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siderable surface; but the valley through which it flows in the upper part of its course is narrow, and the stream receives few additions until it reaches Audincourt, just below which it receives the Halle. This part of its course is over limestone; and its waters are partially (in one case, below Pontarlier, almost entirely) absorbed by the cavities which occur in the rock. Near the village of Morteau, a few miles below Pontarlier, there is a fall of 90 ft. The river is used for floating timber and rafts below Audincourt, and occasionally above that place; but the floating is subject to obstruction and danger from the rocks which have rolled down from the mountains into the channel of the river. It was formerly navigable for boats only near the mouth and in some other parts; now, by the formation of the canal from the Rhône to the Rhine, it has been rendered navigable to Clerval. Cuts have been made in some of the parts where the river was very winding, in order to shorten the navigation, which may be estimated at from 75 to 80 miles. The valley of the Doubs is much wider below Clerval than it is above that place; but it is not very wide in any part; and the affluents of the Doubs are of little importance. The principal are the Laudeux, the Loue, 60 miles long, used for floating timber, the Doraine, and the Guiotte, all which enter the Doubs on the left bank. DOUBS, a department in France, taking its name from the river Doubs, which has its source and a considerable part of its course within its boundaries. It is on the frontier of France, and is bounded on the south-east side and part of the east side by Switzerland; on the remainder of the east side it is bounded by the department of Haut Rhin; on the north by the department of Haute Saône, and on the west by the department of Jura. This department is irregularly shaped: its greatest length is, from north-east near Montbélard to south-west near the source of the Doubs, 76 miles: its greatest breadth, at right angles to the length, is from near Marnay on the Oignon to Jougne, on the road from Pontarlier to Lausanne, 48 miles: the area is 21 11 square miles, being below the average of the French departments, and about equal to the joint areas of the English counties of Wilts and Berks. The population, in 1832, was 265,535, not much more than two-thirds of the average population of the French departments, and rather less than that of the English county of Su-sex; the relative population was 126 to a square mile; the average relative population of France being about 160 to a square mile, and that of England 260. The population is very unequally distributed: in the plains it is far above the average of France, but very thin indeed in the mountainous parts. The department is comprehended between 46° 33' and 47° 33' N. lat., and between 5°42' and 7°8' E. long. Besançon, the capital, is 205 miles in a straight line south-east of Paris; or 237 miles by the road through Provins, Troyes, Châtillon-sur-Seine, Dijon, and Dôle. The south-eastern part of the department is traversed by the ridges of the Jura, which have a general direction north-east and south-west: the summits of Laumont, Chaumont, Mont Dor, and Rissons, are the principal: the last-mentioned is about 2170 feet high, and the highest point in the department. On these summits no vegetation appears; they are composed of bare rocks, covered with snow nearly two-thirds of the year. The slopes of these mountains are rocky, with patches of moss, and straggling thorns and hazels. On the south side the slopes afford good pasturage, and pleasant valleys sheltered by pine forests: in some of the valleys barley and oats are raised, but the temperature is too cold for wheat or rye. The few inhabitants of these highlands preserve the hospitality and simplicity of manners which mark the people of a mountain tract. Between the higher country and the valley of the Doubs is a district of inferior elevation, marked by a milder air and a more productive soil than belong to the district just noticed. Wheat, though in small quantity, is produced ; and on some of the more favourable slopes the vine is cultivated; in the woods the oak and the beech replace the pine. Many tracts in this and the more elevated region are marshy, and from them flow the principal streams that water the department. The plain or valley of the Doubs occupies the rest of the department; it is fertile and populous. - The rivers are the Doubs, and its tributaries; and the Oignon, a tributary of the Saône, which, rising, in the Vosges, flows south-west into the Sãone; it touches the P. C., No. 544.
