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country is, she must preserve her naval superiority, whether by sail or by steam.

In officers to command her fleet, Queen Elizabeth was equally deficient as in her ships. She had Frobisher, Hawkins, Drake, and Fenner, able and expert seamen ; but for many years they had neither rank nor place in the navy, and at no time permanent; and the duty of Lord High Admiral, which was anciently confined nearly to his judicial functions, was now for the first time efficiently executed by Lord Howard of Effingham, in the true military character. The name of Admiral appears, indeed, to have been first introduced into England by Richard I. on his return from the crusades—a name that was probably derived from Ameer, a chief, or leader. The chief commander of every expedition, whether fitted out by the government or by private individuals, was styled admiral or general. Sir William Monson says—“ There have been often disputes whether the title of admiral or general was more proper for a sea commander; and though I dare not presume to conclude of either, yet I think it is as improper to call an admiral, general by sea, as to call a general, admiral by land.” The impropriety consists only in the confusion that is likely to be created, for in other respects every leader or chief commander is Dux, which may be either general or admiral. But the titles of both these and of all subordinate officers ceased with the occasion



on which they were employed. On the defeat of the Spanish Armada, for instance, the Lord High Admiral was the only naval officer in the Queen's ships that retained his rank, but its permanency was more owing probably to his judicial than his military character. Lord Henry Seymour, Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and Sir Martin Frobisher were made flag officers on that important occasion but retained their naval rank only pro hac vice.

The Lord High Admiral, however, had the power, which he made use of, to bestow the personally permanent honour of knighthood on Captain Frobisher, Captain Hawkins, and some others. The same power was granted by Henry VIII. when he gave a commission to Sir Edward Howard to prepare a fleet for sea, to which he appointed him Captain-General, with authority to confer knighthood, to make ordinances and statutes for the good government of the fleet, and to punish with life and limb. It is curious to see in what an anomalous state the navy then was. The same High Admiral was required to execute indentures with the King to provide a fleet, to be manned with 3000 men of the following descriptions; that is to say :

Captains . . . . 18
Soldiers . . . . 1750
Mariners and Gunners . . 1233


supplying them with wages and victuals. The King, on his part, stipulated to add eighteen ships to the fleet, fully rigged, gunned, and armed with bows and bowmen; for which the King stipulated he should have one-half of all the gains and winnings of the war, the chief prisoners, all the artillery, and one ship royal: the High Admiral was to have the rest, and, in addition, a certain number of dead shares (specified in the contract) of each of the King's ships.

The power given to the Lord High Admiral to confer knighthood at sea was continued and exercised by Elizabeth and James, and, as it would appear, to an unlimited extent. Thus when Lord Howard of Effingham and the Earl of Essex were jointly appointed to the Cadiz expedition, they made upwards of sixty knights. In short, the duties and the powers of the High Admiral, in these two reigns, were never defined, but capriciously given, and consequently subject to great abuse: some held their patents for life; others only for a time, or during pleasure; Henry VIII. made his natural son, the Duke of Richmond, Lord High Admiral of England when he was but six years old.

In short, during the reigns of Elizabeth and James, it does not appear that, beyond the single appointment of a Lord High Admiral, there was any kind of establishment for rank or pay, or emolument in any shape, after the most brilliant and efficient ser



vices were performed. The ships hired or supplied from certain ports, when the occasion ceased, were returned to their respective owners; and the few ships of war were paid off into a state of ordinary, leaving a very small number of ship-keepers to take care of them. The admiral or general who had the command, the vice-admiral, and the rear-admiral, titles given to the three chief officers (titles equally and indiscriminately given to the ships they commanded)—these three officers then sunk into the Ol mo2206, as soon as their services were no longer required. The deserving, however, were not forgotten: witness the frequent occasions on which Drake, and Hawkins, and Frobisher, were called upon to afford their services—men who, by their zeal, energy, and talent, acquired and preserved for Queen Elizabeth the proud title of Sovereign of the



In fact, it was not till the year 1673, when the Duke of York was High Admiral under Charles II., that the affairs of the naval service were settled and arranged on a stable footing by Charles and his brother, ably assisted by Mr. Secretary Pepys. Under their administration was produced that regular code of instructions (well known as the Duke of York's Fighting Instructions) for the rule and guidance of officers of the navy, who had each now his established rank, and his duties specified and defined.

There is in the Records of the Admiralty a MS. book of minutes, made in council—the King sometimes, but generally the Duke of York, presidingbeautifully and uniformly written, through upwards of 700 pages, containing a period from 1660 to 1688. At these councils everything regarding the matériel and personnel of the naval service was discussed and decided : the building of ships—their dimensions and force, the nature of their armament—their number—where to be employed—where stationed —the supply of naval stores, timber, hemp, and iron, for the different dock-yards : also all that relates to the personnel, from the flag-officer to the midshipman, their promotion, pay, and allowances

-pensions to the widows and children of those slain in action-and, in short, all the regulations and instructions relating to the well-being and advancement of the navy; and all the proceedings of the council are set forth in a most methodical and business-like manner.

There was still something left undone at the Revolution. King William had not been long on the throne before he deemed it expedient to pass an “ Extraordinary Order in Council,” grounded on a more extraordinary reason.

On the 22nd of February, 1693, this order settled double pay on officers of the fleet when at sea, and half-pay when on shore. “ His Majesty," it says, “ taking into serious consideration the great and

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