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capitulation completed, they were sent as prisoners of war to Lima, where it appears they were demanded by the blood-thirsty Inquisition, which obliged the Marquis de Cañete to refer to Philip II., who returned an equivocal answer that, understanding the commander was a person of quality, it was proper that justice should be done accordingly. Sir Richard speaks highly of the honourable conduct of De Castro, and of the many civilities he received at his hands. From Lima Sir Richard was sent to Panama, in 1596, and in the same year to Spain, where, it is said, they kept him much longer than they ought to have done.

Every one must agree with Admiral Burney that the Voyage written by Sir Richard Hawkins “is replete with experienced observation and curious anecdote,” a great deal more of which would have been extracted had space admitted. The book was published in 1622, but the author died while it was in the press. It is a book that must take its station in the very first rank of our old sea voyages; and is the last voyage that was made to the South Sea for many years afterwards.

LORD CHARLES HOWARD OF EFFINGHAM,

LORD HIGH ADMIRAL.

1570 to 1619.

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LORD CHARLES HOWARD of Effingham, Lord High Admiral, was the son of Lord William Howard, Baron of Effingham, who was declared Lord Admiral by Queen Mary in the year 1553. His son Charles was born in the year 1536. While young he is said to have served under his father in short expeditions to the Continent. In 1559, on the death of Henry II. of France, he was sent on a mission of condolence and congratulation to his successor; in 1562 was elected a knight of the shire for the county of Surrey; in 1569 was made a General of Horse, under the Earl of Warwick, in the army sent against the rebel Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland ; and in 1570, when Lord Lincoln was Lord Admiral, he was appointed to command a squadron of ships of war, which Queen Elizabeth ordered to be employed in escorting Anne of Austria, sister of the Emperor Maximilian, from Zealand into Spain, to espouse Philip II., who, even at that time, had become a determined enemy of England, and more particularly of the Queen. In this voyage Lord Charles compelled a Spanish fleet of ten times his own number to strike their flags and lower their topsails to his gallant little squadron. That worthy old chronicler of the time, Richard Hakluyt, thus describes this transaction in his dedicatory Epistle to Lord Charles Howard himself:

“ When the Emperor's sister, the spouse of Spain, with a fleet of one hundred and thirty sail, stoutly and proudly passed the narrow seas, Your Lordship, accompanied with ten ships only of Her Majesty's Royal Navy, environed their fleet, in most strange and warlike sort, enforced them to stoop-gallant, and to vaile their bonnets for the Queen of England, and made them perfectly to understand that old speech of the Prince of Poets,

• Non illi imperium pelagi sævumque tridentem
Sed tibi sorte datum..

Yet, after they had acknowledged their duty, Your Lordship, on Her Majesty's behalf, conducted her safely through our English Channel, and performed all good offices of honour and humanity to that foreign Princess."'*

Such conduct, on such an occasion, gave a pledge to all England of what might be expected from such a commander; and it also held out, as Hakluyt further observes, “ that singular hope

* Hakluyt.

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which since, by your most worthy and wonderful service, you have more than fully satisfied."* It might have been thought that, on the death of Lord William Howard, his son Charles would have succeeded to his office; but Lord Clinton received from the Protector Somerset the appointment of Admiral of the North Seas, which, at a future period, was extended to that of Lord High Admiral of England; and, in 1572, he was created Earl of Lincoln, and died in 1584.

It was obvious enough that the noble act of Lord Charles Howard, by which he maintained the ancient homage demanded of foreign powers to the flag of England, would not be overlooked by Elizabeth, when the important station of Lord High Admiral became vacant; and, accordingly, in the year 1585, Lord Charles received that appointment; and three years afterwards the Noble Lord had the honour to accomplish a naval exploit unparalleled in its effect by any of the brilliant affairs that occurred—and many did occur—during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. It was a severe trial of nerve for an officer so recently appointed to the highest situation in the naval service, and one that required all the caution, coolness, and judgment to have obtained “ that glorious, triumphant, and thrice-happy victory, achieved against that large and haughty Spanish Armada, wherein,” continues

* Alluding to the Spanish Armada.

Hakluyt,“ being chief and sole Commander under her sacred and royal Majesty, Your Noble government and worthy behaviour, Your high wisdom, discretion, and happiness, accompanied with the heavenly blessing of the Almighty, are shewn most evidently to have been such as all posterity and succeeding ages shall never cease to sing and resound Your infinite praise and eternal commendations."*

The same year, 1585, in which Lord Charles Howard became Lord High Admiral, the war with Spain, which had hitherto been confined to embargoes on one side and reprisals on the other, now assumed a legitimate shape, and the first effect of it felt by Spain was the capture and destruction of her naval preparations in the harbour of Cadiz by Drake, in the year 1587; but there, as well as in other Spanish ports, fleets were in active and vigorous preparation, on an enormous scale, with the avowed intention of invading England.

The Queen, ever vigilant, seeing the necessity of being equally prepared to resist them, had frequent consultations with Lord Charles Howard, in whose ability and integrity she had the utmost confidence; she knew him to be, from the manner he had executed the duties with which he had hitherto been charged, a man without disguise, straightforward, skilful, prudent, and brave. He had the good fortune to associate with him, and

* Hakluyt's Dedication.

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