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Near Abbotsbury is an antient chapel of St. Catherine, which, from its elevated situation, is used as a sea-mark. Swannage, or Swanwich, near Corfe Castle, is a place of some resort as a bathing place. • Divisions for Ecclesiastical and Legal purposes.-In the earlier period of the Ecclesiastical constitution of England, Dorsetshire was included in the bishopric of Dorchester in Oxfordshire, a see founded by Birinus, first bishop of the West Saxons, about A.D. 626 ; and afterwards removed to Winchester. In the year 705 when Ina, king of Wessex, divided his kingdom into dioceses, Dorsetshire was comprehended in that of Sherborne, from which place the see was removed, about the middle of the 11th century, to Sarum. Upon the erection of the see of Bristol, A.D. 1542, Dorsetshire was transferred to the new diocese, of which it constituted the chief part, and it continued to be so, until transferred back by the late act to the diocese of Salisbury. Dorsetshire was an archdeaconry before it was transferred to the see of Bristol. It is subdivided into five rural deaneries, Bridport, Dorchester, Pimperne, Shaftesbury, and Whitchurch Winterbourne. While the county was in the diocese of Bristol the bishop held his triennial, and the archdeacon his annual visitations at Bridport, Dorchester, Blandford, Shaftesbury, Cerne Abbas, or Whitchurch: this arrangement we presume will be continued. The number of benefices it is difficult to give: Hutchins gives the parishes at 250; of these some are parochial chapelries; others, though separate and independent in other respects, are united under one incumbent. This county is included in the Western circuit. The assizes were antiently held at Sherbourne; sometimes though rarely at Shaftesbury, but generally, especially in latter times, at Dorchester, where they may be considered as now fixed. The shire-hall and county gaol are at Dorchester. The Epiphany quarter sessions are held at Blandsord, the Easter at Sherbourne, the Midsummer at Shaftesbury, and the Michaelmas at Bridport. Before the passing of the Reform Act, twenty members were returned to the House of Commons from Dorsetshire, vix. two for the county, four for the united boroughs of Weymouth and Melcomb Regis, and two each for the boroughs of Bridport, Corfe Castle, Dorchester, Lyme, Poole, Shaftesbury, and Wareham. By the Reform Act the number has been reduced to fourteen, viz., three for the county, two each for the boroughs of Bridport, Dorchester, and Poole, and Weymouth, united with Melcomb Regis; and one each for the boroughs of Shaftesbury, Lyme Regis, and Wareham. Corfe Castle was disfranchised and included in the neighbouring parliamentary borough of Wareham. The chief place of election for the county is Dorchester: the polling stations are Beaminster, Blandford, Chesilton (in the Isle of Portland), Dorchester, Shaftesbury, Sherbourne, Wareham, and Wimbourne. History and Antiquities.—This county was, in the earliest Y. noticed by history, inhabited by a people whom tolemy calls Aovporptysc Durotriges, a name which Mr. Hutchins (after Camden) derives from the British words Dwr water and Trig an inhabitant, and interprets to mean dwellers by the water side. According to Asser Menevensis the Britons called this people Dwr Gwyr : the Saxons called them Donrettan (Dorsettan,) whence the modern name of the county. The name Dorsettan is equivalent in meaning to the antient British name, given in a Greek form by Ptolemy. These Durotriges appear to have been of Belgic race. Upon the conquest of South Britain by the Romans, Dorsetshire was included in Britannia Prima. Of this early period of our history there are several remains in various camps and earth works, stone circles, cromlechs, and barrows. In the north-eastern part of the county and the adjacent part of Wiltshire, are several embankments with ditches: they all run in a winding and irregular manner, mostly from south-east to north-west, having the ditch on the north-east side. Vernditch, which has given name to a part of Cranbourne chace, is of these, Grimsditch is another. On the right of the road from Cerne Abbas to Calstock and in other parts of the county are little banks, crossing one another in all kinds of angles: they are made of flints covered with turf. Neither their age nor their use seems to be known. There are several Roman camps in the county. Mr. Hutchins enumerates twenty-five; and the walls and amphitheatre of Dorchester, and the coins and pavements found there, are monuments of the same victorious people.

