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designs, the foreign goods generally were regarded as most attractive, though of the improving and sound position of the British print trade there can be no question. As specimens, however, of personal skill in manipulation, Europe and America do not afford the proof of superiority which the East Indies have established in spinning and weaving cotton, when the means of the former are compared with those of the latter. For pictorial effect, from arrangement of colours, nothing can exceed the beauty of the textile manufactures of the East; and in the yar spun by hand there, a quality is produced which, by the aid of machinery, from the inferior cotton Zsed, would be impossible; but the filmy muslin of esquisite delicacy remains the triumph of manufacturing art. The domestic fabrics of the East are all excellent and useful, but to its muslin must be given praise which neither the manufacturers of Lyons nor Glasgow can so deservedly aspire to. Actual investigation proves that India has long produced a fineness of fabric which has only of late years been approached in France and in Scotland ; but in Tarare and in Glasgow there has certainly been mannfactured, from English spun yarn, muslin exceeding in fineness and delicacy all that the magical hand of the Hindoo has wrought. No yarn finer than No. 350, or, at the very utmost, than 400, has been spun and woven in the East; but England
spun beyond No. 600 for useful application, and up to No. 2,000 experimentally. My friend, Mr. Henry Houldsworth, has ascertained that there are only four fibres of cotton in the thickness of a single thread of No. 2,000, and that a single grain in weight of these fibres would extend in length to 960 yards. Errors having appeared in the Exhibition Catalogue (Class XI. "Cotton,'') which might mislead parties not acquainted with the fineness of cotton yarn, this opportunity of correcting them may perhaps be allowed. It is stated that muslin was exhibited
made from No. 5,408, instead of from only No. 540, and that some yarn was showr weighing one grain for twenty yards, and described as very fine, though yarn was there of 240 yards for one grain; and, again, some yarn, one pound of which would extend to 167 miles, being equal to No. 350, is stated to be too fine to be woven, yet muslin made from No. 540 was there to be seen. Nettingham has produced most beautiful lace from No. 600; and in Tarare and Glasgow was made from No. 540 the most exquisite muslin ever produced. Recently very fine English spun cotton yarns have been exported to the East Indies, and now a trade from the produce of the combined skill of the most perfect machinery, and the extraordinary art of the Hindoo weaver, may be expected. Very beautiful mixed goods from Bradford were displayed, and some exquisitely fine cotton and worsted merinoes deserved especial attention. To criticise the various contributions in the Exhibition from the industry of the world, would require time beyond the limits of many lectures, and therefore, to those thirsting for more information upon this subject, the reports of juries, and the catalogues of the Exhibition, may be referred to.
With the teachings and advantages afforded by the late Exhibition, the cotton, as well as every textile and other industry, must proceed in the onward career of improvement. A stationary position will be impossible ; retrogression would be ruin; and, therefore, every rational incentive to honourable and useful progress should be extended to those engaged in the pursuits of honest industry. Constituted by physical resources to furnish the moving power of manufacturing greatness, having the sea for our highway approaches, harbours for shelter, rivers for communication, stores of fuel for locomotion and every want, and minerals in abundance, and intelligent labour with practical and scientific direction associated to render these valuable gifts and endowments productive for the nation's benefit; this country will, with the blessing of Providence and wise governing counsels, remain a bulwark of labour's distinguished progress.
The labour of the increasing numbers of the people of this country forms one of the extraordinary raw materials that employment must be provided for; and whether it shall continue to be exerted upon cotton, posterity may know, but we cannot; though in our age and generation we may resolve at least to promulgate sound economical principles, and strive, in providing for the exigencies of our own time, to leave behind us the heir-loom of a national estate anencumbered with impediments to industry, the present and future source of wealth and comfort. It may be well to advert to the vast extension of trade and commerce which may be effected by moral as well as mechanical advancement. If the labouring classes of the United Kingdom were well educated, their superior attainments would be alike more profitable to their employers by increased skill, and a Dearer approximation to perfection; and to themselves, not only in augmented rewards, but in the knowledge that would promote their general comfort and each other's welfare; for could every Worker be well clothed, dwell in abodes furnished with manufactured products, and all requisites for rendering the home fireside attractive, there would arise a universal demand for the results of labour beyond all precedent. If there be no higher motive for removing the lamentable ignorance which pervades many of the labouring classes amongst us, why does not even the censurable cupidity of the age remove the stigma?
In concluding my limited observations upon cotton as an element of industry, I cannot withhold the expression of my gratitude to his Royal Highness Prince Albert for having become the champion of dt, manufactures, and of progress, and for the