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ELEMENT OF INDUSTRY.
without it; for, besides imparting the form of the
pattern to be produced, it impresses to the extent of
eight colours at the same moment of time, and by
will hereafter be simultaneously communicated.

cotton. Bed and table covers are produced more on sa

further clever mechanical combinations twelve colours Lace manufacturers and hosiers increase and improve their productions. They have secured the services of the jacquard; and into their fabrics they throw Leedle, adding their skill and industry to the useful figures approaching the perfect embroidery of the minister to the common augmentation of the trade in

and embellishing stores of life; and they, therefore, tensively, and of increasing merit and beauty. Fustians, bankeens, gingliams, and every class of the useful in the manufacture of cotton, all tend to increase in production, and to afford to the consumer manufacturer and his workpeople steady remuneration. increased comforts at diminished cost, and to the inspector, affords ample evidence. In confirmation of the extension of the trade in cotton, the last report of Leonard Horner, Esq., factory

He states “that the profits of factories continue, on the average of years, to be attractively remunerative, the following facts of the investment of fresh capital in them abandantly prove. In the year ending the 31st of October last, no less than 81 new factories have been the preceding year, in my district, of an aggregate

Work, having been begun to be built in with 2,064 horse power, are cotton mills. In addition power of 2,240 horses. Of these, seventy-three, to these, in thirty-one long-established cotton mills, the proprietors of which are men of thorough knowledge and long engine power has been set up to the extent of 1,477

experience in the trade, additional korses. The 3,717 horses' power will give employwent to probably no less than 14,000 additional hands. new conceras, I may mention, that one of the cotton

idea of the magnitude of some of these

built or set to

To give

mills is 410 feet long, 76 wide, has six storeys, a power of 150 horses, and will run 126,000 spindies." Mr. Horner's statement, therefore, is corroborative of the extension and improvement visible in the cottou trade.

Such are the accumulations of skill and labour; and if there be a logical deduction which can fairly be extracted from the foregoing premises, it is the welcome fact that ingenious inventions, scientific discoveries, and valuable machines, have been, in the cotton trade, creative of, and not destructive of, human labour! But above all, these elements have been creative of human comforts, which now exist to an extent previously unknown! Such, then, are the results of industry. And such, therefore, are the increasing and improving agencies which make the exotic product of cotton the foundation of the most extraordinary trade of this country and of the civilised world.

Having rapidly reviewed the past and present position of the cotton trade, its future existence may engage our anxious solicitude. As a raw material, cotton has been proved to be an important element of national industry, of confined supply, of increasing consumption, and dangerously limited to chiefly one source whence it is obtained. Whether this confined supply shall be perpetuated, the direction given to the colonial possessions of this country will determine. Not that the governing authorities should become cotton growers or cultivators of the soil, but obstacles should be removed, just laws impartially and unannoyingly administered, land afforded and secured on easy terms, and unshackled freedom given for the exercise of the industry and energy of the emigrant, who ought to feel his interest identified with pursuits in British colonies rather than in foreign countries. A judicious government will promote, by its fair and equitable administration, the natural development of the

interest may dictate.

terprise the production of cotton or corn as self

treasures of its territory, leaving to individual en

That Great Britain has ceased to possess exclusive knowledge and skill in the art of manufacturing cotton, as in other branches of industry, is a fact established by the comparison with the manufactured products of all other countries in the Great Exhibition of last year; and that the great cotton-growing country, the United States, has become a great manufacturing country, is not the least alarming symptom. Hence, with the present ad litional difficulties arising from increased compecontined supply of cotton, may be anticipated the tition. The contemplation of these difficulties may maintain and increase the industrial celebrity of be of signal benefit to those especially who desire to Great Britain ; for with the knowledge of approximating and rival skill, the exercise of a cool and fecting mechanical agents, of increased intelligence

suber judgment will prompt the necessity of permaster manufacturers of a complete theoretical and and attention in the workmen, and on the part of practical acquaintance with the principles on which sound manufacturing operations are founded, together with the most economical and best engineering ustangements for conducting with success the large concerns embarked in manufactures.

With raw material abundantly supplied—with mechanical and moral progress-with intelligence, skill, industry, and probity, combined, and these high qualifications discreetly directed in our sea-girt land, free and unsettered, ages yet to come may witness the growing historian of honest labour's dignity; and the future achieved than was "dreamt of in our philosophy," record that even

more has been unexplored fields for science, art, and Subdue, for the benefit of the human Ramining the department in the Exhi1851, in which were displayed the

may still leaving industry to

rze! On bition of

[graphic]

contributions illustrative of the cotton manufacturing proficiency of Great Britain and of the world at large, it was evident that high merit and skill have been attained by every country from which specimens appeared. It was most remarkable that the general features of all the contributions, except those from the East, seemed to have a common origin; and the various productions might, from the absence of any very striking nationalities, have been taken from the stores of some great warehouse which had been filled from the same locality. Samples of raw cotton were exhibited, among which, as usual, the United States took the highest, and the British East Indies the lowest rank. Perhaps, in the whole Exhibition, no machines for productive purposes were shown to possess greater intrinsic merit than those sent to illustrate the spinning and manufacturing operations ordinarily performed in cotton mills. Cotton machinery was most extensively contributed by British makers, and of very superior and improved construction. To some extent, in anticipation of the rival display then about to be made, the machinemakers stimulated improvements; and in all their contributions they evinced great practical skill and perfection; and it may be safely asserted that no existing manufacturing concern contains at the present time a combination and concentration of all the ingenious mechanical applications, with their highly-finished workmanship, as there displayed. The cleaning, carding, drawing, roving, and spinning machines were generally of a very superior class, and the self-acting mules in particular were very excellent. In the construction of the power-loom, with its recent appliances, great and economical progress was most evident; and the extending nisefulness of the jacquard, as now connected with every class of loom, is exceedingly gratifying. The impulse given to the development

of improvement, in connection with the cotton trade, may truly be

stated to be most advantageous, machine makers

in ring, in the first place, from a desire to display Dachinery of the most perfect and improved construction, been induced to exert themselves to send contributions altogether of a higher order than had ordinarily been previously produced; and, Second place, rivals being ignorant of their competitors' recent improvements and workmanship, the results of the combination of these improvements could only be subsequently known; but they will be lastingly beneficial. New principles were scarcely to be expected; but in the finer department of cotton spinning an important improvement will be effected from the combing of fine cotton, instead of carding it, as formerly, and a method for accomplishing which was then exposed to public view. This combing principle did not originate with the Exhibition, but iis accelerated application has resulted from it, and more perieet lace and finer muslin will hereafter be a most valuable acquisition it may be regarded, as produced by its aid. Of machine-makers, it may be nical elements used in one branch of industry to

are continually applying mecha, as the combing machine, hitherto confined to sheep's wool, may be hereafter applied to cotton; 23 sme parts of cotton machines are already used apothecaries make new medicines by pouring out of

are accused of making new books as

,—so do machinists, by new arran

new characters and uses to mechanical that if the space for invention be diminished, there

same common origin: hence we infer,

a vast extension of new and useful foreign construction also appeared in the Exhibition, greatly promoted. Some very excellent machines of

and which the Exhibition will havo the practical value which characterised Contributions.

Ovserved, that they

another,

and as authors

one into

anothers gements, give agents of the

atill may be eombinations,

but not of the British

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