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in the year 1832, directed his great mechanical ingenuity to bear upon this heretofore much neglected horological machine ; for it must excite considerable surprise that in this progressive age of mechanical invention, the turret-clock, an apparatus of great public utility, should have been nearly in the same condition with regard to improvements, as those made nearly a century back; and even now, there are clocks made by some makers of the class I have mentioned.

The improvements introduced by Mr. Roberts into turret clocks have increased their durability and performing powers. The following are a few of the improvements introduced by Mr. Roberts in the year 1832. The arbour carriers are attached by means of bolts and steel steady pins, in such a manner that any wheel may be taken out without altering any part of the framework. In clocks where a heavy weight is required, there is an arrangement for winding, of such a character that one shaft is entirely dispensed with; the general arrangement of the wheels, &c., in the frame is such, that the clock occupies less space; the suspension of the pedulum is also considerably improved. Mr. Roberts invented a very simple compensating pendulum, the principle of which may be seen in Peel Park Museum, Salford, a sectional model having been presented to that institution by him ; the striking trains are considerably improved; the hammer levers are raised by means of a snail motion, producing a considerable reduction in friction; the pendulum rod is regulated by means of a graduated dial upon the top end of the rod, which is much better than having the regulating nut at the bottom. Mr. Roberts was also the first to introduce cast-iron wheels into turret clocks, although the merit of this invention has been ascribed by a writer in the 8th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica to the Freuch makers.

It would be tedious to mention in detail the numerous improvements introduced into turret clocks by Mr. Roberts, but suffice it to say, that scarcely any part of a turret clock can be mentioned that has not had the ingenuity of Mr. Roberts brought to bear upon it, for in his hands the form of the turret clock has entirely changed from the old, cumbersome, and rudely constructed apparatus, into an elegant, compact, and accurately performing clock. The first clock made on the principle of Mr. Roberts, was fixed over the Atlas Works, Manchester; since that period, a great many have been made by the firm of which he was a partner, and since his retirement from business by Messrs. John Bailey and Co., of the Albion Works, Salford, with whom I am connected. Interested parties have created great opposition to the innovations introduced by Mr. Roberts, into Turret Clocks, but since their first intro. duction they have performed well in this country, and equally so in the climes of the West Indies, Pernambuco, Peru, Spain, Portugal, and Russia, &c.; and a few years ago one was made for the celebrated astronomer, the Right Honourable Earl of Rosse, F.R.S., M.R.A.S., &c. &c., and his Grace recently informed Messrs. Bailey and Co. that it performs very well, “and I believe much better than large clocks usually do.”

It may be worthy of mention that it is dangerous to fix iron cramps or brackets in the masonry of church towers, for iron as it corrodes increases in bulk, and by its expansion may cause considerable damage to the building. As an instance of this, recently the tower of St. Mary's Church, Manchester, was actually rendered so dangerous in consequence of the expansion of some iron cramps, that the spire had to be taken down; consequently, timber ought to be used as much as possible in the construction of supports for the dial work, &c., of turret clooks.

I think that I cannot do better than quote a local paper describing your church clock.

(From the Halifax Courier, of April 9th, 1859.) "TaE NEW CLOCK FOR THE CHURCH TOWER, ELLAND. A meeting of the committee for carrying out the project of a new clock for the church tower, met at the Saville Arms, on Thursday, and came to a final decision. The order for making the clock was given to Messrs. John Bailey and Co., whose name may be taken as a sufficient guarantee for its successful accomplishment. The clock is to have four external dials each 7 feet in diameter; one dial is to be erected inside the church, to set the hands by outside ; another dial will be put up in the ringers' chamber. The clock is to have wire ropes, a compen. sating pendulum, and maintaining power so as to lose no time in the act of winding up. When completed, it is expected to rank with the first clocks in England : the improvement in the dials being illuminated is an additional reason why the subscription should be supported ; and we shall be glad to see Elland in possession of so great an ornament.”

(From the Manchester Courier, September 24th, 1859.) “LARGE TURRET Clock-On Tuesday a new and large turret clock, made by Messrs. John Bailey and Co., of Salford, for Elland Church, near Halifax, was exhibited in the Manchester Royal Exchange, and attracted much and deserved attention. The clock is of similar construction to that in St. Ann's Church, Manchester, but it contains many improvements, and is larger than any in this city. It is made on the principles discovered by Mr. Roberts, C.E., of Manchester."

HAPPINESS.

FIE is the happy man, whose life e'en now
Shows somewhat of that happier life to come;
Who, doomed to an obscure but tranquil state,
Is pleased with it; and were he free to choose,
Would make his fate his choice ; whom peace, the fruit
Of virtue, and whom virtue, fruit of faith
And love, prepare for happiness.

MUSIC FOR THE PEOPLE.

BY

THE REV. DR. HOOK.

was

[The following short and sensible address on the advantages

of music in elevating the taste of the people, and explanatory of Handel's sublime oratorio, “The Messiah, delivered by the Rev. Dr. Hook, then Vicar of Leeds, and now Dean of Chichester, at a performance of this musical masterpiece, in the Free Trade Hall, by the Manchester Choral Society, when four thousand working men, women, and children, were treated to free admission by their em. ployers. ]

The Rev. Dr. Hook, on being introduced by Robert Barnes, Esq., chairman of the committee, said: Ladies and gentlemen,-In addressing you upon the present occasion, the first thing that I have to do is to apologise for presenting myself to your notice. I have done so, as you have just been informed, at the request of your committee. Although I am not unconnected with Manchester, yet not being a Man. chester man, I did feel some hesitation in acceding to the proposal when your committee desired that I should take part in the present proceedings, and act as their spokesman; but when they said that they selected me for this office because it was well known that I am among those who are most anxious to provide for and extend the means of rational recreation for the working classes, I felt that you would not consider me an intruder, and I could not deny myself the pleasure of being present on this occasion, when we celebrate the centenary of the death of the great composer whose work you are assembled to hear.

In seeking to provide for and extend the innocent and rational amusements of the people, I feel that I am labouring in my vocation as a minister of the gospel, -promoting the cause of virtue by diminishing the temptations to vice. Our work, whatever it may be, is for the most part assigned to us by circumstances over which we have very little control ; but with respect to our amusements, much more is left to our freedom of choice; so that if you

desire to know the character of a man, it is not sufficient to inquire whether he is industrious and full of talent in his place of business, you must also ascertain to what amusements his leisure hours are devoted. A man may be a very skilful artisan, but if his leisure hours be passed in places of intemperance, dissipation, and debauchery, his skill may be beneficial to the public, but it will not be advantageous to himself or to his family. To empty the pandemoniums of vice, open then and increase the places of innocent recreation and amusement; and most valuable are those amusements which a man can attend accompanied by his family.

Through the extension of education during the last half century, facilities have been afforded

us in this direction; a taste for music has been created and cultivated; and where can we find amusement more elevating than that which we provide in a concert room? In the manufacturing districts of the north of England, a taste for music especially prevails, and a taste for that which has been called the “national music of England," a taste for Handel; for though Handel was born in Germany, he lived, he laboured, he died in England. “In England only," his French biographer observes, “is he well and widely known; in England only is he sung, and played, and estimated as he ought to be." The same writer observes that “the oratorio seems indi. genous to England;" and with respect to the manufacturing districts, it appears that those who have

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