There were at least two Roman stations in the county, viz., Durnovaria, [Itin. Antonini,) or Aovviov, Dunium [Ptolemy], Dorchester; and Windocladia or Windogladia, Vindelia in Richard of Cirencester, which some are disposed to fix at Wimbourne, others more probably at Gussage, between Blandford Forum and Cranbourne. To these Dr. Stukely would add a third, Ibernium, (mentioned by the anonymous Ravennas,) which he fixes at Bere Regis. Several places in the confused and barbarous list of names given by Ravennas, are conjectured by Baxter to be in Dorsetshire. The Icknield or Ecknield way enters the county at its western extremity, coming from Hembury Fort [DEvoNsHIRE], and runs east by south to Dorchester, near which it is very perfect, high and broad, and paved with tint and stone: from Dorchester it runs by Sheepwick and Sturminster Marshall, and the Gussages into Wiltshire. In this part it is called Ackling dike. Its passing near the Gussages gives support to the conjecture of those who fix Windogladia at one of them. The remains of a Roman road may be traced on the south-west side of the Frome, leading from Dorchester in a north-west direction as far as Bradford Peverel, and Stratton, soon after which it disappears: another road may be traced from Dorchester, on the other bank of Frome, parallel to the former road, and uniting with it at Stratton; a third runs south from Dorchester in the direction of Melcomb Regis; and there are traces of several others. When the Saxons established their octarchy, Dorsetshire was included in the kingdom of Wessex; and even after the West Saxon princes acquired the sovereignty of England, they *...! occasionally in this county. Ethelbald and Ethelbert, the elder brothers of Alfred the Great, were buried at Sherbourne; and Ethelred I., another brother of the same prince, at Wimbourne. In the invasions of the Danes this county suffered severely. Egbert, king of Wessex, fought a battle with them at Charmouth, near the western extremity of Dorsetshire, A.D. 833. Seven years afterwards his son Ethelwolf fought a second battle with them at the same place. In A.D. S76 they made themselves masters of Wareham, where they were besieged by Alfred, who obliged them to quit that place the next year, when 120 of their vessels were wrecked at Swanage. In A.D. 1002, Sweyn, king of Denmark, in his invasion of England, destroyed Dorchester, Sherbourne, and Shaston or Shaftesbury. Throughout the middle ages, few events of historical interest connected with the county occur. The contest of the Roses little affected this part of the kingdom. The towns on the coast were flourishing, as appears from the following list of the vessels which they furnished to the fleet of Edward III. at the siege of Calais, A.D. 1347. Weymouth, 20 ships and 264 mariners, or, according to Hackluyt, 15 ships and 263 mariners; Lyme, 4 ships, 62 mariners; Poole, 4 ships, 94 mariners; Wii. 3 ships, 59 mariners. To judge of the comparative importance of these armaments, it must be remembered that Bristol furnished only 22 ships and 608 mariners, and London 25 ships and 662 mariners; so that Weymouth furnished only 2 vessels less than Bristol, and only 5 less than London: they were, however, more weakly manned and probably smaller. To the fleet of the lord high admiral (Howard of Eslingham) at the time of the armada, A. D. 1588, this county furnished 8 vessels (3 of them volunteers); the aggregate tonnage of 7 of these was 560 tons, and they carried 290 men; the tonnage of the eighth vessel is unknown; it carried 50 soldiers. The second engagement * English fleet with the armada was off Portland ill. In the civil war of Charles I, the gentry were mostly for the king; but the people of the towns, where the clothing trade was then carried on, and of the ports, were for the parliament. In the beginning of the war, Sir Walter Earle and Sir Thomas Trenchard, partisans of the parliament, Y." themselves of Dorchester, Weymouth, Portland, yme, Wareham, and Poole, while Sherbourne Castle, Chideock Castle, and Corfe Castle were garrisoned by the king. The parliamentarians always retained Lyme and Poole, which were fortified; but the other towns, being open, fell into the hands of whichever party was master of the field. In March, 1642-3, Sir William Waller marched into the county with two regiments of horse, but did little; and the earl of Carnarvon entering the county with a body of royalists, took Dorchester op. and raised the

