued by “Maury's Physical Geography of the Sea.”
Lieutenant Maury, of the American Navy, has been for many years in charge of the National Observatory of New York; and his book is the result of many millions of practical observations and experiments in every quarter of the globe. The American Government furnish its Merchant Navy with a log-book, which is carefully filled by the more intelligent captains, and the results of their observations and experiments are communicated to Lieutenant Maury. These relate to the ocean in all its physical features: its surface, its depths, its currents, its temperature, its saltness, its calms, its storms, its evaporation, its precipitation, its radiation; the inland seas, connected or unconnected with it, how it affects climates and the productions of the earth. From the great difficulties experienced in sounding the ocean, we were unable for many years to ascertain its depth. One English captain believed he had sounded to the depth of ten miles without reaching the bottom; but when the truth came to be known, it was found that the line had been carried to that immense distance by the currents. This great difficulty, however, has been overcome by the very simple invention of a midshipman in the American service : such inventions are all simple when discovered. A cannon ball of 60lb weight is let over the ship's side, dragging after it a line and tackle, so attached that the moment the ball touches the bottom, the line and tackle are released and float to the surface. [The Dean illustrated this part of his subject with great success, by a model of the invention.]
I must confine my remarks upon the ocean almost exclusively to that of the Atlantic, as it contains some features of a more wondrous character than almost any other portion of the sea. First, with regard to the great Gulf Stream. The object of this wonderful current is to fertilise the whole western region of Europe, and make it fit for the habitation of man. Lieutenant Maury describes it as a great river in the ocean. In the severest droughts it never fails; in the mightiest floods it never overflows. It is surrounded on all sides by cold water, while the stream itself is hot. There is not in the world such a magnificent flow of waters; its current is more rapid than the Mississippi or the Amazon, and its volume more than a thousand times greater. So well is this stream defined, that one half a vessel may be seen on it, and the other half on the sea; “so sharp is the line, and such the want of affinity