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other hand, the fort might be invested by a very inconsiderable force, so as effectually to prevent any supplies being received by the garrison, who, owing to the intricacy of the outlet, could never make an effective sally. The lower part of the rock, to the height of 180 feet from the ditch, is nearly perpendicular, and it would be wholly im: practicable to ascend it. The rock is well provided with tanks of water. Since the seat of government has been transferred to Aurungabad the town of Dowletabad has greatly decayed; only a small portion of it is now inhabited. This place is said to have been the residence of a very powerful rajah in the thirteenth century, when the Mohammedans under Allah ud Deen carried their arms into this part of the Deccan. In 1306 the fort and surrounding country were brought under the dominion of the emperor of Delhi. About the close of the sixteenth century they were taken by Ahmed Nizam Shah of Ahmednuggur, and in 1634, during the reign of Shah Jehan, again came into the possession of the Moguls. Dowletabad has since followed the fate of that part of the Deccan, having been conquered by Nizam ul Mulk, with whose successors, the Nizams of Hyderabad, it has since remained. DOWN, the fine hair of plants, is a cellular expansion of the euticle, consisting of attenuated thin semitransparent hairs, either simple or jointed end to end, or even branched, as in the Mullein. When attached to seeds, it enables them to be buoyed up in the air and transported from place to place. When covering the external surface of a plant, it undoubtedly acts as a protection against extremes of temperature, and probably as a means of absorbing moisture from the air. DOWN, a maritime county of the province of Ulster in Ireland; bounded on the north by an angle of Loch Neagh, the county of Antrim, and the bay of Belfast; on the east and south by the Irish channel; and on the west by the counties of Louth and Armagh, from which it is partly separated by the bay of Carlingford and the river of Newry. The greatest length from Cranfield point on the south-west to Orlock point on the north-east is 51 English miles; greatest breadth from Moyallan on the west to the coast near Ballywalter on the east, 38 miles. The coast line (including Lough Strangford) from Belfast to Newry, exclusive of small irregularities, is about 125 English miles. The area, according to the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, consists of

Acres. Roods. Poles. Land . . . . 608,415 2 15 Water . . . . 3,502 l 14 Total . . . . 611,917 3 29

Statute measure, or 956 square statute miles nearly. Down forms the south-eastern extremity of Ulster. The surface of nearly all the county is undulating; but the only uncultivated district is that occupied by the Mourne mountains and the detached group of Slieve Croob. The mountainous district of Mourne is bounded on the east by the bay of Dundrum and on the west by the bay of Carlingford, and covers an area of nearly 90 square miles. Beginning from the west, the principal elevations are Cleomack, 1257 feet; Tievedockaragh, 1557 feet; Eagle Mountain, 2084 feet, having on the north Rocky Mountain, 1328 feet, and on the south Finlieve, 1888 feet; Slieve Muck North, 21.98 feet, from the north-western declivity of which the river Bann takes its rise at an altitude of 1467 feet; Slieve Muck South, 1931 feet; Slieve Bingian, 2449 feet; and north of these Chimney Rock Mountains, 2152 feet; Slieve Bearnagh, 2394 feet; Slieve Corragh, 2512 feet; and Slieve Donard, 2796 feet, the highest ground in the county, which overhangs the sea above Newcastle, a small town situated on the western shore of Dundrum bay. This mountain group contains much fine scenery. Its north-eastern declivities are clothed for several miles with the plantations of Tullymore Park, the splendid residence of the Earl of Roden; its western flanks overhang the beautiful vicinities of Warren's Point and Rosstrevor, and on the narrow strip between its southern declivities and the sea is situated the fine demesne of Mourne Park the residence of the Earl of Kilmorey. The Slieve Croob range covers an area of about ten square miles to the north-east of the Mourne Group. Slieve Croob, the highest elevation of the range, has an altitude of 1755 feet; on its north-eastern declivity the river Lagan rises at an elevation of about 1250 feet above the level of the sea,