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siege of Corfe Castle which the parliamentarians had formed.
Several engagements took place in the county at a later
riod of the contest, but they were of little moment. Corfe
astle held out for the king till 1645-6. The year 1645
was distinguished by the rising of the club men in the
counties of Dorset, Wilts, and Somerset; their object was
to defend this part of the country from the outrages of
both parties. Their assembling excited the jealousy of
the parliamentarians, whose superiority was now established.
Cromwell defeated a considerable body of them at Ha-
milton hill, and other bodies were persuaded to disperse.

county, ranking the seventeenth in this respect. Of 37,861
males twenty years of age and upwards, inhabitants of
Dorsetshire in 1831, there were 16,766 engaged in agri-
cultural pursuits, and only 722 in manufactures or in
making manufacturing machinery. Of these latter 400
were employed in the manufacture of hemp into twine and
sailcloth, chiefly at Bridport; 80 were employed in the
woollen manufactures, chiefly at Lyme Regis; about 40 in
silk, mostly at Shaftesbury; there were a few glove-makers
at Cerne-Abbas; and wire button-making still gives em-
ployment to a few hands.
The following summary of the population, as taken in

Showing an increase between the first and last periods of
44,933, nearly 39 per cent, which is 17 per cent. below
the general rate of increase throughout England.

County Expenses, Crime, &c.—The sums expended for the relief of the poor at the four dates of

42. s, d.
1801 were 64,771, which was 11 2 for each inhabitant.
1811 , , 109,304 » 17 6 --
1821 , , 85,647 » 11 10 ->
1831 , , 90,668 x- 11 4 wn

The sum expended for the same purpose in the year ending March 25, 1836, was 68,019/.'; and assuming the same rate of increase in the population since 1831 as in the ten years preceding that period, the above sum gives an average of about 8s. 1%d for each inhabitant. These averages are beyond those for the whole of England and Wales.

The sum raised, in Dorsetshire for poor-rate, countyrate, and other local purposes, in the year ending the 25th of March, 1833, was 108,4951. 14s., and was levied upon the various descriptions of property as follows:–

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42. s. d.

Bridges, buildings, and repairs, &c. . . . 746 7 11
Gaols, houses of correction, &c., and) 2,274 19 6;

£. &. On land . - - 85,991 0 Dwelling-houses . - 18,961 10 Mills, factories, &c. - 1,520 10 Manorial profits, navigation, &c. 2,022 14

maintaining prisoners, &c. - -
Shire halls and courts of Julio- 65 15 1

building, repairing, &c. -
Lunatic asylums - - . 2,251 7 9
Prosecutions - - . 1,096 16 7+
Clerk of the peace . - - 563 1 0