boundary of this department below Villersexel (Haute Saône), and separates it through a considerable part of its course from the department of Haute Sãone. The tributaries of the Doubs which are within this department are, the Drujon, which falls into it below Pontarlier, the Desoubre, the Halle, the Laudeux, and the Loue. The Vaux, the Braine, and the Loison are feeders of the Loue ; and the Creuse and the Cusancin are feeders of the Laudeux. There are several lakes, but none of any size except the lake of St. Point, formed by the river Doubs, which is about five miles long and one or two broad. The canal which unites the navigation of the Rhône with that of the Rhine traverses this department throughout, and consists partly of an artificial channel, partly of that of the river Doubs. The department is ill provided with roads; a road from Paris by Dijon, Besançon, and Pontarlier to Lausanne passes through it: another road from Băle and Belfort to Döle and Beaune passes along the valley of the Doubs through Baume les Dames and Besançon: a road from Besançon runs through Quingey to Poligny, in the department of Jura; and another from Pontarlier to Salins and Dôle, both in the department of Jura: another road runs from Besançon to Vesoul, in the department of Haute Saône; and another from Băle to Clerval, where it falls in with the road from Băle and Belfort to Besançon. The others are all bye roads. The mineral treasures of the department are considerable. There were formerly silver mines in Mont Dor, but they are no longer wrought: oxide of iron is procured in abundance; freestone is quarried; and marl, sana proper for making glass, ochre, and a species of inflammable schistus are dug. Peat for fuel is procured in many places. The temperature is variable, * colder than the latitude would give reason to expect: the rains are frequent and heavy, but the climate is not by any means unhealthy. The soil is in different parts composed of sand, clay, or marl, or a combination of these substances. Wheat, rye, mixed corn, maize, hemp, potatoes, pulse, wine, and fruit are produced in the plain; barley, oats, a little flax, and timber in the higher grounds. The agricultural produce, except in barley, and perhaps oats and potatoes, is very far below the average of France. Oats and potatoes form a considerable part of the food of the poorer classes: the Spanish oat is that chiefly cultivated. Agriculture is in a backward state. The quantity of horses and oxen in proportion to the population is very considerable: . cattle constitute the wealth of the mountaineer. The artificial grasses are cultivated; trefoil is found to be better suited to the climate than either lucerne or sain-foin. There are extensive common lands, on which cattle are fed. The number of sheep in the department is comparatively very small. The department is divided into four arrondissemens or sub-prefectures: Montbéliard in the north-east and east, population 55,642; Pontarlier in the south, population 48,977; Besançon in the west, population 96,032; and Baume les Dames, centre and north, population 64,884. These four arrondissemens are subdivided into 27 cantons and 646 communes. The capital, Besançon, on the Doubs, has a population of 24,042 for the town, or 29,167 for the whole commune, and Baume les Dames, also on the Doubs, a population of 2209 for the town, or 2467 for the whole commune. [BAUME : BESANgoN.] Of the other towns we subjoin some account. Montbéliard is on the little river Halle, just before its junction with the Doubs. It was formerly the capital of a small principality; it is now a thriving and industrious town, the capital of an arrondissement. It is pleasantly situated in the valley which separates the ridges of the Jura from those of the Vosges, and is surrounded by vineyards. It is well built, and adorned by several fountains. An antient castle, once the residence of the princes of Montbéliard, and in which the archives of their principality are still preserved, commands the town: it now serves as a rison and a barrack for the gendarmerie. The market|. (bátiment des halles) and the church of St. Nicholas, which has a roof 85 feet long by 53 broad without pillars to sustain it, are the buildings most worthy of notice. The inhabitants amounted, in 1832, to 4671 for the town, or 4767 for the whole commune: they manufacture watch movements, watchmakers' files, cotton yarn, hosiery, woollen cloths, kerseymeres, and leather: they carry on * “onsiderable trade with Switzerland. The arrondissement of Mont
- - - - - - ished by the prevalence of manufactures valua is distinguished by the roy
similar to those carried on in the town itself, with the addition of saw manufactories, glass-houses, paper-mills, and oil-mills. The number of tan-yards is great in every part of the department, but especially in this arrondissement. Pontarlier is on the Doubs, in the upper part of its course, 36 miles south-south-east of Besançon, by the road through Ornans. It is near a natural pass from France into Sw1tzerland, known to the antients, and defended by a fort (the Fort of Joux) on the pyramidal summit of Mont Joux. This fort of Joux was the place of the confinement and death of Toussaint L’Ouverture, the Haytian chief. Pontarlier has been supposed by D'Anville to be the Ariolica of the Itinerary of Antoninus, the Abiolica of the Theodosian Table; but the soundness of his opinion has been disputed: the most antient records give it the names of Pontalia, Pons AElii, Pons Arleti, and Pons Ariae. Until the fourteenth century, there were two adjacent towns, Pontarlier and Morieux, but they now form only one. It has been repeatedly destroyed by fire, the last time in 1754. It is well built, and is surrounded by an antient wall, but not fortified. There are a library, a high school, a customhouse, and a fine range of barracks for cavalry. The population has, from the increase of trade, doubled in the last forty years: the inhabitants, in 1832, amounted to 4248 for the town, or 4707 for the whole commune: they manufacture steel, bar iron, iron and steel goods of various kinds (among them are cannon, nails, steel