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memory unimpaired respecting all the great events of his career.
And, were it not somewhat a "begging of the question," I would say, that the upholders of Materialism can scarcely be supposed sensible of the monstrous conclusion they must admit: for to contend that the mind is a mere emanation of the body, -a product of its organization,-is in effect to assert that the inorganic elements, of which our bodies are composed, are capable, when combined, of creating all the mighty works of human genius. They have no escape from the astounding conclusion, that the combination of a few pounds of charcoal and lime, and a few ounces of sulphur and phosphorus, with a certain amount of water, and the gases of the atmosphere, is all that is needed to demonstrate the law of gravitation—to dissect the desolation of an antediluvian world, and to supply a physiology to destruction-trace the path of an undetected orbto invent the steam engine and telegraph-to produce the Venus and the Laocoon-to paint the Madonna, and the Transfiguration—to write the Iliad, the Novum Organum, Paradise Lost, King Lear, Le Tartuffe, Rasselas, Locke's Essay, Faust, Festus, Revolt of Islam, ani David Copperfield. Accepting, then, this dualism as it exists (and which indeed we find by analysis of the unity given to us—this testimony of the two worlds which we ourselves present-let us content ourselves with endeavouring to acquire correct knowledge of their reciprocal relations.
To commence, then, properly with our subject. The mind exercises an important influence on the body. As in the body there are two classes of nerves --of sensation and of volition-so are there two great orders of mental faculties, the intellectual and the affective. Sensation, perception, thought, judgment and imagination, are operations of the intellect. Love, fear, hope, ambition, pride, envy, hatred, &c., belong to the passions or emotions. A law of asso
ciation governs both, and they are also powerfully controlled by habit. As the intellectual faculties beCuine possessed of the materials of thought through the seuses, it is upon the senses they re-act; but as the passions seek their own gratification through the agency of the will on the muscles, it is on the latter they chiefly display their power. Hence the influence of the intelleet on the body is much less than that of the passions. The imagination, however, seems to have a strong affinity with the passions and emotions ; it bolls, in leed, a middle place between the intellect on the one hand, and the passions on the other, adding vigour to thought, whilst it decks the objects of desire with attractions. Imagination is the only intellectual faculty which exercises a direct effect on the bowlily organs; it acts by producing in them the same state as is usually brought about by external objects. These false impressions may affect all the organs of sense, but the eye especially. As illustrations on this point, I may mention the apparently increased magnitude of the sun and moon on rising and setting, the green colour of strips of sky between strata of red clouds, the seemingly infinite number of the stars, all of which are delusions of the sense of sicht. The common experiment of touching a marble with the tips of two fingers of the same hand crossed, producing the exact sensation of the presence of two marbles, will serve as an instance of the effect of imagination over the sense of touch.
The influence of the passions over the body is much more extensive than that of the imagination. For the imagination, strictly speaking, affects only the organs of sense; whilst the passions, excited by the imagination, influence every part and function of the body. Thus fear, acting through the imagination, creates false sensations. A good instance of this sort is afforded us by the case of a thief, to whom in common with several other suspected persons, a stick of a measured length was given; with the assurance that the stick of the thief would, in his hands, grow by supernatural power. The real culprit, imagining that his stick had actually increased in length, secretly cut a piece off, and was thus detected. An equally ludicrous anecdote is told of a farmer, who detected depredations on his corn-bin, by calling his men together, and making them roix up a quantity of feathers in a sieve, assuring them at the same time, that the feathers would infallibly stick to the hair of the thief. After a short time, one of the men raised his hand repeatedly, and as he hoped unseen, to his head, and thus betrayed his guilt. In the first of these examples we may suppose both sight and touch to have been affected; in the second, touch alone.