£. s. d. Schoo's Scholars. Total. Conveyance of prisoners before trial .. 819 15 5 |{nfant school: . . . . . . . . . . . 115 ". of transports - 21 0 16 6 Number of infants at such schools; ages Vagrants—apprehending and conveying 147 10 0 from 2 to 7 years Mal r. Constables—high and special . - 16 8 10 aleS . . . 859 Coroner - - - . 459 16 11 Females . . . 950 Miscellaneous - - - 860 4 9 Sex not specified 392 2,20 - l The number of persons charged with criminal offences, Daily schools . . . . . . . . . . 596 in the three septennial periods ending with 1820, 1827, and Number of children at such schools; 1834, were 632, 866, and 1150 respectively; making an ages from 4 to 14 years:— average of 90 annually in the first period, of 124 in the Males . . . 6,493 second period, and of 164 in the third period. The num- Females . . . 5,566 ber of persons tried at quarter-sessions, in respect to which Sex not specified 3,898 any costs were paid out of the county-rates, were 123, 135, — — 15,957 and 109 respectively. Of this number, there were— Schools . . 71 l -1831. 1832. 1833. Sund Total of children under daily instruction 18, 158 Committed for felonies . . 82 83 65 unday schools . . . . . . . , 316 -> misdemeanors 41 52 44 Number of children at such schools; ages from 4 to 15 and 16 years — The total number of committals in each of the same Males . . . 7,577 years was 123, 135, and 109 respectively: of whom Females . . . 8,144 1831. 1832. 1833. Sex not specified 4, 109 The number convicted was . 87 79 79 19,830 -- acquitted . . . 17 22 10 Assuming that the population between 2 and 15 years of Discharged by proclamation . 19 34 20 age has increased in the same proportion as the whole popu

At the assizes and sessions in 1836 there were 193 persons charged with crimes in this county. Of this number 15 were charged with offences against the person, 10 of which were for common assaults; 13 with offences against property, committed with violence; 158 with offences against property, committed without violence; 1 was committed for arson; 2 for counterfeiting coin and uttering the same; 1 for poaching ; 1 for prison-breaking; and 2 for riot. Of the whole number of offenders, 118 were convicted and 75 acquitted, or no bill found against them. Of the number convicted, 5 were sentenced to death, which sentence was commuted to transportation; there were also 14 other persons transported: I sentenced to imprisonment for 2 years; 14 for 1 year and above 6 months; and 79 for 6 months and under; 2 were fined, and 3 were discharged on sureties. Of the total number of offenders, 162 were males and 31 were females. Among the whole not one had received superior instruction; 19 could read and write well, 106 could lead and write imperfectly; and 63 could neither read nor write; the degree of instruction of the remaining 12 could not be ascertained. The proportion of offenders to the population, in 1836, was 1 in 866.

The number of turnpike trusts in Dorsetshire, as ascertained in 1834, was 17; the number of miles of road under their charge was 359; the annual income arising from the tolls and parish composition was 23,002l. 2s. 4d, and the annual expenditure, 24,2811. 9s. 10d.

The number of persons qualified to vote for the county members of Dorsetshire was (in 1836) 6320, being 1 in 26 of the whole population, and 1 in 6 of the male population above twenty years of age. The expenses of the last election of county members to parliament were to the inhabitants of the county 2331, 13s. 11d., and were paid out of the general county-rate.

There are nine savings-banks in this county. The number of depositors and amount of deposits on the 20th of November were:—

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lation since 1821, and that since 1831 the rate of increase has been in the same ratio as in the ten preceding years: there were in 1834 about 50,010 children in Dorsetshire, between the ages of 2 and 15. A very large number of the scholars attend both daily and Sunday-schools, but in what number or in what proportion is uncertain. Thirty-eight Sunday-schools, attended by 1268 children, are returned from places where no other schools exist; but in all other places Sunday-school children have opportunity of resorting to other schools also. Thirty-oue schools, containing 1841 scholars, are both daily and Sunday schools, and duplicate entry is known to have been thus far created. We may therefore conclude that not more than two-thirds of the whole population between the ages of 2 and 15 were receiving instruction at the time of the inquiry.

Maintenance of Schools.