wire, and watch and clock movements), porcelain, and calicoes: there is a copper foundery, at which are made church bells and cylinders for printing calicoes: there are also tan-yards and paper-mills. A great quantity of extract of wormwood is made here every year. Among the natives of Pontarlier was General d'Argon, the contriver of the floating batteries at the siege of Gibraltar, in 1782. [ARgoN.] The neighbourhood of Pontarlier produces excellent cheese. Ornans is seventeen miles from Besançon, in the arrondissement of Besançon, on the road to Pontarlier. It is walled: near the walls are the remains of an antient castle: there are a fine hospital and a public library. The inhabitants in 1832 amounted to 2858 for the town, or 2982 for the whole commune: they manufacture a considerable quantity of leather, some paper, cheese, and extract of wormwood. Immediately round the town cherries are cultivated in great quantity; and an excellent kirschwasser is prepared from them. The neighbourhood of Ornans abounds with natural curiosities; as the grottos of Baumarchais, Bonnevaux, Mouthier, and Châteauvieux, the cascades of Mouthier, and the well of Breme, which, when the rivers overflow their banks, is filled with a muddy water that rises in it, flows over the top, and inundates the valley in which the well is situated: on these occasions it throws up a number of fishes. Beside the foregoing, there are in the arrondissement of Montbéliard the towns of Blamont, near the Doubs, and St. Hypolite, or Hippolyte, on that river. Blamont is a fortified town, but is very small. The inhabitants manufactured, at the commencement of the present century, firearms, cannon, iron wire, and paper: we have no later account. At St. Hypolite hard-wares are made and cheese. There are many iron factories in the neighbourhood. The town is in a valley, immediately surrounded with vinecovered hills, backed by mountains covered with wood. Near St. Hypolite is a curious cavern, between eighty and ninety feet high, which penetrates horizontally the perpendicular face of a rock: the name of the cavern, “Le Château de la Roche,” is derived from an antient castle at the entrance, which was ruined in the religious wars of the sixteenth century; the ruins still remain. Audincourt, a village on the Doubs, has a population of 1000: the inhabitants manufacture iron goods and cotton yarn. Mandeure, another village in the arrondissement, is on the site of a Roman town, Epamanduorum. There are the remains of an amphitheatre, and medals and other antiquities have been dug up. At the village of Herimoncourt are manufactured wooden screws, and clock and watch movements: wooden screws are made at Dampierre. In the arrondissement of Baume les Dames are the towns of Clerval on the Doubs, Rougemont, and Passavant. The inhabitants of Rougemont are engaged in the manufacture of iron goods: at Clerval, the Doubs, by the junction of the Rhône and Rhine Canal, becomes navigable. In the arrondissement of Besançon are the towns of Quingey and Willasans. Quingey is a town of less than 1000 inhabitants,
who are engaged in the manufacture of iron goods. There is an antient castle, once the residence of the counts of Bourgogne; and near the town is a cavern, adorned with a variety of congelations. Near Boussière, which is not far from Quingey, is a remarkable cavern, consisting of a suite of apartments, extending above half a mile in length. In the arrondissement of Pontarlier are the towns of Rochejean and Morteau on the Doubs, La Rivière on the Drujon, and Jougne on the border of Switzerland. At Rochejean are smelting houses for pig iron and cast iron, tan yards, and a saw yard; and at La Rivière are a saw yard and a linseed-oil mill. At the village of Levier, and in the neighbourhood, a good deal of cheese is made : near the village is a pit, the depth of which is unknown; it appears to consist of a succession of caverns on different levels: it is used as a receptacle for the carcases of animals and other refuse. Two dogs which had by accident fallen into one of the caverns lived for a long time on the bodies thus disposed of, and brought forth young before they were discovered and rescued. The village of Mont Benoit (Be nedict), on the Doubs, has a handsc.ie Gothic church, formerly the conventual church of a considerable abbey which existed here. The neighbouring village of Remonnot has for its church a remarkable cave. The department of Doubs sends four members to the Chamber of Deputies; it forms, with the department of Haute Saône, the diocese of the archbishop of Besançon. It is in the jurisdiction of the Cour Royale, or Supreme Court of Besançon, and in the sixth military division, of which the head-quarters are at Besançon. Education is more general in this department than in almost any other in France: there is one boy at school for every eleven persons. The inhabitants of the mountains are tall, robust, and healthy; sober, economical, gentle, willing to oblige, hospitable, and true to their word, but untaught and credulous those of the plain are neither so robust, nor temperate, nor obliging. This department is part of the former county of Bourgogne, or Franche Č. (Dictionnaire Universel de la France; Malte Brun; Dupin, Forces Productives de la France : Dictionnaire Géographique Universel.) DOUCHE. [BATHING..] DOUCKER. [Divers.] DOUGLAS FAMILY. This family derives its name from certain lands on the Douglas or Black water, in the shire of Lanark, which were granted out about the middle of the twelfth century by Arnold, Abbot of Kelso, to one Theobald, a Fleming, whose son was thence called William de Douglas. * William married a sister of Friskin de Kerdal, in the province of Moray, and had several children, all of whom, except the eldest, settled in the north. Brice, the second son, became bishop of Moray; Alexander, the third son, became sheriff of Elgin; and their sister, Margaret, married ho de Keith, great mareschal of the kingdom. Archenbald, the eldest son, married one of the daughters and co-heiresses of Sir John de Crawford, of Crawford, and had two sons, William and Andrew, each of whom had