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number that lived to return home, to be reserved for future trials.

Cavendish appears to have been of an unhappy and excitable temper. Nothing can surpass the vulgar and abusive language made use of by him, in his second voyage, when matters did not go on exactly as he wished, or when those casualties and disappointments befel him which are more or less incident to a naval life at sea. It has before been said, that the success of his first voyage and the fruits of it were profusely squandered, and that the object of the second being to restore at least a part of them, the entire failure of the second was too much for his irritable temper to bear. “The constant trouble I endured,” he says, “among such hell-hounds (the crew), my spirits were cleane spent; wishing myself upon any desert place in the world there to dye, rather than thus basely to returne home again; which course I had put in execution, had I found an island (which the charts make to be eight degrees to the southward of the Line). I sweare to you I sought it with all diligence, meaning (if I had found it) to have there ended my unfortunate life. But God suffered not such happiness to light upon me, for I could by no meanes find it, so I was forced to go towards England; and having gotten eight degrees north of the Line, I lost my most dearest cousin;" and he concludes, “ beare with this

pen in

scribbling, for I protest I am scant able to hold a


hand."* There is little doubt he died of a broken heart, and at sea, about the latitude above mentioned. Cavendish was one of the first four navigators .that ever passed through the Straits of Magelhaens, each of whom had the misfortune to take

the life of one of their company, in or about the vicinity of those straits—Magelhaens, Drake, Sarmiento, and Cavendish.


* Purchas, from his letter to Sir Tristram Gorges.


1588 To 1593.

The last voyage

of Cavendish was not calculated, by its results, to encourage future adventurers towards that quarter of the world where his misfortunes happened. There was one, however, and but one gallant gentleman, who ventured on a voyage to the South Sea towards the latter part of Queen Elizabeth's reign; and he, probably, was spurred on to this adventurous voyage by the example of his brave father, Sir John Hawkins, who, at the same time, was about to embark in conjunction with his friend and early pupil, Sir Francis Drake, on an expedition which, as has been seen, proved fatal to both.

Sir Richard Hawkins, Knight, for he is so styled, was bred to the sea from a very early age, and commanded H. M. ship the Swallow in 1588. He now fitted out three ships for a voyage to the South Sea: the Dainty, a new ship, built by himself, between three and four hundred tons burden, and commanded by himself; the Fancy, a pinnace of sixty tons, Robert Thurlton captain ; and a victualler named the Hawk. When the Dainty was launched in the Thames, Lady Hawkins, his motherin-law, desired to have the naming of his ship, which being complied with, the good lady christened her “ The Repentance;" “ for that,” she said,

Repentance was the safest ship we could sail in to purchase the haven of heaven.” Sir Richard, however, was not then bound for that port; and it happened that the name, from an unlooked-for event, was shortly after changed; for when she was completely equipped and ready for sea, “and riding at Deptford, the Queen's Majestie passing by her to her palace of Greenwich, commanded her bargemen to row round about her, and viewing her from post to stemme, disliked nothing but her name, and said that she would christen her anew; and tha thenceforth she should be called the Daintie."

It is not usual to meet with a published seajournal, written entirely by the commander of the vessel, but we have here something much better than a common sea-journal.

“ This work,” says Admiral Burney, "might with some propriety have been entitled A Book of Good Counsel.' Many of his Observations are unconnected with the

voyage he is relating, but his digressions are ingenious and entertaining, and they frequently contain useful or curious information." Its title is The Observa

tions of Sir Richard Hawkins, Knight, in his Voyage into the South Sea, 1593.'*

It is, in truth, not only a Book of Good Counsel, but of good sense and observation, on all matters connected with the naval service, and in no way inferior to Sir William Monson's Tracts,' without that author's self-conceit. It is in fact a more useful book, and treats of seamen and seamanship in a more practical manner. Of the habits and manners of our jolly tars, he describes them just as they now are:-“When I begun to gather my company aboard, which occupied my good friends and the justices of the town two days, and forced us to search all lodgings, taverns, and ale-houses; some drank themselves so drunk, that except they were carried aboard, they of themselves were not able to goe one steppe; others knowing the necessitie of the time, feigned themselves sicke; others to be indebted to their hostes, and forced me to ransom them; one for his chest ; another for his sword; another his shirts; another his carde and instruments for sea; and others, to benefit themselves of the imprest given them, absented themselves, making a lewd living in deceiving all whose money they could lay hold of; which is a scandal too rife among our seamen.”+ The remedy he pro

* The editor observes, that the account of this voyage was written by Hawkins, and not published till 1622, and that while in the press the author died.

† Observations, &c.

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