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scribed as follows :- An eight days' clock with oak case ; on the lid of the case is a small hopper for the reception of a metal check, on which is denoted by a number or otherwise, the person who puts it in. This check falls through the lid into one of a series of cells or chambers, to which is attached a weight, which being disengaged by the clock beneath it, moves each cell alternately under the hopper. These cells are numbered and arranged according to the clock; so that every check dropped in iridicates by the cell it falls into, the time at which it was dropped in. Another description for this purpose-namely, the peg clock-may be described as follows:-An ordinary clock; in the centre of the large dial is a small brass dial, with pegs inserted in its diameter, pointing towards the centre : this small dial rotates, and the pegs are placed at intervals of halfan-hour, with five minutes range. A lever is so contrived, that when a watchman or other person against whom it is registering, pulls a wire actuating cranks in connection with the lever, one of the projecting pegs is pushed down; and when the clock is inspected it will show whether the watchman has been attentive, and what half-hours and hours he has been negligent. Of course the interval for pulling the wire may be varied as required.
No description here is required of me of those flimsy gimcracks called American clocks. I consider the Dutch clock far superior to the American, as regards durability. But for correct performance, first class workmanship and material, an English clock or watch is not to be surpassed by those of any other nation. Although the price may be rather higher than the gaudy things I have mentioned, an English instrument costs much less in the end.
In consequence of the high prices charged for Turret-clocks, and the very imperfect manner in which they were made, Mr. Richard Roberts of Man. chester, of the firm of Messrs. Sharp, Roberts, & Co., in the year 1832, directed his great mechanical ingenuity to bear upon this heretofore much neglected horological machine; for it must excite considerable surprise that in this progressive age of mechanical invention, the turret-clock, an apparatus of great public utility, should have been nearly in the same condition with regard to improvements, as those made nearly a century back; and even now, there are clocks made by some makers of the class I have mentioned.
The improvements introduced by Mr. Roberts into turret clocks have increased their durability and performing powers. The following are a few of the improvements introduced by Mr. Roberts in the year 1832. The arbour carriers are attached by means of bolts and steel steady pins, in such a manner that any wheel may be taken out without altering any part of the framework. In clocks where a heavy weight is required, there is an arrangement for winding, of such a character that one shaft is entirely dispensed with; the general arrangement of the wheels, &c., in the frame is such, that the clock occupies less space; the suspension of the pedulum is also considerably improved. Mr. Roberts invented a very simple compensating pendulum, the principle of which may be seen in Peel Park Museum, Sal-ford, a sectional model having been presented to that institution by him; the striking trains are considerably improved; the hammer levers are
aised by means of a snail motion, producing a considerable reduction in friction; the pendulum rod is regulated by means of a graduated dial upon the top end of the rod, which is much better than having the regulating nut at the bottom. Mr. Roberts was also the first tovintroduce cast-iron wheels into turret clocks, although the merit of this invention has been ascribed by a writer in the 8th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica to the Freuch makers.
It would be tedious to mention in detail the rumerous improvements introduced into turret clocks by Mr. Roberts, --but suffice it to say, that scarcely any part of a turret clock can be mentioned that has not had the ingenuity of Mr. Roberts brought to bear upon it, for in his hands the form of the turret clock has entirely changed from the old, cumbersome, and rudely constructed apparatus, into an elegant, compact, and accurately performing clock. The first clock made on the principle of Mr. Roberts, was fixed over the Atlas Works, Manchester; since that period, a great many have been made by the firm of which he was a partner, and since his retirement from business by Messrs. John Bailey and Co., of the Albion Works, Salford, with whom I am connected. Interested parties have created great opposition to the innovations introduced by Mr. Roberts, into Turret Clocks, but since their first intro. duction they have performed well in this country, and equally so in the climes of the West Indies, Pernambuco, Peru, Spain, Portugal, and Russia, &c.; and a few years ago one was made for the celebrated astronomer, the Right Honourable Earl of Rosse, F.R.S., M.R.A.S., &c. &c., and his Grace recently informed Messrs. Bailey and Co. that it performs very well, "and I believe much better than large clocks usually do.”
It may be worthy of mention that it is dangerous to fix iron cramps or brackets in the masonry of church towers, for iron as it corrodes increases in bulk, and by its expansion may cause considerable damage to the building. As an instance of this, recently the tower of St. Mary's Church, Manchester, was actually rendered so dangerous in consequence of the expansion of some iron cramps, that the spire had to be taken down; consequently, timber ought to be used as much as possible in the construction of supports for the dial work, &c., of turret clooks.
I think that I cannot do better than quote a local paper describing your church clock.
(From the Halifax Courier, of April 9th, 1859.) "THE NEW CLOCK FOR THE CHURCH TOWER, ELLAND.– A meeting of the committee for carrying out the project of a new clock for the church tower, met at the Saville Arms, on Thursday, and came to a final decision. The order for making the clock was given to Messrs. John Bailey and Co., whose name may be taken as a sufficient guarantee for its successful accomplishment. The clock is to have four external dials each 7 feet in diameter; one dial is to be erected inside the church, to set the hands by outside ; another dial will be put up in the ringers' chamber. The clock is to have wire ropes, a compen. sating pendulum, and maintaining power so as to lose no time in the act of winding up. When completed, it is expected to rank with the first clocks in England : the improvement in the dinis being illuminated is an additional reason why the subscription should be supported; and we shall be glad to see Elland in possession of so great an ornament.”
(From the Manchester Courier, September 24th, 1859.) "Large TCARET CLOCK.-On Tuesday a new and large turret clock, made by Messrs. John Bailey and Co., of Salford, for Elland Church, near Halifax, was exhibited in the Manchester Royal Exchange, and attracted much and deserved attention. The clock is of similar construction to that in St. Ann's Church, Manchester, but it contains many improvements, and is larger than any in this city. It is made on the principles discovered by Mr. Roberts, C.E., of Manchester."
He is the happy man, whose life e'en now
MUSIC FOR THE PEOPLE.
THE REV. DR. HOOK.
[The following short and sensible address on the advantages
of music in elevating the taste of the people, and explanatory of Handel's sublime oratorio, “The Messiah,” delivered by the Rev. Dr. Hook, then Vicar of Leeds, and now Dean of Chichester, at a performance of this musical masterpiece, in the Free Trade Hall, by the Manchester Choral Society, when four thousand working men, women, and children, were treated to free admission by their em ployers.]
The Rev. Dr. Hook, on being introduced by Robert Barnes, Esq., chairman of the committee, said: Ladies and gentlemen,- In addressing you upon the present occasion, the first thing that I have to do is to apologise for presenting myself to your notice. I have done so, as you have just been informed, at the request of your committee. Although I am not unconnected with Manchester, yet not being a Manchester man, I did feel some hesitation in acceding to the proposal when your committee desired that I should take part in the present proceedings, and act as their spokesman; but when they said that they selected me for this office because it was well known that I am among those who are most anxious to provide for and extend the means of rational recreation for the working classes, I felt that you would not consider me an intruder, and I could not deny myself the pleasure of being present on this occasion, when we celebrate the centenary of the death of the great composer whose work you are assembled to hear.