two sons likewise. William's eldest son married a sister of Lord Abernethy, but dying without issue, was succeeded by his brother, some time governor of the castle of Berwick. Andrew's eldest son married the only daughter of Alexander, lord high steward of Scotland, and had two sons, the eldest of whom was Sir James Douglas of Loudon, so called to distinguish him from his cousin, “the good Sir James,” one of the chief associates of Bruce in achieving the independence of his country. He was made a knight banneret under the royal standard at Bannockburn, where he commanded the centre division of the Scottish van. He died in a contest with the Saracens when, in fulfilment of the trust committed to him, he was on his way to deposit the heart of Bruce in the Holy Land. William de Douglas, some time governor of Edinburgh Castle, was a natural son of Sir James of Loudon, whose eldest lawful son, also William de Douglas, had the earldom of Athol conferred upon him on the death of John Campbell without issue; but he soon afterwards resigned the title, and gave a charter of the earldom to Robert, lord high steward of Scotland. This William de Douglas was lord of Liddisdale, and though himself ‘the flower of chivalry,’ as he was called, is to be particularly distinguished from Sir William Douglas, the knight of Liddisdale, natural son of the good Sir James. The knight of Liddisdale long merited the eulogy which Fordun gives him, of being ‘England's scourge and Scotland's bulwark;' but the praise of patriotism, and even of humanity itself, he outlived; for being hurt at Ramsay of Dalwolsey’s appointment to the sheriffship of Roxburgh, he waited his opportunity, and came upon the brave and virtuous Ramsay with an armed band, wounded him, and dragged him away to Hermitage castle. There Douglas immured his unoffending victim, faint with thirst, and with his rankling wounds, till, after a period of seventeen days' suffering, death at length terminated his existence. The government of the country was in such a state at the time, that the king not only could not avenge the outrage, but was obliged to pardon the relentless murderer, and moreover to put him into the vacant sheriffship. #: at last died by the hand of an assassin of the house of ouglas. The good Sir James had another natural son, whom we shall mention presently, but having no lawful issue, he was succeeded by his brothers, Hugh and Archibald, the latter of whom married the daughter of John Cumyn, of Badenoch, by Marjory, sister of John Baliol, king of Scotland, and had two sons, the younger of whom, William, inherited the family estates, and became earl of Douglas, in which character we find him lord justiciar of Tothian the year in which King Robert II. ascended the throne. He was thrice married. He married first a daughter of the twelfth earl of Mar, and in her right was styled earl of Douglas and Mar. His son James, second earl of Douglas and Mar, married Margaret, eldest daughter of King Robert II., but leaving no surviving male issue, the earldom of Mar devolved on his sister, and the earldom of Douglas on Archibald Douglas, the natural son of the good Sir James above alluded to, by special settlement. This Archibald, third earl of Douglas, styled from his great prowess ‘Archibald the Grim,” had himself a natural son, who married a daughter of King Robert II. William, the first earl of Douglas, had no children by his second marriage. By his third marriage, which was with the Lady Margaret, sister and heir of the third earl of Angus, he had a son, George, who obtained, on his mother's resignation, a grant of the earldom of Angus. He also got a grant of the sheriffship of Roxburgh, and is found in that office anno 1398. The previous year he married Mary, second daughter of King Robert III. Sir John Douglas, who gallantly defended the castle of Lochleven against the English in the minority of David II., was a younger brother of William, lord of Liddisdale, above mentioned. He had several children, three of whom only however we shall here notice, James, Henry, and John. The last of these married Mariota, daughter of Reginald de Cheyne, co-justiciar of Scotland beyond the Grampians, with John de Vaux. Sir Henry married a niece of King Robert II., and by her had a son, who married a granddaughter of the same king. Sir James, the eldest, succeeded his uncle, the lord of Liddisdale, in the lordship of Dalkeith and his other extensive possessions. He was twice married, his second wife being a sister of King Robert II. His eldest son, by his first marriage, married a daughter of King Robert III., and had a grandson, who married Johanna, daughter of King James I., and relict of James, third earl of Angus, and was on the 14th March, 1457-8, created earl of Morton. We have thus three earls of the House of Douglas: the earl of Douglas, the earl of Angus, and the earl of Morton. Archibald IV., earl of Douglas, eldest son of Archibald the Grim, married the eldest daughter of king Robert III., and by her had a son of the same name, who in the lifetime of his father was styled earl of Wigton. On the death of King James I. he was chosen one of the council of regency, and the next year made lieutenant-general of the realm. His two sons, particularly William, the young earl of Douglas, despising the authority of an infant prince, and encouraged by the divisions which arose among the nobility, erected a sort of independent power within the kingdom, and forbidding the vassals of the house to acknowledge ...} other authority, created knights, appointed a privy council, and assumed all the exteriors of royalty. They were both at length however beheaded, and the earldom of Douglas passed to a grand-uncle whose eldest son married his cousin, the fair maid of Galloway, and restored the house to its former splendour. He became lieutenant-general of the kingdom, and no less formidable to the crown than
the last in his family who held that high office. But this
