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"Oh, we had that little shoulder.” “O!” said he, " yes, and what did we have for dinner to day ?'' “ The shoulder cold.” “0, so we did, and what shall we have for dinner to-morrow?" "Broth," said Buttons.” “Good,” said Marvel, “you may go down." Then he said to the Treasurer, “ Marvel's dinners are provided, you see; Marvel wants not your money.”

Now a man cannot do one thing like that without doing many things like that. The thousand pounds went back to the dirty source from whence it came, and Marvel was none the worse for sending it. This man maintained his position in the senate for twenty years. Bye-and-bye his enemies began to thicken and multiply. You cannot have a sharp pen without having many enemies. He was waylaid more than once, (but it never put him out, he said)

, until at last going down to Hull at one time to make a speech to his constituents, he died very suddenly, and it was said he died by poison. It is impossible to prove it at this distant period; but it is very likely. You know there is no pleasure in a man's dying in a natural way; so it is written down feat Marvel was poisoned. 'He died in the fiftyeighth year of his age, on the 16th November, 1678, " beloved by good men, feared by bad, admired by all

, imitated by few.” What nobler epitaph can a man have

, and I especially note to you one beautiful Clause? "feared by bad men."

In these days there is such a desire for being feared by no man. Marvel was the terror of England. When he dipped his pen in the ink, he was the terror of all corrupt people

. His whip was one of the sharpest, and his

was always laid on in admirable fashion. Some of you may remember that of all men I like him whose writings are satirical

, and Marvel's “ king's" speech is one of the finest things for satire I ever saw. Some people doubt whether it is right to be satirical. Now I would say, never doubt whether it is right to be satirical, as long as there are any

vermin in the world. I am certain that almost any instrument is lawful against them. If a thing be an imposture, you lash it as hard and as fast as you can. Satire is abominable only when it is directed against anything that is weak or gentle. Marvel wrote several poems. Some of them are beautiful enough; and they show a rather extensive knowledge of the classic languages, and a rare culture. Nature had bestowed upon this man some of her most admirable gifts, and cultivation had done everything that was possible to perfect him. He began life a poor man, and he died a poor man. So long as there are left in this nation just ten righteous men, enough to save us, so long will Andrew Marvel's name be remembered among us. I have no intention of giving any seasonable lessons upon elections; but it is a strange thing how a man will spend thousands of pounds to get an honour that men at that time used to run away from. Any man with no moral qualification whatever, but possessed of wealth, is returned with enthusiasm by free, enlightened, and independent electors. They have nothing but a big purse, and that is enough for this generation. Marvel's letters to his constituents are admirable; they are written by a faithful pains-taking man, and contain an account of all that went on in the House of Commons. They are somo of the greatest curiosities in England ; therefore, when

any you want to get yourselves up to electioneering pitch, let me recommend to you these letters of Marvel's to his constituents. You may meet with a coarse word now and then, but if you have nothing bad in you, you will not find much there. I have a perfect veneration for this incorruptible Englishman. I can only lament that he has very few successors. If


wish such men to be more common, the best way is to create a demand, and you will have them.





E. W. BINNEY, ESQ., F.R.S., F.G.S.,


[The author of this practical and able lecture on Mining Lamps and Explosive Gases, is well known throughout the

scienti. fic world as an eminent geologist and mineralogist. We feel mach indebted to Mr. Binney for the permission to publish his original and valuable lecture, which we hope will be circulated as widely as possible by colliery owners, and other persons who are interested in the safe working of our extensire and inestimable coal mines. It is a hopeful sign that a College of Practical Mining is about to be esta. blished at Newcastle-on-Tyne, under the auspices of the North of England Institute of Mining Engineers, and with the general support of the coal owners of Northumberland and Durham. Such an institution must prove a national blessing, by its promotion of skill and economy in the getting ví coal, and the security of life and property. The Duke of Northumberland, who is patron of the College, has promised £10,000 as soon as £30,000 have been raised for its


As I have on several occasions publicly advocated the desirability of plain lectures being delivered to the officers of collieries, and working colliers, on the origin and properties of fire damp, and the construction of mining lamps; and finding that no one has been induced to take up the subject, I am led to do it myself, although I am well aware that

I am by no means fitted for the task I have undertaken. Some Tears since the late Mr. Francis Looney, F.G.S., a gentleman well known for the interest he took in the

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education of the working classes, having been provided with mining lamps by the Manchester Geological Society, went round at his own expense and delivered lectures to the colliers of the different districts in Lancashire. Mr. Looney having presented these lamps to me, I feel in some measure bound to follow his example, and revive the subject until the useful nature of it is better known, and abler lecturers are induced to take the matter up.

Coal is a substance well known to most people; and it is hard to believe that disputes should have arisen, and thousands of pounds been spent in order to determine whether a body was or was not coal

. Yet this has taken place in our day. If a man forund a seam of black substance in the earth, and it bunt like coal, and made gas like coal, he would naturally conclude that it was coal, and call it as such, without sending it up to the chemists, geologists, mineralogists, and microscopists of London, to ask their opinions. These learned gentlemen might find fault with its colour in being brown and not black. Some might cay that it had too much gas, and others too little gas, for the coals they had been accustomed to

Others might again say that it contained too little ash, or too much ash, for their ideas of coal

. Probably it will be as well to take Dr. Redforn's definition, who says :-"Under the term coal, those substances must be comprised which consist of compressed and chemically altered vegetable matter, associated with more or less of earthy substances, and capable of being used as fuel.”* À Lancashire man who had been accustomed to see the bright pitchy looking cannel of Wigan, would hardly include under the term cannel the brown earthy-look ing parrots of Scotland; whilst a Newcastle man would scarcely recognise the blazing Wallsend coal with the smouldering anthracite of South Wales. Yet in


Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, Vol. lii., p. 106.


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each district the substances would be well known as coals, and no doubts would be entertained as to their Dature. As coal ought not in strict language to be called a wineral (which includes only brute and not orga

nic matter, however altered), the opinion of common in people on the productions” of their respective dis


, is entitled to some respect, and they certainly have as much right as a stranger to give it a name. About one thing, however, there is no doubt, namely, that coal is of vegetable origin, and consists of the remains of plants. There is certainly a considerable difference between a piece of wood and a piece of coal, but not more so than between a piece of liquoride root and a lump of Spanish juice; both are equally of vegetable origin, however much they are 20w changed in appearance. The chemist tells you that coal is of vegetable origin by its composition; the geologist shows you the floor of the coal, a rich silty clay, full of countless roots, and the roof studded with upright stems of plants, well known amongst colliers as potholes, whilst the coal itself is full of fibres of charcoal mingled in the bright coaly mass, and the microscopist cuts the hard nodules and brasses found in coals, and proves them to be samples of the old vegetables preserved and hermetically sealed up, and now showing the minutest

The nature of the plants, of which coal has been formed, is not yet well known, but the most eminent living botanists are decidedly of opinion that they were aquatic; and from the fact of most deep seams of coal now containing salt water, it is pretty clear that such plants guce grew in sea water, even if the remains of the fishes and shells found in the adjoining strata did not indicate a marine origin, which they most

In the Lancashire coal field, from the bottom to the top, there must be at least 120 seams of coal, great and small.

These indicate 120 periods of

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