The remainder of the county, about 850 square miles, is productive, being either under cultivation or servin the purposes of turbary. The numerous hills whic diversify the surface are seldom too high for arable cultivation ; and the irregularity of the surface facilitates drainage, and likewise affords a shelter, which, from the scarcity of timber in some parts of the county, is of material advantage. A low chain of cultivated eminences, well timbered, and on the northern and western side covered with the demesnes and improvements of a resident gentry, commences east of Dromore, and extends under various names along the valley of the Lagan and the eastern shore of Belfast Loch, as far as Bangor. The only detached eminence of any consequence is the hill of Scrabo at the head of Loch Strangford, 534 feet. This range separates the basin of the Lagan from that of Loch Strangford. The eastern shore of Belfast Loch has no anchorage for vessels above the third class. There is a small quay for fishing and pleasure-boats at Cultra, a mile below the bathing village of Holywood, where regattas are held. Out of Belfast Loch the first harbour on the coast of Ards is at Bangor, where a pier was built by parliamentary grant in 1757, forming a small harbour in the southeast part of the bay of about 300 ft. square. Fifteen sail of carrying vessels belong to this place, which are chiefly engaged in the export of corn and cattle to the coast of Scotland. Colonel Ward, the proprietor, is engaged in the construction of a pier, which, when completed, will afford fifteen feet at low water within the harbour. The coast here consists of low slate rocks; and there is a difficulty in getting stones of a sufficient size, which has hitherto retarded the completion of this desirable work. East of Bangor is the little harbour of Groomsport or Gregory's Port, where -Duke Schomberg landed in 1690. Here is a small quay and about 100 houses, chiefly occupied by fishermen. Southeast of Groomsport is Donaghadee, the only place of security for a large vessel from Belfast Loch south to the harbour of Strangford. [DoNAGHADEE.] Off Donaghadee lie three islands, called the Copelands, from a family of that name which formerly held the opposite coast. On one of these, called the Cross or Lighthouse Island, there is a lighthouse, which marks the entrance to Belfast Loch from the south. This building, which was erected about 1715, is a square tower, 7.0 ft. high to the lantern: the walls 7 ft. thick. The mode of lighting practised in 1744, when Harris wrote his “History of Down,’ was by a fire of coals kindled on a grate, which was fixed on an iron spindle rising from the masonry. On a windy night this grate used to consume a ton and a half of coal. This island contains 40 acres; the other two, 295 and 31 acres respectively. The sound between Big Island, which lies nearest the land, and the shore of Down, is about a mile and a quarter in breadth. It has from 7 to 8 fathoms of water; but the side next the mainland is foul; and a rock, half a mile from the shore, called the Deputy, which has but 10 ft. of water at low ebb, renders the navigation difficult in hazy weather. From Donaghadee south the coast is low, rocky, and dangerous. The rock of Sculmartin, covered at half-flood, and the North and South Rocks, the former never covered, tle latter at every half tide, lie farthest off shore, and are most in the way of vessels coming up channel. The lighthouse of Kilwarlin was erected on the South Rock in 1797, and has since proved highly serviceable to all traders in the channel. At Bally walter, Ballyhalbert, Cloghy, and Newcastle, in Quintin Bay, all situated on the eastern shore of Ards, are fishing stations. The first is very capable of improvement as a harbour, and there is a small quay for the supply of the Kilwarlin Lighthouse at the latter; but no shelter in any of them for vessels of more than 30 tons. South from Newcastle is Tara Bay, much frequented by fishing-vessels, and capable of great improvement. The estimated expense of a breakwater pier, which would convert it into an excellent tide harbour, is 3806l. The peninsula of Ards runs out at Ballyquintin to a low rocky point south of Tara Bay. A rock, called the Bar Pladdy, having 11 ft. water at spring chbs, lies immediately off Quintin Point; and the entrance to Strangford Loch is erroneously laid down in Mackenzie's Map as lying through the narrow intermediate channel called Nelson's Gut. Several shipwrecks . have occurred in consequence. The true entrance to Strangford Loch lies west of the Bar Pladdy, between it and Killard Point, on the opposite side. The entrance is a narrow channel of about 5 miles in length by an average