power proved his ruin, and dying without issue, he was succeeded by his brother, in whom this great branch of the house of Douglas was cut down and overthrown for treason. Archibald W., earl of Angus, great-grandson of William, first earl of Douglas, through George, who obtained the earldom of Angus on his mother's resignation as above mentioned, was some time warden of the East Marches, and on the death of Argyle was made lord high chancellor of the kingdom, and so continued till 1498, when he resigned. He was commonly called ‘the Great Earl of Angus;' and, according to the historian of his house, was “a man every way accomplished both for mind and body.” Gawin, bishop of Dunkeld, the translator of Virgil, was his third son by his first marriage, which was with a daughter of the lord high chamberlain of Scotland. The bishop's two elder brothers, George, master of Angus, and Sir William Douglas of Glenbervie, fell on the fatal field of Flodden; and their father, the old earl, who had in vain dissuaded the king from the ruinous enterprize, bending under the calamity, retired into Galloway, and soon after died. Sir Archibald Douglas of Kilspindie, the ears's son by a second marriage, was made lord treasurer of Scotland towards the end of the year 1526, by king James V., who used to style him his “Grey Steil;’ and the next year we find Archibald VI., earl of Angus, eldest son of the deceased George, master of Angus, lord high chancellor of the kingdom. This Archibald, the sixth earl of Angus, married Margaret of England, queen dowager of James IV., and had by her a daughter, who became the mother of Henry, lord Darnley, husband of Mary queen of Scots, and father of James I. of England. His brother, Sir George, was forfeited on his fall, and spent the remainder of James's reign in exile in England; and their sister Jean was burnt as a witch on the castle hill of Edinburgh. The son of Sir George succeeded his uncle as seventh earl of Angus; and on the death of his son, the eighth earl, commonly called “the Good Earl of Angus,” without male issue, Sir William Douglas of Glenbervie, great-grandson of Archibald the great earl, succeeded to the earldom, and had soon afterwards a charter from king James V., confirming all the antient privileges of the Douglas, namely, to have the first vote in council, to be the king's lieutenant, to lead the van of the army in the day of battle, and to carry the crown at coronations. The seventh earl of Angus had a younger brother, who became fourth earl of Morton, and was the famous Regent Morton. He was condemned to death for the murder of Darnley, and was executed by the maiden, an instrument which he himself introduced into Scotland. Sir William Douglas of Glenbervie above mentioned conveyed the lands of Glenbervie to a younger son. His eldest son became tenth earl of Angus; and the son of the latter was in 1633 created marquis of Douglas, the same year in which another branch of the Douglas family was advanced to be earl of Queensberry. Archibald, eldest son of the first marquis of Douglas, officiated as lord high chamberlain at the coronation of king Charles II., and was thereupon created earl of Ormond. His younger brother William had been some years before created earl of Selkirk; but marrying afterwards Anne, duchess of Hamilton, he was on her grace's petition created duke of Hamilton for life, and a new patent of the earldom of Selkirk issued in favour of his younger sons, two of whom were themselves also elevated to the peerage. The third marquis of Douglas was advanced to be duke of Douglas; but on his death the dukedom became extinct, and the marquisate devolved on the seventh duke of Hamilton. His grace was one of the party to the great “Douglas cause,' the subject of which was the Douglas estates; but these were ultimately awarded to his opponent, who becoming entitled to the estates, assumed the name and arms of Douglas, and in 1790 was raised to the peerage as baron Douglas of Douglas castle, in the shire of Lanark. The year following, George, 16th earl of Morton, was enrolled among the peers of Great Britain as baron Douglas of Lochleven. The third earl of Queensberry had previously been raised to a marquisate and dukedom; and the fourth duke of Queensberry, who was also third earl of March, made a peer of England by the title of baron Douglas of Amesbury; but on the death of his grace, in 1810, the English barony, conferred upon himself, and the earldom of March, conferred upon his grandfather, expired; while the dukedom devolved on the ão. of * and the 2
original peerage descended to the present marquis of Queensberry. DOUGLAS, GAWIN, was born in the year 1474 or 1475, and was the third son of Archibald, sixth earl of Angus, surnamed Bell-the-Cat. (Scott's Marmion, canto vi., st. xi.) Being intended for the church, he received the best education which Scotland and France could give. He obtained successively the provostship of the collegiate church of St. Giles's, Edinburgh, and the rectorship of Heriot church. He was then made abbot of Aberbrothick, and lastly, bi-hop of Dunkeld, but his elevation to the archbishoprick of St. Andrews was prevented by the pope. In 1313 some political intrigues compelled him to retire, to England, where he was favourably received by Henry VIII. He died of the plague in 1521 or 1522, at the Savoy, where he had resided during the whole of his stay. In his early years he translated Ovid's Art of Love,’ and composed two allegorical poems, King Hart’ and the Palace of Honour:” but he is best and most deservedly known by his translation of Virgil's ‘Aeneid,' which, with the thirteenth book by Mapheus Vegius, was produced in 1513. To each book is prefixed an original prologue, some of which give lively and simple descriptions of scenery, written in a manner which proves their author to have been possessed of considerable poetical power. At the end of the work (p. 380, ed. of 1553), he informs us that “compilet was this work Virgilean ‘in eighteen moneths space, for two months whereof he wrote never one word.” He is also solicitous that his readers should ‘read leal, and take good tent in time They neither maul nor mismetre his rhyme;’ which reminds us of Chaucer's address to his book–
“so pray I God that none miswrite thee, Nor thee mismetre for default of tongue.”
