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Orphans, at an expense of nearly £400,000. The principal building is after the design of a Greek temple, and is the most imposing and costly edifice in the United States, excepting only the Capitol of Washington. Having spoken of the existence of more than forty institutions of a benevolent character, it will not be necessary to define the particular purposes of each; those which we saw were on a large scale, and well conducted. It is deserving of honourable record to notice the readiness with which the wealthy classes come forward, when called upon, for any public object. We heard of the proposed enlargement of an asylum, at the cost of £50,000, and the subscriptions soon amonnted to nearly £60,000. In another instance which also occurred during our visit, an enlargement of a public park was proposed, the money was very speedily raised; and two brothers, whose names deserve to be mentioned the Messrs. Cope-subscribed £2,000 each.


Throughout the political history of the United States there abounds one universal expression, enjoining, as the bounden duty of the republic

, the training and education of the youth, not alone for material and spiritual advantages, but also to enable the rising population to wield with effect the representative power which has been vested in their hands. This duty has not been taken up by the federal government, but has been undertaken by each and every one of the individual states, and has been prosecuted at an unsparing expense. As an instance of the operation of the system, we will take the example of New York. The city is formed into wards, each of the wards elects it own board of officers, and the officers so electeu fod at ind of education, which is invested with ! new schools, and conduct every opera tion to schooling within the city. In th.




schools was

every elector has, once a year, the opportunity afforded him of selecting from amongst the candidates offering, that individual whoin he is most willing to trust with the education of his own children, and with permission to lay a tax upon himself for the amount required for payment. According to the census of 1855, the population of New York was 629,810. The number of public schools in 1856 was 253, the teachers emploved were 1,200, the number of scholars in attendance at these schools was 47,584, and the expenditure of the year was £220,000. schools are open to those of every grade in life, to receive any amount of education they may desire ; and in the High School, or Free Academy, they may remain to the age of twenty-one. One of the principals assured me that education in the public

adopted with the same freedom by the rich as by the poor ; that the sons of the labouring hod-carrier and those of the highest citizens were frequently found side by side in the same class; and that the delicacy of habits prevailing among the sors of the wealthy did not degenerate into gross demeanour by such contact, but, on the contrary, the smus of the working-class were but too glad to avail themselves of the examples of the more refined, as a means in their opinion whereby to promote their Owl advancement in life. It has been found that the characteristic gentleness of female teachers is very important in the influence they exercise upon children; and as there is also an important econoany of wages in the employment of females, they in every part of the Union. At the Normal Training

very extensively engaged in school teaching School of the Board of New York, the attendance was reported to us from six to seven hundred female teachers. To schooling of Philadelphia is of the Sane charari as that of New York, excepting

is conducted at less expense, as the


only that


The most important looking edifice is the Mechanics' Institute, 355 feet long and 60 feet wide; the principal hall holds 6000 persons. Baltimore is largely engaged in the export of grain and flour. It is the natural outlet for a large region of country which is principally under cultivation. Flour mills are numerous, and in one of them we saw a very systematic and economic arrangement for grinding and preparing the flour. There are also several large manufactories of agricultural implements. The proprietor of one of these (not the largest) showed us through his works. The extent of his trade may be estimated by his annual business-returns, one item of which consisted of 5,000 ploughs, besides 4 corresponding extent of other implements, tools, and machinery, from the thrashing machine to the churn and wheelbarrow. Timber for these purposes is cheap, and may be had at 1s. per cubic foot. The ploughs and other implements are not constructed of iron as in this country, but are mostly made of wood, and the several parts are wrought into the required shape by machinery. A large tree would be sawa into all the various parts necessary for the construction of ploughs. These parts are carried through the operations of planing, grooving, morticing, and shamfering of the edges. Each of these several parts being uniform in shape and character, can be laid aside, warehoused, and afterwards brought together, fitted up, painted, and sent away in execution of large orders.


This city is not only the seat of government, but the great centre of political existence in the United States. Our visit occurred just on the expiration of the official term of President Pearce, and before the inauguration of Mr. Buchanan, at a time when the legislators, the planters, merchants, and other active spirits of the country were present, attended in many marble, standing


instances by the female branches of their families. The opportunity was thus afforded for enjoying the most acceptable range of intercourse, and for forming an estimate of the social, civil, and political aspect of this metropolis of the States. Previous to the year 1790, Congress had been accustomed to assemble at Philadelphia. At the suggestion of General Washington, a territory was purposely created of one hundred square

miles in extent, and was ceded to the nation from the domains of Maryland and Virginia

, as the future seat of government. The design of the city was executed under the direction of Washington himself: the streets appear unnecessarily wide-they radiate from two central points, and take their names from the various states of the Union. The “Capitol” or Houses of Parliament, is an immense mass of building, composed of white

on an eminence about one hundred feet above the level of the River Potomac, and, when the enlargement now in progress has been completed, the entire edifice will cover four acres of ground, and will appear by far the most magnificent public building in the United States. In the centre is the Rotunda, of ninety-six feet diameter, and in the panels which surround the basement storey, there are four bas-relievos of historical subjects of great interest to that country, such as Penn's Treaty with the Indians; the Landing of the Pilgrims, &c. &c. There are several other public buildings of large dimensions, which are noble specimens of architecture, such as the Treasury, the Patent Office, the Post Office, and the “ White House' of the Presi. dent

. The public monuments of General Washington and of Jefferson, are interesting objects; and the Observatory also, which is in charge of Lieutenant Matry, the well-known author of a work of great merit on the “Currents of the Ocean.” The Smithsonian Institution is a modern building, very Capacious, ornamented with towers in the Romanesque


style of architecture. This institution owes its existence to an English gentleman, who, having led a life of retired and studious habits, left a large sum of money to be expended at Washington, for the founding under his own name of an "Establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.” The professors and those who have charge of it, are making rapid progress in carrying out this enlightened design, and the world at large has already derived a beneficial influence by the diffusion of publications containing scientific knowledge, which have been annually distributed amongst the various literary institutions of every country Copies of these publications are regularly received at two of the public libraries of Manchester. One of the subjects of leading interest with the executive council has been the collection of portraits of Indian Chiefs and others of celebrity of that race who are now fast disappearing from the country. They have a gallery of about a hundred portraits. Many of the characters appear strongly marked by nature

, and bear the indications of a rude, thoughtful kind of intelligence, but miserably defaced by the decoration, as they conceived, of tatooing. The architecture of the Patent Office is after the celebrated Pantheon. The object of the building is to afford the necessary accomodation for patented inventions. Model representations are exhibited in great numbers there are some specimens of natural history &c., but amongst the most curious and interesting portion of the articles we saw exhibited, was the original manuscript declaration of Independence, with all the signatures attached, and the printing press at which Franklin was employed at the time of his first residence in London

The associations of Washington are suggestive of another, a widely different and more important study, than that of the outward display of city architecture, Taking a comprehensive survey of the successful

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