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valuable step of reducing to a system the method of investigation adopted by those eminent men, generalizing it, and extending its application to all matters of contingent truth, exploding the errors, the absurd dogmas, and fantastic subtleties of the ancient schools, above all, confining the subject of our inquiry, and the manner of conducting it, within the limits which our faculties prescribe. Nor is this great law of gradual progress confined to the physical sciences; in the moral it equally governs.

Before the foundations of political economy were laid by Humne and Smith, a great step had been made by the French philosophers, disciples of Quesnai; but a nearer approach to sound principles had signalized the labours of Gournay, and those labours had been shared and his doctrines patronized by Turgôt, when chief minister.

Again, in constitutional policy, see by what slow degrees, from its first rude elements, the attendance of feudal tenants at their lord's court, and the summons of burghers, to grant supplies of money, the great discovery of modern times in the science of practical politics has been effected, the representative scheme which enables States of any extent to enjoy popular government, and allows mixed monarchy to be established, combining freedom with ordera plan pronounced by the statesmen and writers of antiquity to be of hardly possible formation, and wholly impossible continuance. The globe itself, as well as the science of its inhabitants, has been explored according to the law which forbids a sudden and rapid leaping forward, and decrees that each successive step, prepared by the last, shall facilitate the next. Even Columbus followed several successful discoverers on a smaller scale, and is by some believed to have had, unknown to him, a predecessor in the great exploit by which he pierced the night of ages, and unfolded a new world to the eyes of the old. The arts afford no exception to the general law. Demos

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itself is no

It has oftentimes

had both the orators and poets of the ancient world bringing an overpowering force to bear on a given point had been tried occasionally before Frederick II. reduced it to a system; and the Wellingtons and their strategy, as it had also been previously the been held that the invention of logarithms stands alme in the history of science, as having been preceded by no step leading towards the discovery. There is, however, great inaccuracy in this statement, for not only was the doctrine of infinitesimals familiar to its illustrious author, and the relation of geometrical to struck out several methods of great ingenuity and arithemetical series well known, but he had himself utility as that known by the name of Napier's Bones) Were by the consummation which has immortalized -methods that are now forgotten), eclipsed as they ceded as he was by Worcester and Newcomen, but

So the inventive powers of Watt, pre

materially by Causs and Papin, had been exercised on some admirable contrivances, now forgotten, before he made the step which created the steam-engine anew-not only the parallel motion, tion in the Principia, but the separate condensation, and above all, the governor, perhaps the most exquisite of mechanical inventions: and now we have those here present who apply the like principle to the diffusion of knowledge, aware, as they must be, that

valuable step of reducing to a system the method of

thenes had eminent forerunners, Pericles the last of investigation adopted by those eminent men, genera

them. Homer must have had predecessors of great Lizing it, and extending its application to all matters of contingent truth, exploding the errors, the absurd

merit

, though doubtless as far surpassed by him as Jogmas, and fantastic subtleties of the ancient schools,

Fra Bartolomeo and Pietro Perugino were by Michael

Angelo and Raphael. Dante owed much to Virgil; above all, contining the subject of our inquiry, and lie manner of conducting it, within the limits which

may be allowed to have owed, through his Latin Mentor

, not a little to the old Grecian; and Milton ur faculties prescribe. Nor is this great law of alual progress confined to the physical sciences;

for his predecessors and his masters. The art of war il the moral it equally governs. Before the foundauns of political economy were laid by Huine and

exception to the rule.

The plan of mith, a great step had been made by the French bilosophers, disciples of Quespai; but a nearer apmuch to sound principles had signalized the labours

Napoleons of our own day made it the foundation of Gournay, and those labours had been shared and s doctrines patronized by Turgôt, when chief

mainspring of our naval tactics. inister. A gain, in constitutional policy, see by what slow grees, from its first rude elements, the attendance feudal tenants at their lord's court, and the sumons of burghers, to grant supplies of money, the wat discovery of modern times in the science of utical politics has been effected, the representative Ejeme which enables States of any extent to enjoy pular government, and allows mixed monarchy to

established, combining freedom with orders En pronounced by the statesmen and writers of anuity to be of hardly possible forruation, and wholly possible continuance

. The globe itself, as well as : science of its inhabitants, has been explored ac; ling to the law which forbids a sudden and rapid ping forward, and decrees that each successive P, prepared by the last, shall facilitate the next. en Columbus followed several successful discoers on a smaller scale, and is by some believed to e had, unknown to him, a predecessor in the great sloit by which he pierced the night of ages, and vided a new world to the eyes of the old. The atford no exception to the general law. Demos

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PREFACE.

The present is the fourth volume of the “POPULAR LECTTRER,” new series. It contains 30 lectures, extending to 384 pages, the average cost being one penny each. The subjects treated comprise Education, Natural History, Language, Mechanics, Industry, Cotton, Pictures, Travels, Biography, Mining, Science, Poetry, Music, &c.

Amongst the authors of these lectures will be found the names of Lord Brougham; the Rev. Dr. Hook; Dr. Latham; the Dean of Carlisle ; Thomas Bazley, Esq., M.P.; Leo. H. Grindon, Esq. ; R. W. Emerson, Esq.; the Rev. Marmaduke Miller; George Dawson, Esq., M.A. ; His Royal Highness the Prince Consort; E. W. Binney, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; the Right Hon. Sir James Stephen ; and other well-known names in literature and science.

The volume will be found to contain a large fund of valuable and interesting information, of the kind most serviceable to students, and the members of educational institutions generally. A “revival” is taking place in the art of lecturing, and our readers shall have the benefit of it. We would strongly urge young men who listen to lectures to study shorthand. Phonography is the system in which these lectures have been reported by

THE EDITOR.

CONTENTS.

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89

Social Position of the Working Classes, by T. Dickins, Esq., J.P.

Thoughts on Life, by R. W. Emerson, Esq.

126

The Working Man, by the Rev. Marmaduke Miller ......

129

Mechanical Trades of Great Britain, by Mr. Geo. Gent.

147

Liberal Training, by the Rev. Dr. Hook

.161

Wonders of the Ocean, by the Dean of Carlisle

179

Glaciers, by Edward Hall, Esq.

190

Cotton, by Thomas Bazley, Esq., M.P.

.193

Do. (concluded)

.225

A Picture and its Painter, by Joseph Johnson

211

Origin of Language, by Leo. H. Grindon, Esq...

245

A Tour in the United States, by H. Ashworth, Esq.

Andrew Marvel, by Geo. Dawson, Esq., M.A.

282

Coal Gases and Mining Lamps, by E. W. Binney, Esq., F.R.8.. 289

Burns, as a Poet, by James Finlayson .

309

The British Association, by the Prince Consort

.391

Clocks, by Mr. W. IL. Bailey

839

Music for the People, by the Rev. Dr. Hook

.348

Milton's "Comus," by the Right Hon. Sir James Stephen

.353

Immortality of the Soul, by Mr. C. Haworth

.367

Printing, by the Rev. James Malcolmson

.975

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