breadth of less than a mile. Within, the loch of Strangford expands into a very extensive sheet of water, extending northwards to Newtownards, and nearly insulating the district between it and the sea. The tide of so large a sheet of water making its way to and from the sea, causes a great current in the narrow connecting strait at every ebb and flow, and renders the navigation at such times very difficult. Across this strait is a ferry, which gives name to the town of Portaferry at the eastern or Ards side of the entrance. The town of Strangford, which lies opposite, is supposed to derive its name from the strength of the tide race between. The true channel, at the narrowest part of the strait, is little more than a quarter of a mile across, being contracted by rocks, one of which, called the Ranting Wheel, causes a whirlpool dangerous to small craft. There is another but less dangerous eddy of the same kind at the opposite side. Within the entrance there are several good anchorages, and landing-quays at Strangford, Portaferry, Killileagh, the quay of Downpatrick, and Kirkcubbin. Killileagh quay was built by parliamentary grant in 1765, and cost 1200/., but is now much gone to decay. Strangford Loch contains a great number of islands, many of which are pasturable, and great numbers of rabbits are bred in them. From Killard Point the coast bears south-west, and is rocky and soul as far as Ardglass, where there is a pretty good harbour, safe for small vessels, by which it is much frequented, but exposed to a heavy ground swell in southeasterly gales. A pier was built here about 1819 at the joint expense of the old fishery board and the proprietor, Mr. Ogilvie. There is a small lighthouse at the extremity of this pier. Ardglass is a principal place of resort for the fishing fleets which frequent the channel. Immediately west of Ardglass lies the harbour of Killough, between Ringford Point on the east and St. John's Point on the west. A natural breakwater, easily improvable, extends between these points, and gives a pretty secure anchorage for large vessels within. There is an inner harbour for small craft, dry at ebb, with a quay, built about the beginning of the last century. West of St. John's Point opens the great bay of Dundrum, which extends from this point on the east to the coast of Mourne on the west, a distance of about four leagues by a league in depth, running north by west. This bay is exposed, shallow, and full of quicksands, and so situated that, till the erection of the present pier, which forms a small asylum harbour at Newcastle, a well-frequented bathing-place on the south-western side of the bay, vessels embayed here with an east or south-east wind inevitably went on shore. From an inspection of the books of the resident revenue officer stationed at Newcastle, it has been ascertained that from 1783 to 1835, 58 vessels, valued at 209,050l., have been wrecked in Dundrum Bay. The pier of Newcastle was erected at the joint expense of the old fishery board and the proprietor, Earl Annesley: the cost was 3,600l. It is highly serviceable as a station for the fishing-boats of the coast, and has been the means of saving four vessels within the last three years. From Newcastle south to Cranfield Point the coast of Mourne possesses only three small boat harbours, the principal of which is at Derryogua, where there is a fishing station. On this part of the coast, near Kilkeel, is a lighthouse, 120 feet high. Between Cranfield Point on the east, and the extremity of the barony of Dundalk, in the county of Louth, on the west, is the entrance to the extensive harbour of Carlingford. This loch is about eight miles long by a mile and a half broad, and has steep mountains to the east and west along each side. From Narrow Water, where it contracts to the width of a river, the tide flows up to Newry, whence there is a canal communication with the Upper Bann river, which flows into Loch Neagh. There are numerous rocks and shoals at the entrance, where a new lighthouse is about being erected, and a bar all across, on which there are but eight feet of water at ebb tides. The middle part of the loch is deep, but exposed to o squalls from |. mountains. The best anchorages are off Carlingford, on the south side, and opposite Warren's Point, and Rosstrevor, in the county of Down. There are two great beds of oysters in this loch, one off Rosstrevor Quay, two and a half miles long by half a mile broad; the other off Killowen Point, one mile long by half a mile broad. The marquis of Anglesey is the proprietor. The fishery is open to all persons paying 5s. yearly. About 1000l. worth of oysters are taken annually: they sell in

