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stear to Newfoundland, and take the Gulf Stream in its weakest part, and accomplish the voyage in less than half the time they used to do. A short time ago an American steamer was overtaken in a violent storm in the Atlantic; she was seen in a very disabled condition by another vessel which could not rendar her any assistance, but which sailed to New York
, and reported to the harbour master the longitale and latitude where they last saw her. Maury set to work, made his calculations, sent out two ships with full directions, and they found the steamer witin ten miles of where he said they would. A sailing match took place in 1854 with four clipper ships from New York to California, a voyage of 15,000 miles; they never saw land from the time they left New York till they dropped anchor in Francisco Bay. What a triumph of science is this, that a little band of men shall travel 15,000 miles, seeing nothing but the ocean and the sky above their heads, with the sun and moon and stars! But how much greater a triumph is it, when by following the directions given to them on a chart by Maury, they made this voyage in about 92 days; one of them made it in 92 days, the second in 93 days,-inagine this, only a day and a half difference! The
owing to a mishap he met with, was ten days longer. While the fourth, who departed from his directions got into the Doldrums, or calms (a Tery appropriate word by the way), and was 25 days
Is not this a great benefit to us who have friends abroad
, and who is there among us who has not a brother or some old schoolfellow in India, or some other foreign land? Is it not a benefit' to get a latter every month instead of every six months ? 1, who have four sons abroad, feel that it is such indeed. Are they not borne to us on the wings of tas wind? These investigations to my mind have bisera most charming; and I am sure, so far from
making atheists and irreligionists, are drawing back the minds of the people to the greatness and love of that God who on the one hand points to the works of His creation, and on the other to the word of His revelation. May we read them both in meekness and love!
BY EDWARD HULL, ESQ.,
OP THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GREAT BRITAIN.
[Abstract of a Lecture delivered in the Public Hall, Wigan.]
MR. HULL said his subject was—"Glaciers, and their effects in ancient and modern times;" and having asked his hearers to accompany him to the mountainous district of Switzerland, he described the celebrated “Mer de Glace," one of the most remarkable glaciers in the world. The lecturer alluded to the theories that had been propagated with regard to the motion of these vast fields or rivers of ice, stating that the general one received was that the glaciers were the outlets of the great quantities of snow and ice which fell in the higher latitudes. From indications found in different parts of the world, geologists had come to the conclusion, that at a former period of the world's existence, the present valleys and flat portions of the globe, were entirely submerged, nothing but the tops of the mountains being visible. Upon this, he remarked that the physical condition of sea and land were such as prevailed at the latest geological period, immediately preceding the creation of man. Wo can well imagine how unsuitable to his consitution, and unfavourable to his moral advancement, would hare been the state of the earth's surface, had he lived in a period of such general desolation. Over the greater portion of the world, his sphere of action would have been confined to scattered groups of islands, a sort of terrestrial Polynesia, whose precipituus flanks presented little but naked rock, or a dreary waste of snow combined with ice. Instead of the waters of the Atlantic Ocean serving, as it does now, as a highway for commerce and civilisation -the unhappy human being would have gazed over an expanse of ocean, whose only ships were those of ice, freighted with large blocks of rock, and whose chilling influences were being carried into more southerly latitudes. Nor did this state of things exist alone in the northern hemisphere. There is evidence to show that in the temperate zone of the southern hemisphere a similar lowering of the temperature and a like subsidence of the land prevailed --for glacial deposits are spread over the plains of Patagonia. Animals, such as the fossil elephant and rhinoceros, were furnished with woolly coats as an additional protection; and the few plants which survived, were those now living in the Arctic regions, and on our mountain tops. The earth was not yet fitted for the abode of intelligent creatures, but in due course a change took place. The frost-bound regions were emancipated, the low lands of Britain, Europe, and America, gradually rose from the deep. The perennial snows melted away, except from the tops of the highest mountain ranges, and a period Comenced, marked by the migration of the Irish elk, during which, the configuration of land and sea, with their
accompanying conditions of climate, appear to have been introduced. The history of man appears to have begun where that of the Irish elk finishes ; but that is all geology tells us on a point 80 unspeakably interesting. Where science fails us, the narrative of Scripture comes to our assistance ; and we may add, is so full, that little remains to be desired, except what might gratify curiosity. In observing the climatic and terrestrial changes which preceded the production of man, we can hardly fail to observe another of those innumerable instances of all-wise adaptation and arrangement which meet the inquirer on every side; and thus the Book of Nature combines with the Book of Revelation in proclaiming—"That God saw everything that He had made; and behold, it was very good."
THESE tiny loiterers on the barley's beard,
AS AN ELEMENT OF INDUSTRY.
THOMAS BAZLEY, Esq., M.P.
[Delivered before the Society of Arts, London, in connection with the
Exhibition of 1851;
THOUGH I am presuming to offer a lecture upon the industry in which I am interested and engaged, I feel that I shall require both for myself and my subject the indulgence of my audience. Permit me, therefore, to crave that kind attention which I believe is never withheld on any such occasion as the prosent, and to remark in extenuation of many omissions, which will be apparent, that I have left in the wide field in which I have gleaned, materials for numerous lectures upon every section and department of the cotton trade; having selected only the most graphic facts for your consideration, my practical purpose being to bring prominently before you—"Cotton as an element of Industry; its confized Supply, and its extending Consumption from increasing and improving Agencies."
By the Great Exhibition of 1851, an epoch has been attained whence may be surveyed the difficulties attending the first progress of inventions, the application of art and science to the developing