Those who take the trouble to examine Douglas for themselves, will find his language not near so different from our own as might be imagined from a cursory glance at the pages. The chief difference consists in the spelling and the accent, which we may suppose to have borne, as in Chaucer, a considerable resemblance to the present pronunciation of French; at least without some id: supposition it will be found impossible to scan either. (Warton's Hist. Engl. Poetry (who gives copious extracts), and Biog. Brit., art. “ Douglas.”)
DOUGLAS. [MAN, Isle of..]
DOURA, or DURRA. [Sorgh UM vulg ARE.]
DOURO in Portuguese, Duero in Spanish, one of the principal rivers of the Peninsula, rises in the Sierra de Urbion, in the north part of the province of Soria in Old Castile. It first flows southwards, passing by the town of Soria, then turns to the west, through the provinces of Burgos, Valladolid, and Zamora, and receives numerous affluents both from the north and the south, the principal of which are, 1. the Pisuerga, which rises in the Asturian mountains, and after receiving the Alanzon from Burgos and the Carsion from Palencia, passes by Valladolid, and enters the Douro above Tordesillas; 2. the Seguillo, also from the north, passes by Medina del Rio Seco, and joins the Douro above Zamora; 3. the Esla, a large stream, comes from the mountains of Leon, and enters the Douro below Zamora. After receiving the Esla, the Douro reaches the frontiers of Portugal, where it turns to the south, and for about fifty miles marks the boundary between the province of Salamanca in Spain, and that of Tras os Montes in Portugal. In this part of its course it receives first the Tormes, a considerable stream, from the south-east, which rises in the lofty Sierra de Gredos, and passes by Salamanca, and then further south the Agueda, from Ciudad Rodrigo. The Douro then turns again to the west, and crosses the north part of Portugal, marking the limits between the provinces of Tras os Montes and Entre Douro e Minho on its north bank, and the province of Beira on its south bank. The }. affluents of the Douro in Portugal are the Coa
rom the south, and the Sabor and Tamega from the north.
The DouroÅ. by the towns of Lamego and Oporto, and enters the Atlantic below the latter city, of which it forms the harbour. The whole course of the Douro with its windings is nearly 500 miles, through some of the finest and most fertile regions of Spain and Portugal.
DOUW, GERARD, was born at Leyden in 1613. In 1622 he was put by his father, a glazier, to study drawing under Bartholomew Dolendo, an engraver, with whom he
remained eighteen months. He afterwards received the instructions of Peter Kouwhoorn, a painter on glass, and learned his art so well that he proved of great advantage to his father. The latter, however, alarmed at the danger he incurred by mounting to his work at church windows, made him study painting instead, and the illustrious Rembrandt was chosen for the lad's master. From that great painter Gerard learned the mastery of colour and chiaroseuro; but he differed entirely from his teacher in his manner of painting. Instead of growing bolder and rougher in his handling as he grew older, he became more and more delicate in his finish, elaborating everything which he touched with the most exquisite delicacy and minuteness, in so much that the threads of brocades, and of fine carpets are expressed eyen in his smallest paintings. Nothing escaped his eye nor his pencil. And yet with all his elaboration of detail his pictures are powerful in effect, and harmonious and brilliant in colour. He was accustomed to prepare his own tools, that he might have them of the requisite fineness. Gerard Douw has been charged with excessive slowness in finishing; and some anecdotes are told in proof of it. Sandrart says, that he once visited Gerard's study in company with Bamboccio, and on their both expressing their admiration of a certain miniature broom-handle in one of his pictures, he said, that he should spend three more days upon it, before he left it. It is said that his sitters were so wearied by his dilatoriness, and disgusted by the transscripts of their jaded faces, which he faithfully put upon the canvass, that others were deterred from sitting, and he was obliged to abandon portrait-painting. But Karel de Moor, who had been a pupil of his, averred that he was not so slow as had been asserted; and the number of his pictures tends to corroborate his statement. Douw got excellent prices for his paintings; generally from 600 to 1000 florins: and Sandrart informs us that Spiering, a gentleman of the Hague, paid him an annual salary of 1000 florins, for the mere right of refusal of all the pictures he painted, at the highest price he could obtain. Gerard Douw died in 1680 The most famous among his pupils was Mieris. His pietures are in all great collections. (Argenville; Sandrart.) DOVE. [Columbidž.] DOVEDALE. [DERbyshire.] DOVER, one of the Cinque Ports, a borough and markettown, having separate jurisdiction, in the eastern division of the county of Kent, 16 miles south-east by south from Canterbury and 72 east-south-east from London. Dover is situated on the coast, at the opening of a deep valley formed by a depression in the chalk hills, which here present a transverse section to the sea. This depression runs into the interior for several miles, and forms the basin of a small stream. Dover was called by the Saxons Dwyr, from dwsyrrha (a steep place), or from dwr (water), thre being a sumall stream in the valley at the extremity of which Dover stands. By the Romans it was called Dubris, whence Dover. From its proximity to the continent, Dover has for many years been the usual port of embarkation for passengers going both from and to England. [CALAIs...] In the reign of Henry VIII, the emperor