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Twenty-nine boarding-schools are included in the number of daily schools as given above. No school in this county appears to be confined to the children of the Established Church, or of any other religious denomination, such exclusion being disclaimed in almost every instance, especially in schools established by Dissenters, with whom are here included Wesleyan Methodists, together with schools for children of Roman Catholic parents. Lending libraries of books are attached to 31 schools in this county. DORSIBRANCHIATA, Cuvier's appellation for the second order of Annelids, which have their organs, and especially their branchiae, distributed nearly equally along the whole of their body, or at least a part. Chloéia (Sa: vigny) and Cirratulus (Lamarck), with many other genera, which our limits do not permit us to enumerate, belong to this order. The reader is referred to Lamarck (Animaua, Sons Portèbres, tome v.); to Savigny (Eg. Annel); and to Cuvier (Règne Animal, tome iii.) as the principal guides on this subject. [ANNELIDA.] DORSTE'NIA, a genus of plants of the family of the Urticaceae. The roots of several species of this genus are

all confounded under the appellation of Contrayerva root, but as they all possess nearly the same chemical composition and properties, it is of little importance which particular species yields what is used. Indeed, by the time the root reaches Europe, whatever virtues it originally possessed are lost, so that it has scarcely any sensible qualities, and very little effect on the system. It consists of volatile oil, extractive and starch. The first of these gives it some power over the nervous system, should it not have been dissipated by time. Hence it is recommended in the low stages of fever, especially of children; but serpentaria root may at all times be advantageously substituted for it. Contrayerva signifies antidote, and it was at one time supposed to be an antidote to all poisons, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, except mercury. DORT or DORDRECHT, in antient times called Thuredrecht, a city of South Holland, is situated on an island formed by the Maas, which was separated from the opposite shore in November, 1421, by an irruption of the waters. By this irruption the dikes were broken down, more than 70 villages were destroyed, and an immense number of the inhabitants were drowned. The city is situated twelve miles south-east from Rotterdam, in 51° 49' N. lat. and 4° 38' E. long. Dort is said to have been founded by Merovaeus in the fifth century. It is certainly one of the most antient cities in Holland, and was formerly the capital of the province. Its situation is naturally so strong, that although frequently invested it has always made successful resistance to the besiegers. It has a safe and good harbour, and is well situated for trade, having two canals, by means of which goods can be conveyed to warehouses in the heart of the city. The principal trade is that of corn and wood; large rafts of the latter are brought down the Rhine to this place, and there broken up for sale. There are many saw-mills in the town, and ship-building also forms a large branch of its industry. Dort contains about 18,000 inhabitants. Gerard Vossius and the brothers De Witt were natives of the town. The town-hall is a handsome building, and the principal church is 300 feet long and 125 feet wide, with lofty towers and chimes. DORT, SYNOD OF, an Assembly of Protestant Divines convoked at Dort in the year 1618, by the States General, under the influence of Prince Maurice of Nassau, by which the tenets of the Arminians, in five points, relating to predestination and grace, were condemned by the followers of Calvinism. At this synod ecclesiastical deputies were present from most of the States of the United Provinces, and from the churches of England, Hesse, Bremen, Switzerland, and the Palatinate. Those from England were Dr. George Carleton, bishop of Landaff; Dr. John Davenant, regius professor of divinity at Cambridge and master of Queen's College; Dr. Samuel Ward, master of Sidney College; and Dr. Joseph Hall, then dean of Worcester but afterwards bishop of Norwich. Dr. Hall's health, after two months, requiring his return, he was replaced by Dr. Thomas Goad. To these was afterwards added Walter Balcangual, a Scots divine, deputed by King James on behalf of the churches of that nation. The synod was opened on November 13, 1618: it consisted of thirty-eight É. and Walloon divines, five professors of universities, and twenty-one lay-elders; the foreign divines amounted to twenty-eight. Those from o had the precedence, after the deputies of the States. The person by whom the Arminians were headed in defending their cause, was Simon Episcopius, at that time professor of divinity at Leyden, who opened the proceedings, on the part of his sect, with a moderation and elosluence which did him honour. The remonstrants, however, as the Arminians were called, desiring to rest the main defence of their cause, not upon the grounds in reason aid scripture on which their opinions were founded, but on their refutation of the opinions of the Calvinists their adversaries, difficulties arose, and their proposal was rejected. They were told that the synod was met to judge, not to confer. The design of the Arminians, says Mosheim, in the proposal they made, was probably to get the people on their side, by such an unfavourable representation of the Calvinistic system, and of the harsh consequences that seem deducible from it, as might excite a disgust in the minds of those who were present, against its friends and abettors. And it

