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(P.) --- Miscellaneous Handicrafts.-Continued.
(Q.)— Miscellaneous Employments.---Continued. Merchants' and Manufacturers'
Salaries in 1859
£ Salesmen and Buyers... from 100 @ 1,500 per annum, Cashiers
80 800 Book Keepers and Clerks
THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
BY MR. SAMUEL PERCY. Superintendent of the British and Magnetic Telegraph Company,
[Abstract of a Lecture delivered in the Friends' Institute,
Manchester.] THE Lecturer commenced by describing the modes of telegraphing at the earliest date, which consisted of bells, speaking trumpets, flags, mirrors, and beacon fires. The latter mode was used as late as the peninsular war, to telegraph the news of victory or defeat from one part of the kingdom to the other. Beacon fires were abandoned when the semaphore or aerial telegraph was invented. Amontons, a Frenchman, appears to have been the first to render a semaphore telegraph available for practical purposes; the secret consisted by placing, in several consecutive stations, persons who, by means of telescopes, having perceived certain signals at the preceding station transmitted them to the next, and so on in succession, and these signals indicated so many letters of the alphabet to form the telegraph code; but as he could not prevail on the government of France to patronise his invention, it was never practically adopted. A host of inventors followed,-Marcel, Linquet, Dupius, Bergstrasser, and others, the whole of whose inventions appear to have shared the fate of Amontons'. At last Claude Chappe, a young man at Angers, constructed an apparatus, a post with a revolving beam and circulatory arms, with which he conveyed signals from one place to another with great rapidity. This system was adopted by the French Government about 1794, and was very extensively used up to the time it was superseded by the electric telegraph. The lecturer then