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are driven the better. Some hold opinion that the tarre killeth the worme; others that the worme passing the sheathing, and seeking a way through, the hayre and the tarre so involve him, that he is choked therewith, which methinkes is most probable. This manner of sheathing was invented by my father; and experience hath taught it to be the best, and of least cost." *

These and numerous other observations occur in the prosecution of the voyage, from the 13th of June, 1593, when the three ships sailed from Plymouth, to their arrival on the coast of the South Sea. In their way to Brazil, Sir Richard went through the process of distilling fresh from salt water, not considering it as any new invention, as the projectors of the present day would deem it to be. “Our fresh water,” he says, “ had failed us many days, by reason of our long navigation, yet with an invention I had in my ship, I easily drew out of the water of the sea a sufficient quantity of fresh water to sustain my people, with little expense of fuel. The water so distilled we found to be wholesome and nourishing.” †

They came to anchor off Santos, on the Brazil coast, and Sir Richard wrote a civil letter in the Latin language to the Governor, accompanied with a present and with a flag of truce, requesting permission to purchase provisions. But this courteous * Observations.

+ Ibid.

letter met only with a refusal, and all they got was a few oranges by the return of the boat. On the coast, however, they made prize of a vessel laden with cassava-meal, which they took out, and then discharged her. Here, too, the Hawk victualler was unloaded and burnt.

In the latitude of Rio de la Plata they experienced a strong gale of wind, in which the commander of the Fancy pinnace, without making any signal, or appearing to be in any distress, put before the wind, and directed his course homewards, thus shamefully deserting his commanding officer. But Thurlton was an old offender. “I was worthy to be deceived,” says Sir Richard, “ that trusted my ship in the hands of a man who had before left his General in the like occasion.”* The Daintie, now without a companion, just like the Pelican of Drake in the Pacific, pursued her lonely course towards the Strait of Magelhaens, and fell in with some land of which he fancied himself the first discoverer. “The land, "

“ for that it was discovered in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, my sovereign Lady and a maiden Queen, and at my cost, in perpetual memory of her chastity and of my endeavours, I gave it the name of Hawkins's Maiden-land.”+

he says,

* He did so in the voyage of Mr. Cavendish.

of “ This land was discovered by Davis when in Cavendish's voyage, and successively named Sebaldines, Falkland Islands, &c.”-Burney.

6 First

They next entered the Strait of Magelhaens, where Hawkins made those observations, already given, on the ducks and the winter bark; and we now find him encountering whole regiments of penguins, which he turned to good use. we split them, and then washed them well in sea water, then salted them; having layne some sixe howres in salt, wee put them in presse eight howres, and the blood being soaked out, we salted them againe in our other caske, as is the custome to salte beefe: after this manner they continued good, some two moneths, and served us in stead of beefe.” Of their amusements while shut up

in the Strait, the shooting of birds, the gathering of mussels and pearl-oysters, with other pastimes for the amusement of the people, occupied the interval. “ One day we trayned our people on shore, being a goodly sandie bay; another we had a hurling of batchelors against married men ; this day we were busied in wrestling, the other in shooting ; so we were never idle, neyther thought we the time long.'

On the 29th of March the Daintie entered the South Sea, and on the 19th of April anchored at the Island Mocha, a solitary ship, which must have put him in mind of the forlorn condition of his predecessor Drake on the same spot; indeed, he notices the brutality and treachery shown to

* Observations.


Drake. In proceeding to the northward he blames himself for not discovering where the ship was, be. fore passing Callao, the port of Lima: however, they passed on to Valparaiso, where they descried four ships at anchor, manned their boats, and made towards them; but they, knowing what the English were, “ ran ashore with that little they could save, and leaft us the rest, whereof we were masters in a moment, and had the rifling of all the storehouses on the shoare."

Another ship came in, of which they took possession, and found in her “some good quantity of gold.” “Of this ship,” we are told,“ was pilot and part owner Alonzo Perezbueno, whom we kept for pilot on the coast, but moved with compassion (for that he was a man charged with wife and children) we set him ashore between Santa and Truxillo." “ To one of the partners whom it was found the greatest part of the gold belonged, and who seemed to be an honest man, we gave up the ship, and the greatest part of her loading freely.” There are many other traits of benevolence in the course of this voyage, that prove Sir Richard Hawkins to have been an amiable and compassionate man. But here, upon this coast, Sir Richard

the enemy he feared most was wine, which, with all the diligence he could make use of, overthrew many of his people. A drunkard,” he says, " is unfit


for any government, and if I might be hired with many thousands, I would not carry with me a man knowne to put his felicitie in that vice, instiling it with the name of good fellowship.” He contrived, however, in spite of the wine, to get his ship out of Valparaiso, and sailed directly to Coquimbo, Arica, and Ariquipa, capturing only a few fishing-vessels as he coasted along. “In Coquimbo,” he says, “it raineth seldome, but every showre of raine is a showre of gold unto them, for with the violence of the water falling from the mountains, it bringeth from them the gold.”

Information had been conveyed from various quarters to the Marquis de Cañete, the Viceroy of Peru, resident at Lima, of Hawkins being on the coast; and he immediately ordered six ships to be fitted out, and, under the command of Don Beltran de Castro, to proceed in search of him. This fleet got sight of Sir Richard's single ship, then two leagues to windward of the Spanish ships. “About nine o'clock,” says Sir Richard, “ the breeze began to blow, and wee to stand off into the sea, the Spaniards cheeke by jole with us, ever getting to the windward upon us.” The rolling sea which is said to be ever beating upon this coast, and the working to windward, caused the mainmast of the Spanish Admiral “to snap asunder; the ViceAdmiral split her maine-sail, being come within

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