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nature, and to influence all our kindlier feelings, becanse we are brought directly into the presence of the world that God made. Not that I undervalue the town, or would laud the country at the expense of the town. It is quite a mistake to say that “God made the country, and man made the town.” It is true in a certain sense, but it is a mistake if, by saying 80, we mean to identify the two parts, one with huInanity, the other with the Divine Nature,–because God made both; only when we get into the country, we find ourselves brought more completely face to face with the unmarred, purer works of the ALMIGHTY, and these from their very nature do commend theinselves to our better feelings. I never knew any man yet, who might be suffering from discontent, or any of the little troubles that visit us all in turn in connection with business, go out among the birds of the valley, or seek the primroses and wild flowers innuDerable in the hedges, and not come back with his spirit puritied, and a more peacefully-minded man, with more encouragement and love in his heart on account of this wonderful salutary influence of nature. It is a something that cannot be defined; but let man go out where he may see the smooth green grass stretching before him, and where the warmth of the sun and the sweet breeze will wrap round him like a garment, let him live among these things for half-anhour, and then say if he has not felt his spirit visited by some unseen influence, that has brought out feelings in him of which he was hardly conscious before, and that sends him home a better man every way, more disposed to be contented and happy. Of all the secrets in the world for the enjoyment of life, I think that the love and culture of Natural History ought to stand foremost,-I mean of things we may take up for our amusement and intellectual pursuit. There is nothing I look back upon, after a quarter of a century's experience of nature, with more pleasure than the little facts and experiences that have been


accumulating through all that time, as it were in the coffers of my intellectual bank—the property that no man can take from me; and every man may accumulate the same.

And lastly, I would refer to this other fact—that it is in cultivating this knowledge that we most effectually realise life, because life does not consist altogether in the occupations to which we devote our energies during the day, but as largely in those we attend to when business is over, or in the intervals of business. “Business must be attended to;" that is the first rule; the second is to attend to the intervals of business, which require filling up as much as the business hours themselves. A man who can count fifty birthdays, reckons life in a very meagre manner unless he has accumulated during the leisure hours and days of his life, the beautiful and animating ideas which nature supplies. We may get them from books, but we get them from nature at first hand. I love books, and would never disparage them, in regard to nature; merely observing that books and nature are a kind of reflex one of the other ;-we go into the country, and read the “ Book of Nature;" we go into the library, and there we read again; neither can be profitably pursued without the culture of the other. In the lecture room and class room, recollect, we must not expect too much of the teacher; the teacher is like the farmer's daughter, blythe and buxom, who comes out with her apron full of grain; and scatters it amongst the chickens; they must pick it up if any good is to be done with it: like the farmer's daughter, our teacher scatters the grain, and it is for every pupil to pick it up, and to turn it into good red, swift, energetic blood, that shall become the sound muscle and bone that alone can make him strong. What we get in the lecture room is, as it were, the index to what we have really to acquire by patient and personal observation of nature.




BY MR. W. J. COX, M.R.C.S., &c.

Delivered at the Kensall Green Mechanics' Institute, London ; and at

Wigan Mechanics' Institute.]

In forming an estimate of the value of any branch of knowledge, we should, I think, be cautious of the invariable application of the cui bono question : neither be always inclined to adopt the mathematician's standard of excellence, who, after reading " Paradise Lost," said, “Very fine; but what does it prove?" Let us not despise an inquiry into those finer and deeper, if more remote, matters which constitute the charm and poetry of life, and have powerful indirect efforts on the character and happiness of the individual man, and on the intellectual progress of nations. Goëthe, in an eloquent passage, says, – " When the man of the world is devoting his days to wasting melancholy for some deep disappointment, or in the ebullience of his joy is going out to meet his happy destiny, the all-conceiving spirit of the poet steps forth, and with soft transitions tunes his heart either to joy or woe.”. Would that I, with equally lofty eloquence, could impress on you the conception I myself have formed of the practical value of a more general acquaintance with those studies which chasten the taste, discipline the

mind, invigorate the understanding, improve the heart, and keep in abeyance the corroding and baser feelings which embitter and shorten the term of human existence. For us, then, let not Hamlet breathe his lofty philosophy, nor Bacon teach wisdom, in vain; nor Milton pass the bounds of place and time, to trace the councils of hell, and lead the choirs of heaven.

The thoughts and faculties of our intellectual frames, and all that we admire and reverence in human genius; the moral laws, which are ever felt by us with pleasure or with remorse according as they are obeyed or violated; the virtuous qualities of those we love, and the vices we view with abhorence or pity; the feeling of dependence upon the gracious God who formed us, and the expectation of a state of being whose duration shall not be measured by the beatings of a feeble pulse;—all these tend to impress on us the importance of a knowledge of the relation of our minds to our mortal bodies.

Be it far from me to presume to lead you into the mazes of metaphysics, where, indeed, I apprehend lealer as well as followers would soon be hopelessly entangled: on the contrary, it is my intention to be as matter-of-fact as possible, and to adhere pretty closely to the recital of ascertained facts and phenomena. In the first place, let us understand the terms it will be necessary to employ. By mind I mean not the scul per se, but the soul as it dwells in the body: not the disembodied, but the embodied spirit. The body, on the other hand, is only animated matter. Two worlds, one intellectual and the other sensual

, were equally given to us from the beginning; and all attempts to deduce them from one principle (excepting the Divine source) have failed. This, then, i is the duality which we must accept as the boundary in line of mortal knowledge. For information touching the soul in its future state of existence we must look alone to revelation. It is beyond the limits of hunan

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For us, then, lut not and supported by powerful thinkers and subtle intel. The thoughts ard faculties of our intern advances is not a step towards the solution of the times, and all that we amire and reverene enigms. Schelling more ingeniously contended that with pleasure it with remorse according as torty This not only fails to give a solution to the question

bere or vic!sted; the virtuous qualities to at issue, but is opposed to known facts. For we are We lore, and the rices we view with a here sometimes conscious that the two different principles sit being whose duration shall not be measure of the body; that we have in truth in our nature a ljud who formeil us, and the expectation of the spirit may interfere and be incompatible with that

Materialism, however, is the most important of these

theories, and has the largest number of supporters. Be it far from me to presund on lead toona By this system, it is pretended that the mind is but

& product of the body, a result of its organization. No studied or elaborate arguments are required to

show its fallacy: a single fact of natural science will as inatter-of-fact as pesi' le, and to a theria suffice. Physiology teaches us that all parts and

organs of our bodies are constantly being wasted and mana. In the first place, let us un lerstanthe renewed from the elements of surrounding nature.

But the mind remains the same. To give an illustration: --Napoleon on his dying couch, at St. Helena, of the republican tornado; conquered at Marengo and Austerlitz; soared over the fettered European states; was bafiled at Moscow; despaired at Leipsic;

and sank on the bloody field of Waterloo. pting the Divine source have fuled. Täss fabric of his body had been changed a score of times

yet, a few hours only before he passed for ever from
the dreams of battle, he conversed with his faithful

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. Nevertheless such attempts have been made, lects ; and it behoves us, ere we proceed, to consider the most prominent and plausible of these hypotheses. Fichte considered the body as a phenomenon only of the mind. This is a mere waste of words ; for it

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