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Earl of Pembroke, and retired to the Continent till the beginning of a new reign. . .

The fate which had attended royal favouritism, at the courts of Elizabeth and James, however fascinating for a time to those who held it, was sufficiently discouraging to others in possession of or seeking after that species of ambition. Essex and Raleigh perished on the public scaffold—the minion Carr (created Earl of Somerset), together with his infamous Countess, were tried for secret murder, convicted, banished, and disgraced—and Buckingham fell by the dagger of an assassin.


1585 To 1618.

This nobleman was the eldest son of Thomas, fourth Duke of Norfolk, by his second wife Margaret, daughter and sole heiress to Thomas, Lord Audley of Walden. He was born in 1561, and, in his eleventh year, succeeded to the inheritance of his mother's estates. Having reached the age of twenty-four, that is to say in 1585, Elizabeth was pleased to recommend to the parliament of that year to release him from the attainder in which, by his father's conspiracy in the affair of Mary Queen of Scots, he and his family, after the trial and execution of the Duke of Norfolk, were involved. The Queen also created him Baron of Audley, and conferred on him the Order of the Garter. Thus freed and promoted, he forth with embraced the profession of arms, and adopted that of the naval service; probably under the patronage of his namesake and kinsman, Charles Howard of Effingham, who, in the year above mentioned, had been created Lord High Admiral of England. This is the more probable as, in the memorable year of 1588, we find Lord Thomas in command of the Golden Lion, and highly spoken of for his activity and gallantry in chasing, attacking, and dispersing the Spanish Armada. On the occasion of the accident, by which the large ship of Biscay, 800 tons, under the Admiral De Oquendo, had taken fire, and was so much damaged that the Spanish Admiral, after the officers, men, and treasure had been removed, ordered her to be set. adrift, Lord Thomas Howard and Captain Hawkins went in a skiff on board her, and reported her as follows :-“Her decks had fallen in, her steerage ruined, the stern blown out, and about fifty poor wretches burnt in a most miserable manner: the stench horrible.” They, however, took possession of her, and she was towed into Weymouth. · Three of the great Spanish galliasses, in attempting to rescue a large Portuguese galleon, that had been captured by Hawkins, were so warmly engaged by the Lord High Admiral in the Ark, and Lord Thomas Howard in the Golden Lion, that they were disabled, and their boats were put out to take possession of them, when the whole Spanish fleet, observing this, came down to their rescue, and to carry them off; but it is said, however, that none of these galliasses ventured to engage our ships ever after.

After a general fight on the 25th of July, being

nearly the last of that kind, which occurred on the following day, the Lord High Admiral bestowed the honour of knighthood on Lord Thomas Howard and four or five others, in consideration of their gallant behaviour. The Admiral indeed appears to have been highly satisfied with the conduct of the English commanders--not only those of the royal navy, but with several of those furnished by the merchants who on various occasions showed great resolution and bravery, and many are stated to have signalized themselves in a remarkable manner. 's

The next occasion on which we find Lord Thomas Howard employed was in the year 1591, when he was sent out with a squadron of six ships of war and some small vessels, with the view of intercepting the Spanish plate-ships on their return from the West Indies. The ships employed on this occasion were the Defiance, Lord T. Howard, Admiral; the Revenge, Sir Richard Greenvil, Vice-Admiral; the Nonpareil, Sir Edward Donnie; the Bonaventure, Captain Cross; the Lion, Captain Fenner; Foresight, Captain Vavasor; and Crane, Captain Duffield. · This squadron proceeded to the Azores, and remained about six months at Flores, expecting the return of the Spanish ships. The King of Spain, however, having received information of this squadron, sent out a fleet of fifty-three ships, under the command of Admiral Don Alphonso Bassano, to protect and convoy home the plate-ships. They were fallen in with by the little squadron of the Earl of Cumberland, who very promptly despatched one of his ships, the Moonshine, to watch their proceedings and ascertain their force, and then to make for the Azores and apprize Lord Thomas Howard of such information as he should have been able to collect.

Scarcely, however, had the Moonshine arrived, with intelligence for Lord Thomas, when the Spanish fleet itself hove in sight; and so unexpectedly, that the Admiral had little time to get his sick on board, which were numerous, to weigh anchor, and to work to windward of the enemy. He had now only five ships with him, the Revenge not getting out with the rest; but with these five he determined to engage the fifty-three, of which the Spanish fleet consisted ; and did actually attack them ; but, the night coming on, they parted. The crew, however, headed by their officers, came up to the Admiral, representing to him their vast inferiority, and entreated him not to think of renewing the action in the morning, which could only terminate in the loss of their little fleet and the destruction of their crews; Captain Vavasor, of the Foresight, being, as is said, the only commander that persisted in resuming the engagement by daylight.

The Vice-Admiral, Sir Richard Greenvil, in the

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