is more than probable that one of the principal reasons that engaged the members of the synod to reject this proposal, was a consideration of the genius and eloquence of Episcopius, and an apprehension of the effects they might produce upon the multitude. When all the methods employed to persuade the Arminians to submit to the manner of proceeding, proposed by the synod, proved ineffectual, they were excluded from that assembly, and returned home complaining bitterly of the rigour and injustice with which they had been treated. Their cause was nevertheless tried in their absence, and, in consequence of a strict examination of their writings, they were pronounced guilty of pestilential errors, and condemned as corruptors of the true religion. This sentence was followed by its natural effects, which were the excommunication of the Arminians, the suppression of their religious assemblies, and the deprivation of their ministers. Brandt, in the second and third volumes of his ‘Histo of the Reformation in and about the Low Countries,’ fol. London, 1720–1722, has given a very minut edetail of the proceedings in the successive sessions of this synod; they were a hundred and eighty in number, and continued till May 29th, 1619. j however, was an Arminian, and though he is to be relied upon for facts, the reasoning which he occasionally deduces from them requires a comparison with other writers. Maclaine in his “ Notes on Mosheim,” says, the reader will do well to consult the letters of the learned and worthy Mr. John Hales of Eton, who was an impartial spectator of the proceedings of this famous synod, and who relates with candour and simplicity what he saw and heard. All that appeared unfair to the Arminians in the proceedings of this synod, has been collected together in a Dutch book entitled ‘Nullitegten, Mishandelingen, ende anhyllike Proceduren des Nationalen Synodi gehonden binnen Dordrecht, &c.’ Of the disputes which had prevailed in Holland for some years, between the Calvinists and Arminians, previous to the convocation of this synod, we have already spoken in the account of Barneveldt the grand pensionary, whose fate was sealed, when it had been sanctioned by the decision of this assembly. (See Brandt, ut supr. ; Mosheim’s ‘Eccl. Hist.’ 4to. Lond. 1765, vol. ii. pp. 524, 525; and “The Articles of the Synod of Dort, and its rejection of errors: transl. from the Latin, with Notes, &c. by Thomas Scott,’ 8vo. Lond. 1818.) The presentation copy of the ‘Acta Synodi Nationalis, autoritate illustr. et praepotentum DD. Ordinum Generalium Fuederati Belgii Provinciarum Dordrechti habitao anno MDCxvi.11 et MDCXIx, fol. Lugd. Bat. 1620,’ formerly belonging to King James I., splendidly bound in crimson velvet and ...i. with the royal arms, is still preserved in the library of the British Museum. A wood-cut representing the sitting of the synod is prefixed to Judicium Synodi Nationalis reformatarum Ecclesiarum Belgicarum habitae Dordrechti, Anno 1618 et 1619.’ ‘The Collegiat Suffrage of the Divines of Great Britain concerning the Five Articles controverted in the Low Countries: by them delivered in the Synod, March 6, 1619, being their vote or voice foregoing the joint and publique judgment of the Synod, was published in English, 4to., Lond, 1629. An Album containing the signatures of the different members of the synod was delivered to each person at the breaking up of the assembly; one of them was disposed of in London at the auction of Mr. Van Sybstein's MSS. in 1825. The gold medal struck by the States in commemoration of the synod is engraved in the ' Histoire Metallique de la Republique de Hollande, par M. Bizot,' tom, i. p. 139. In the sixth session, which was held on the 19th November, 1618, the synod of Dort proposed obtaining a translation of the Bible from the original texts into Dutch, which was judged to be a necessary work. In the seventh, and some of the succeeding sessions, the translation was finally agreed to, and rules laid down for the direction of the translators. In the thirteenth session, on the 26th November, the translators were appointed, when the following were chosen by a majority of votes: John Bogerman, the president of the synod; William Baudart and Gerson Bucer, for the Old Testament; Jacobus Roland, Herman Faukelius, and Peter Cornelius, for the New Testament and Apocrypha. The synod then chose sixteen supervisors of the translation; and also resolved, that in case any of the translators should die or be disabled by sickness, the president, with the two assessors, and the scribes of the synod, should be empowered to appoint successors. After a delay of nearly ten years, the translators of the Old Testament assembled at Leyden, in 1628, and the next year, 1629, the translators of the New Testament; but as Herman Faukelius, pastor of the church of Middleburg, and Peter Cornelius, pastor of the church of Enchusan, had died previous to their meeting together, Anthony Walaeus and Festus Hommius were chosen in their stead. When the translation of the Old Testament had advanced as far as the first chapter of Ezekiel, Gerson Bucer died, and was succeeded in his office by Anthony Thysius : Jacobus Roland also died when the translation of the New Testament had advanced to The Acts of the Apostles. The translation of the entire Bible was completed in 1632. The supervisors of the Old Testament met at Leyden, with the translators, in 1633; and those of the New Testament in 1634; and the revision was completed in October, 1635. The printing of the Bible was finished in 1637, when it appeared in folio from the presses of Leyden and the Hague, and in octavo from the press of Amsterdam. This is what is called ‘The Dort Bible.” Editions of it were soon rapidly multiplied and extensively circulated. (See Brandt, ut supr. vol. iii. p. 25–28; Leusdeni, Philologus Hebroro Mirtus, Diss. x. etxi.; and Townley's Illustrations of Biblical Literature, 8vo. Lond. 1821, vol. iii. pp. 400, 401.) DOT, in music, a point, or speck, placed after a note or rest, in order to make such note or rest half as long again. Thus a semibreve with a dot is equal to three minims: a crotchet rest with a dot is equal to three quaver rests. In modern music a double dot is often used, in which case the second is equal to half of the first. Thus a double dotted minim is equal to three crotchets and a quaver; a double-dotted quaver rest is equal to three semi

