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victuall hath hindered much service which otherwize mighte haye beene performed. In continuance with them to their utter subvercion, in keeping them from water.

There were many ships in our ffleete not possessed with three dayes' victuall.

The cawses aforesaid considered in counsell, the second of this instante, in the morninge, pursuinge the enemy untill wee came into ffyftie-five degrees, and about two and thurtie leages from our coast, in that heighth it was thoughte meete for the safetie of men's lyves and shippinge, the winde beinge southerly, to shape our course for the ffryth in Scottland, as the benefitt of that place would yeilde; thereby to attaine that place for the better regard both of England and Scottland.

Yt was intended at our cominge thither that my Lord of Comberland should have passed unto the King of Scotts to acquainte his Majestie of the accidents that had happened ; as allso to steire his Majestie to provide some defensive power, yf the enemye should drawe unto his coasts, wherein her Majestie's power should assist with all their fforce.

Two pynnaces were left to followe the fileete untill they were shott beyound the Isles of Orkneyes and Shetland, unto which places they continued their courses ; and yf by any chaunge of winde they shaped their course otherwize, then yf winde would permytt the Pynnaces to advertize us at ye ffryth; and not findinge us there to come alongest our owne coast with advertizement.

The second of August, aboute twellve of the clock at noone, we haled west, the better to recover our coast, to attaine the ffryth, the enemy goinge away north-west and by north, as they did before. Beinge halled in xi leages west, the third of August in the morninge, about ten of the clock, the winde came up at north-west. Counsell thereof taken, yt was thoughte meete to take the benefytt thereof for our releifs of powder, shott, and victuall, and soe as to beare with all possible speede to the North fforeland : and, as yf the Enemy should retorn, wee mighte bee beforehand ffurnished of some of our wants, the readyer thereby to offend them.

I will deliver your Honor myne opinion, wherein I beseech your pardon yf it fall owt otherwize. I verely beleeve greate extreamitye shall force them yf they behould England in sighte againe. By all that I can gather, they are weakened of eighte of their best sorts of shippinge, which conteyned manye men, as allso many wasted in sickenes and slaughter. Their masts and sayles much spoyled, their pynnaces and boats, many cast of and wasted, wherein they shall fynd greate wants when they come to land and water, which they must doe shortely or dye. And where or howe my knoweledge cannott ymagine (as the winde serveth) noe place but betweene the Foreland and Hull : consideringe the Shallds and sands not greately to be doubted. The hugenes and greate draught of water in their ships considered, and otherwize, the winde as it is at north-west, they have noe place to goe with all but for the S. ... we in Denmark which were an hard adventure as the season of the yere approcheth.

If the winde by chaunge suffer them, I verelie beleeve they will pas aboute Scotland and Ireland to drawe themsellves home, wherein (the season of the yere considered) with the longe course they have to runne, and their sundry distresses, and of necessity the spendinge of tyme by wateringe, wynter will soe come on as wilbee to their greate ruyne.

God hath mightelie protected her Majestie's forces with the least losses that ever hath beene heard of beinge within the compas of soe great volues of shott, both small and greate. I verelye beleeve there is not three score men lost of her Majestie's forces. God make us and all her Majestie’s good subjects to render hartie prayse and thancks unto the Lord of lords therefore.

I will ever hould my sellf bound for your honorable and godlye points in your lettre of the xxvth of July, soe as to depend uppon the good providence of God, unto whom I will, both in season and owt of season, call uppon him with a faythfull assurance that hee will defend his from the raginge Enemy, who goeth about to beate downe his worde and devoure his people. My trust is their ymaginacions shall fall uppon themsellves, as a just plague for their wickednes and idollatrye.

God continue mee such as your expectacion in mee, and other of my name, bee not deceaved: and that wee may continue as faithfull servants and subiects to her Majestie, not regarding the perill of lyef, to slacke any one jott in that is meete for men to do in this her Majestie's needefull service.

God mightely defend my gratious mistress from the raginge enemye, not doubtinge but that all the worlde shall knowe and see that her Majestie's little army, guided by the finger of God, shall beate downe the pryde of his enemyes and hers, to his greate glorye, unto whom I betake your

Honor. ffrom aboard the good ship of her Majestie's, the Nonparelia, this iïijth of August, 1588. Your Honor's, in all love and duty,

for ever to commaund,


Within two howers after the writinge of this lettre, the winde came up at sowth-west, soe as thereby the enemy was able neither to seize England, Ireland, Scotland, fflaunders, and hardly the out Isles of Scotland. This iiijth day and vth, especiallie at night, continued a verie greate storme at south-west, beinge forced to ryde out in the sea th extreamity thereof.

* MS., State Paper Office.

Which storme hath in myne opinion touched the enemy very neere, for divers consideracions followinge, viz. :—The greate sea gate about those Isles; the hugenes of their shippinge, who were soe lighte as in faire weather would hardly beare theire topsailes ; also, the could clymat they are in toucheth them neere, and will doe daylie more and


Myne opinion is, they are by this time soe distressed, beinge,soe far thrust of as many of them will never see Spayngne againe, which is the onely worck of God to chastice their malicious practises, and to make them knowe that neyther the strengthes of men, nor their idolatrous gods, can prevaile when the mightie God of Israell stretcheth out but his finger against them. God make all her Majestie's good subiects thanckfull.



year after the dispersion of the Spanish Armada, under the false title of Invincible, namely, in 1589, Thomas Fenner, still in the command of the Dreadnought, accompanied his friend Sir Francis Drake on the joint expedition to the Groyne and Lisbon; on which his brother, William Fenner, was associated in command of the Aid. The operations at the Groyne, under the joint directions of Drake and Norris, are briefly described in the following letter to Lord Burleigh :


RightE HONORABLE,—We aryved at the Groyne the 24th of Aprill, landinge the same daie dyvers companyes, some two miles ffrom the towne, and proceded in scarmishe

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towardes the base towne, and neere theire ffortresse. The next daie landed contynually, and by trenche laie within muskett shott.

The place beinge of good strengthe, and well considerid of, skallinge ladders were provided, and a hundred boats and pinices broughte in a redynes, and a boute midenighte boarded, with a determinacyon to lande in the base towne, a ffrunte: passinge betwene the shippes, and the ffortresse of the enemy, two warninge peeces were shoute of, which we had planted one the shore, to beate the enemys shippes, which was a token that our lande companyes should approche the Scallads, at which Instance our boats and pinices landed, shoutinge our artilery, and makinge cryes, wherupon the enemyes fforsooke their chardge, and could not recover the highe towne but abandoned themselves into the rockes.

In regard of ffoule wether, and unfitt wyndes, we were dryven to make a battery to kepe the enemy occupied in the highe towne, a place of great strengthe, invyroned two parts and a half of ffower, with the sea, a breache was made, assaulte geven, many men beinge uppon the breache, with greate desiere, the earthe and stones gave waie under theire ffeete, and withall ffell a piece of wall which greatlie incombred us, which moved some loss of equalitie of bothe sides.

We ffounde in the Hareborough two galleys which ffledd to fferro, the St. John, a gallyon of Portugall, which was vizadmirall in the Army unto Ingland, a shippe of greate fforce, with ffyftie two pieces of brasse planted in her. Uppon the takinge of the base towne they comitted her to ffyer, notwithstandinge we saved the metle of the ordinaunce. A Byskyn shippe of a thowsand tonnes some brasse some Iron. A Hulke of six hundred tonnes, some brasse, some Iron. One other greate shippe uppon the Caryn. One other vessell laden with pikes, pike heades, musketts and Callyvers, with dyvers other small vessells and boats.

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