The power which the emotions exercise over the functions of secretion is well known. I have heard that at the native tribunals of justice in India, it was a practice to give persons suspected of any offence rice to chew, which after the lapse of a minute they were ordered to eject from the mouth : the absence of saliva in the contents of the culprit's mouth was considered to prove his guilt. Terror also will sometimes cause profuse perspiration; both joy and grief, tears. Weeping, the expression of a distress which is sometimes bodily, sometimes mental, is a strong inspiration, and a broken expiration, accompanied by a flow of tears, which affords relief.
Here the respiratory nerve is especially excited. Allow me to call your attention to the fact that both laughing and weeping are attributes of superior mental organization; for man alone laughs, of all creation, and that seldom until he is five or six weeks old. Kant called special attention to this fact; and an eminent follower of his bitterly annotated it by the observation, “ Truly man is also the only aniinal which deserves to be laughed at.” Laughing and weeping, like joy and grief, are strangely allied to each other. They depend on the same physical condition; have in
many persons the same physiognomy (the mouth excepted); moreover, when intense, they exchange places, and merge into each other. We all know the ecstatie tears of joy—the frightful laughter of despair.
It will repay attention to take a cursory glance at the modes in which the varying and different emotions and passions affect the body. Every joy-and hope may be given as an instance-has a peculiarly beneficial effect, when it acts in a gentle and durable manner. Schiller beautifully says, that “virtue is the frame of mind most conducive to bodily health ; because it excites the most durable of all joys, true Christian hope.” But if the joyful emotion be too lively, the brilliant eager eye, quickened breath, and accelerated pulse, denote a condition of excitement that must be followed by depression. We see the direct contrary of this in melancholy or hopelessness. Here the nervous vitality languishes at its root, and the life of the blood becomes languid. A person so afiected is like some noble tree, at whose root decay has struck; and so the whole fabric—trunk, branches, and leaves-15 withering.
The master-passion of love keeps body and mind fluctuating between pleasure and pain, in continued excitement. A state of abstraction, interrupted by sighs, and a change in the temper and habits, betray its early dawn; change of colour the presence of its object. A pale countenance, a languid eye, decline of strength, show its hopelessness; a flushed cheek, a brilliant expression, indicate its happiness and realization. These phenomena are more marked in the female sex, physically from their more delicate conformation, and mentally from the higher value which they attach to love.
The effects of anger are those which, of all the emotions of the mind, are the most manifest on the body. The spasm of the muscles indicates the struggle in the conflicting excitement; the circulation is urged to the utmost vehemence, the respiration keeps equal pace with it; so that in very intense cases rupture of the heart may take place, or the foundation be laid for organic disease. The death of Valentinian, the Roman emperor, actually occurred from this cause, during a violent passion while giving audience to some ambassadors. Anger also acts through the nervous system upon the various secretions, the saliva, the gastrie juice, the bile, and in females the milk, all of which may be temporarily suspended, or changed into poisons. Tourtual tells us that he saw a child die, as if struck by lightning, after taking the breast of its enraged nurse. I have myself witnessed a case of convulsions produced from the same cause. Long-continued indulgence in fits of passionate temper, will frequently induce severe disease of the liver and digestive organs.
In taking leave for the present of the subject of the passions, let us remember that they are planted in us by the All-Wise for benevolent and noble purposes; and that it is only when abused and not kept in proper bounds that they induce disease, and affect the duration of life. When the natural gratification of the passions is guided by reason and sanctified by religion, the effect produced upon mind and body, instead of being pernicious, is of a beneficial kind. Sydney Smith most happily says—“The passions are in morals what motion is in physics: they create, preserve, and animate; and without them, all would be silence and death.” We see avarice guiding men across the trackless wastes of the restless ocean; pride covering the earth with pyramids and lofty temples; love turning hearts from their savage rudeness; ambition prostrating the mightiest empires. Whatever there is of the terrible, whatever of the beautiful, in human events; all that agitates the inmost soul, and is remembered whilst thought and flesh cling together;---all these owe their origin to the passions. The influence of the mind upon the body is variously modified by the different characters impressed