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served only to involve him in more serious difficulties. In the mean time he had made his way to court, where young men of rank, of handsome appearance, of graceful and elegant accomplishments, were sure to be well received. He became a constant attendant at the tilt-yard at Westminster, where her Majesty frequently witnessed the sports ; he excelled in games of chivalry and personal exercises; in tilts and tournaments he bore away the prizes from most of his competitors. On some occasion, the Queen dropped her glove by accident, as some say—others, by design ; probably the former, as she is said to have been in the habit of constantly pulling off her gloves, to show her beautiful white hands. The Earl, on picking it up, was desired by her Majesty to keep it; and as such a trophy was too valuable to be shut up, he had it emblazoned with diamonds, and is said ever after to have worn it in the front of his hat, at all public assemblies where her Majesty was likely to make her appearance.

Thus introduced, the personal qualifications and manners of the Earl were quite sufficient to enlist him among the number of those, who were distinguished as Elizabeth's favourites; of those in whom she was supposed to confide, and to make use of on great occasions of display: nor in the present instance did she stop short in conferring distinction on the new favourite. It was by her recommendation, no doubt, that he was selected as one of those to be actively employed in the dispersion and defeat of the Invincible Armada, being appointed to the command of one of the Queen's ships, the Elizabeth Bonaventure, of 600 tons; and he is mentioned as one who greatly distinguished himself. : The Queen was so much pleased with the good service done by the navy on that occasion, that among those, who received marks of her favour, she gratified the Earl of Cumberland by conferring on him, on his second expedition, a commission as one of her admirals against the Spaniards; and lent him, moreover, one of her own ships, the Golden Lion, to prosecute an intended voyage to the South Seas; and all this was done within two months after the dispersion of the Spanish Armada. . · The extraordinary resolution and perseverance of this nobleman may be understood, when it is stated that, in twelve consecutive years, from 1586 to 1598, he undertook ten expeditions (exclusive of the share be took against the Armada), with the double object, it may be presumed, of retaining the countenance of the Queen, and at the same time of doing service to the nation, by annoying and distressing the Spaniards; perhaps also, with a view to the improvement of his finances. It has been supposed, however, that the balance of profit and loss, on the whole ten voyages, was but small, if any, on the favourable side of the account. A brief abstract of these expeditions will suffice in this place.

For the Second Erpedition, the Golden Lion, a

Queen's ship, was fitted out, furnished, victualled, and manned, at his own cost, and a number of gentlemen volunteers attended him. He was ready and sailed before the expiration of the month of October; but the winds and the weather prevented his progress, and, in a storm, he was compelled to cut his mainmast by the board, and to return into port with a small prize laden with merchandise for Spain.

The Third Expedition. The following year, 1589, the Earl was granted another royal ship, the Victory, Captain Lister: and he engaged two others, the Megg, Captain Monson, vice-admiral; and Margaret, Captain Careless, rear-admiral; to which were added the Caravel, Captain Pigeon: altogether manned with four hundred mariners and soldiers. On the 18th of June they left Plymouth, and in a short time took several small vessels, which were sent to England with the Margaret (not being sea-worthy). On the 28th the Earl fell in with several of the scattered ships, belonging to Sir Francis Drake's and Sir John Norris's squadron, returning from Lisbon, and in such distress for want of provisions, that many of them must have perished had not the Earl relieved them. On the coast of Spain he took thirteen ships belonging to the Hanse Towns, eased them of spices to the value of about seven thousand pounds, and dismissed them.



Hence he stood over to the Azores, and made St. Michael's on the 1st of August, where four ships were observed at anchor in the road. His Lordship determined in the night to go in the boats, cut their cables, and bring them away, which accordingly was done, and the prizes carried off without any mischief. The squadron next proceeded to Fayal, where the Earl had been informed some Spanish carracks from the Indies would be found: they were, however, gone; but there were still a few ships remaining; and Captains Lister and Monson made a desperate attempt upon one of them, about three hundred tons and fourteen brass guns, which they brought out, though under the great guns of the castle which played upon the boats.

The Earl, not satisfied with what had been done, resolved to attack the town, which was deserted on their approach. They therefore compounded for a ransom of two thousand ducats, paid chiefly in church plate: they brought away also fifty-eight pieces of iron ordnance. From hence they proceeded to St. Michael's, and thence to St. Mary's, taking several prizes, which the Earl despatched to England with the Megg. In their way they also took a ship from the West Indies, of four hundred tons, her cargo valued at one hundred thousand pounds. At St. Mary's a ship was observed close under the Castle wall, which, by the advice of Captain Lister, as Captain Monson says, the Earl

was persuaded to take out by their boats; but they suffered so severely that two parts of the men were killed or wounded-eighty, as stated by Purchas. The Earl himself received three shots on his target, and a fourth on his side; had his head broken with stones; his face covered with blood; and both that and his legs scorched with grenades. · Monson, who lays the whole blame on Lister for their landing in the face of the fortifications of St. Mary's, “ against all reason and sense,” allows him to have been brave. “ As he was rash, so was he valiant; but paid dearly for his unadvised counsel, for he was one of the first hurt, and that cruelly too, and was afterwards drowned in the rich ship, that was cast away in Mount's Bay.” It appears he was sent home with this valuable Indian prize, which was lost in that bay: but the Earl himself had to endure the misery of a long famine, danger of shipwreck, want of fresh water, and the death of a great part of his men. It seems they had nothing to drink but a few spoonfuls of vinegar a-day to each man, which was mixed with the little water they could catch from rain or hail, and many of them are stated to have died from drinking salt-water. In all this distress, the noble Earl is said to have maintained an equal temper and presence of mind, sharing every misfortune, without murmuring, with his whole ship's company.

Monson, in his caustic way, says of this voyage,

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