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DOTIS, one of the four circles of the county of Comorn, in north-western Hungary. Dotis (in Hungarian Tata), the chief town of the circle, lies to the south-east of the town of Comorn, in 47° 38' N. lat. and 18° 20' E. long. The town is situate on an eminence next the river Tata, and with its suburb, Továros, which signifies • Lake Town,” as it lies on the margin of a narrow lake about four miles in length, contains about 960 houses and 8870 inhabitants. Between the two are the ruins of an antient castle, celebrated for its strength in former days, and said to have been built by the Romans, which was a favourite residence of Mathias Corvinus, king of Hungary. Among the buildings 9f note are three churches, one of which is very old, a Capuchin and a Piarist monastery, the latter having a grammar-school, a head-district school, a military hospital, and some warm baths, much in repute. The inhabitants are industrious, have several flour and saw-mills, and manufacture coarse woollen cloths, earthenware and pottery, beer, bed-rugs, &c. . In the adjoining village of Bay is a spacious cellar, capable of stowing away 50,000 auims of wine: among them is a tun which holds 1420 aulms. The Esterházy family have a splendid castle here, with grounds laid out in the English style. At St. Ivány, near Dotis, are quarries of fine marble and freestone. There are vine. yards, large sheep-grounds, and extensive forests, in the neighbourhood. otis, and much of the surrounding land, are the property of the Esterházy family. There are weli attended annual fairs.


DOUAY, or DOUAI, a town in the department of Nord, on the river Scarpe, near where the canal of the Haute Deule meets it, on the road from Paris by Peronne and Cambray to Lille and Bruges, 121 miles from Paris. It is 103 miles from Paris in a straight line north by east, in 50° 21' N. lat., and 3° 6' E. long.