Charles V. landed here, and Henry on that occasión contributed a large sum for the erection of a pier, which was subsequently completed in the reign of Elizabeth. The castle, which is on the northern side of the town, is supposed to have been originally constructed by the Romans. The southern heights of Dover were originally strongly fortified during the late war, and extend in a semicircle as far as the famous Shakspeare's Cliff, so called from the celebrated scene in ‘King Lear.” The boundaries of the present borough, in addition to the old borough, include a part of the parish of Buckland, and comprise a population of 15,298 persons; 1651 were registered after the passing of the Reform Act. The borough sends two members to parliament. It appears from the Municipal Corporation Report to be doubtful whether there are any charters. A court of record is held three times a week. The general sessions are held three times a year, before the recorder and other justices. There was a hundred court, but it has fallen into disuse. The town consists principally of one street about a mile long, running in the direction of the valley. A theatre and assembly-room were erected in 1790. The town is now considered a fashionable watering-place, and possesses every convenience for sea-bathing. any handsome houses have recently been built for the accommodation of visitors in the season. The harbour is not very good, but it can accommodate ships of 500 tons, and is principally used for sailing and steam packets to France. It has now for some years (1837) been undergoing repairs and improvements, but it does not seem robable that it can ever be made a good port. Some corn is ground in the neighbourhood, and exported to London ; and there are some paper-mills near the town. The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday. An annual fair is held on the 23rd of November. There are two churches, St. James's and St. Mary's; the former worth 1457, the latter 287/. per annum; as well as a new church, and places of worship for Baptists, Society of Friends, Independents, Wesleyan Methodists, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics. A charity-school for boys and girls was founded in 1789; it has received various donations, and in 1820 a new building, capable of containing 200 boys and 200 girls, was erected. The hospital of St. Mary, afterwards called the Maison-Dieu, was founded in the 13th Henry III. by Hubert de Burgh, earl of Kent and chief justice of England. [CINQUE PORTs.) DOVETAIL, a term in joinery. A dovetail is the end of a piece of wood fashioned into the fan-like form of a dove's tail, and let into a corresponding hollow of another piece of wood. Dovetails are either exposed or concealed; “concealed dovetailing is of two kinds, lapped and mitred.’ (Nicholson's Dict.) DOVRA FIELD. [Norway.] DOWER (Law) is that part of the husband's lands, tenements, or hereditaments which come to the wife upon his death, not by force of any contract expressed or implied between the parties, but by operation of law, to be completed by an actual assignment of particular portions of the property. Prior to the reign of Charles II., five, and until the passing of the act 3 & 4 Win. IV., c. 105, four kinds of dower were known to the English law. 1. Dower at the common law. 2. Dower by custom. 3. Dower ad ostium ecclesiae. 4. Dower ex assensu patris. 5. Dower de la plus beale. This last was merely a consequence of tenure by knight's service, and was abolished by stat. 12 Charles II. c. 24; and the 3rd and 4th having long become obsolete, were finally abolished by the above-mentioned statute of Wm. IV. By the old law, dower attached upon the lands of which the husband was seised at any time during the marriage, and which a child of the husband and wife might by possibility inherit; and they remained liable to dower in the hands of a purchaser, though various ingenious modes of conveyance were contrived, which in some cases prevented the attaching of dower: but this liability was productive of great inconvenience, and frequently of injustice. The law too was inconsistent, for the wife was not dowable out of her husband's equitable estates, although the husband had his courtesy in those to which the wife was equitably entitled. [Courtesy.] To remedy these inconveniences the statute above mentioned was passed, and its objects may be stated to be, 1, to make equitable estates in possession liable to dower; 2, to take away the right to dower out of lands disposed of by the husband absolutely in his life or by will; 3, to enable the husband, by a simple declaration in a deed or will to bar the right to dower. “The law of dower,’ say the Real Property Commissioners, in their Second Report, upon which this statute was founded, ‘though well adapted to the state of freehold property which existed at the time when it was established, and during a long time afterwards, had, in consequence of the frequent alienation of property which takes place in modern times, become exceedingly inconvenient.’ In short, dower was considered and treated as an incumbrance, and was never, except in cases of inadvertency, suffered to arise. The increase of personal property, and the almost universal custom of securing a provision by settlement, afforded more effectual and convenient means of providing for the wife. Dower at the common law is the only species of dower which affects lands in England generally; dower by custom is only of local application, as dower by the custom of gavelkind and Borough English; and freebench applies exclusively to copyhold lands. The former is treated of in Robinson's ‘History of Gavelkind,” the latter in Watkins on “Copyholds.” In order to describe dower at the common law clearly, it will be advisable to follow the distribution of the subject made by Blackstone.