Douay is advantageously situated for commerce. It is surrounded by antient walls, flanked with towers: the walls afford an agreeable promenade. The town is further defended by a fort on the left bank of the Scarpe. The area

inclosed by the walls is large, and contains almost as many gardens as dwellings. The streets are well laid out, and the town-hall, the church of St. Pierre (Peter), and the arsenal, one of the most considerable in France, are the principal buildings. The inhabitants, who amounted in 1832 to 18,793, are engaged in manufactures of various kinds, as linens, lace, gauze, cotton goods and yarn, soap, glass, leather, and refined sugar. A considerable trade is carried on in flax, woollen cloth, and cattle. There is every second year an exhibition of the articles of manufacturin industry; and prizes are distributed for the most useful j ingenious inventions or the best finished pieces of workmanship. Medals are likewise annually distributed by the Departmental Society of Agriculture, which has its seat in this town, not at Lille, Douay is the seat of a cour royale, which exercises jurisdiction over the departments of Nord and Pas de Calais. It is also the capital of an arrondissement. There are at Douay an académie universitaire or university, a collège or high school, a school for the artillery, and a school of drawing and music. The public library consists of 27,000 volumes, and there are a museum of natural history, a botanic garden, and a collection of paintings and antiquities, a foundling hospital, a theatre, two other hospitals (one military), and a military prison.

Douay is a place of great antiquity: it existed in the time of the Romans, and became under the counts of Flanders a place of considerable importance. Phillippe le Bel having a dispute with the count of Flanders, possessed himself of this town A.D. 1297, but it was restored to the counts in a p. 1368 by Charles V. of France. With the rest of Flanders it passed under the dominions of the kings of Spain; and in A.D. 1552 Philip II. of Spain founded a university here. In 1667 Louis XIV. of France took pos. session of Douay: it was taken in 1710 by the allies under Marlborough and Eugene, but the French retook it after the English withdrew from the coalition against France. The arrondissement is divided into six cantons, and seventy communes: it had in 1832 a population of 92,750. Much flax is grown, and coal is dug in the neighbourhood of the town.


DOUBLE-BASE, the largest musical instrument of the

viol kind. [Viol.] In England, Italy, and France, the double-base has three strings, which are tuned in fourths: 9:=E=EPE gTETHT

(An octave lower.)

In Germany a fourth string is used, tuned a fourth below the deepest of the above. The double-base, in full orchestral pieces, takes the notes written for the violoncello, when not otherwise directed, and if these are not too rapid, but always gives them an octave lower. It may be considered as the foundation of the band, for a want of firmness in this instrument is more fatal in its consequences than unsteadiness in any other. In our concerts the Italian name of this instrument, Contra-basso (or, more strictly, Contrab-basso), is as frequently employed as its English appellation. DOUBLE STARS. [STARs, Double.] DOUBLOON. [Money.] DOUBS, a river in the south-eastern part of France, belonging to the system of the Rhône. It rises in the loftiest ridges of the Jura, at the foot of Mont Rixon, near the village of Mouthe, in the department of Doubs, and flows 75 miles north-east through the lake of St. Point and past the town of Pontarlier to the village of Glovilier, near Porentruy, in Switzerland. Here it makes a sudden bend, and re-entering France, flows 20 miles west-by-south to the town of St. Hypolite, where it receives a small tributary, the Desoubre; below St. Hypolite it makes another bend, and flows north and then north-east 15 miles to the village of Audincourt, where it again turns to the west-by-south and west-south-west, and flows 100 miles, past Clerval, Baume-les-Dames, Besançon, which it nearly encircles [BESANgoN], and Dole, to Verdun-sur-Saône, where it joins the Saône. The whole course of the Doubs is about 210 miles. The lower part of its course is in the departments of Jura and Saône et Loire. The source of the Doubs is copious; it is the outlet of a subterranean reservoir formed by the drainage of a con

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