1. Who may be endowed. 2. Of what a wife may be endowed. 3. How she shall be endowed. 4. How dower may be barred or prevented. 1. Who may be endowed—Every woman who has attained the age of nine years is entitled to dower by common law, except aliens, and Jewesses, so long as they continue in their religion. And, from the disability arising from alienage, a queen, and also an alien licensed by the king, are exempt. 2. Qs what she may be endowed.—She is now by law entitled to be endowed, that is, to have an estate for life in the third part of the lands and tenements of which the husband was solely seised either in deed or in law, or in which he had a right of entry, at any time during the coverture, of a legal or equitable estate of inheritance in possession, to which the issue of the husband and wife (if any) might by possibility inherit. 3. How she shall be endowed.—By Magna Charta it is provided, that the widow shall not pay a fine to the lord for her dower, and that she shall remain in the chief house of her husband for forty days after his death, during which time her dower shall be assigned. The particular lands and hereditaments to be held in dower must be assigned by the heir of the husband, or his guardian, by metes and bounds if divisible, otherwise specially, as of the third presentation to a benefice, &c. If the heir or his guardian do not assign, or assign unfairly, the widow has her remedy at law, and the sheriff is appointed to assign her dower; or by bill in equity, which is now the usual remedy. 4. How dower may be barred or prevented.—A woman is barred of her dower by the attainder of her husband for treason, by her own attainder for treason, or felony, by divorce d vinculo matrimonii, by elopement from her husband and living with her adulterer, by detaining the titledeeds from the heir at law, until she restores them, by alienation of the lands assigned her for a greater estate than she has in them; and she might also be barred of her dower by levying a fine, or suffering a recovery during her marriage, while those assurances existed. But the most usual means of barring dower are by jointures, made under the provisions of the 27 Hen. VIII., c. 10; and by the act of the husband. Before the stat. 3 & 4 Wm. IV., c. 105, a fine or recovery by the husband and wife was the only mode by which a right to dower which had already attached could be barred, though, by means of a simple form of conveyance, a husband might prevent the right to dower from arising at all upon lands purchased by him. By the above-mentioned statute, it is provided that no woman shall be entitled to dower out of any lands absolutely disposed of by her husband either in his life or by will, and that his debts and engagements shall be valid and effectual as against the right of the widow to dower. And further, that any declaration by the husband, either by deed or will, that the dower of his wife shall be subjected to any restrictions, or that she shall not have any dower, shall be effectual. It is also provided that a simple devise of real estate to the wife by the husband shall, unless a contrary intention be expressed, operate in bar of her dower. This statute however affects only marriages contracted, and only deeds, &c., subsequent to 1st. January, 1834. Most of these alterations, as indeed may be said of many others which have recently been made in the English real property law, have for some years been established in the United States of America. An account of the various enactments and provisions in force in the different states respecting dower may be found in 4 Kent's Commentaries, p. 34-72. (Bl. Com. ; Park on Dower.) DOWLETABAD, a strongly fortified town in the province of Aurungabad, seven miles north-west from the city of Aurungabad, in 19° 57' N. lat., and 73° 25' E. long. The fort consists of an enormous insulated mass of granite, standing a mile and a half from any hill, and rising to the height of 500 feet. The rock is surrounded by a deep ditch, across which there is but one passage, which will allow no more than two persons to go abreast. The passage into the fort is cut out of the solid rock, and can be entered by only one person at a time in a stooping posture. From this entrance the passage, still cut through the rock and very narrow, winds upwards. In the course of this passage are several doors by which it is obstructed, and the place is altogether so strong, that a very small number of persons within
the fort might bid defiance to a numerous army. On the