Warren's Point at 7s. to 15s. per thousand, and are celebrated throughout Ireland for their excellent flavour. It has been proposed to carry the Newry canal, which terminates at Fathom, at the head of the bay, forward to the deep water off Warren's Point, where it is intended that it should terminate with a ship lock and floating basin. Warren's Point has a good quay, from which steamers sail regularly for Liverpool: most of the exports of Newry are shipped here from the small craft that bring them down the canal. The scenery on both sides of Carlingford Loch is of striking beauty. With the exception of the Upper Bann, all the rivers of Down discharge their water into the Irish channel. The navigable river Lagan, which, throughout near half of its course, has a direction nearly parallel to the Bann, turns eastward at Magheralin, four miles north-east of which it becomes the county boundary, and passing by Lisburn, falls into the bay of Belfast, after a course of about thirty miles. The Ballynahinch or Annacloy river brings down the waters of several small lakes south-east of Hillsborough, and widens into the Quoile river, which is navigable for vessels of 200 tons a mile below Downpatrick, where it forms an extensive arm of Strangford Loch. The Quoile is covered with numerous islands, and its windings present much beautiful scenery. The Newry river rises near Rathfriland, and flowing westward by the northern declivities of the Mourne range, turns south a little above Newry, and after a short course falls into the head of Carlingford Loch. Numerous streams descend from the district of Mourne immediately to the sea, and there is no part of the county deficient in a good supply of running water. The Lagan navigation, connecting Loch Neagh with Belfast Loch, gives a line of water communication to the entire northern boundary of the county; and the Newry Canal, connecting the navigable river Bann with the bay of Carlingford, affords a like facility to the western district, so that, with the exception of about ten miles between the Bann and the termination of the Lagan navigation, the entire county boundary is formed either by the coast line or by lines of water carriage. The Lagan navigation was commenced in 1755, and cost upwards of 100,000/., but owing to mismanagement and the difficulties of keeping a rapid river navigation in repair, it has not !". a profitable speculation. The summit level, towards Loch Neagh, is 112 feet above the level of the sea. The Newry Canal admits vessels of 50 tons through the heart of Ulster. It was commenced in 1730, by commissioners appointed under an Act of the Irish Parliament, passed in the 3rd of George II., and was wholly constructed by government. The original object was chiefly to afford a water carriage for the coals of Tyrone district to Dublin. The canal lies partly in the county of Down and partly in Armagh; it extends, from its junction with the Bann river near Guilford, to Fathom, on the bay of Carlingford, about 14 Irish or 17; English miles, having its summit level 77 feet above the sea. The average breadth of the canal at top is 40 feet: the locks are 15 in number, and 22 feet in the clear. The canal was opened in 1741, but being among the first works of the kind attempted in Ireland it required numerous repairs, and has not yet made any considerable return for the original outlay. From the year 1802 to the year 1817, the total amount of toll received was 27,838/. 13s. 6] d., and the total expenditure was 70,4951, 18s. 84d.; and for the succeeding ten years the gross receipts were 25,4611.19s. 6d., and the gross expenditure 16,897/. 14s. 7%d. This navigation was vested in the directors-general of Ireland navigation down to 1827. It is now under the control of the Board of Works. Down is well supplied with roads. The great northern road from Belfast to Dublin passes through the county from north to south, by Hillsborough, Dromore, Banbridge, Loughbrickland, and Newry: this is the only turnpike road in Down. The other chief lines are from Belfast to Donaghadee by Newtownards; from Belfast to Downpatrick by Ballynahinch; and from Downpatrick to Newry by Castlewellan and Rathfriland. The roads in general are hilly, but well constructed, and kept in excellent repair by the grand jury. The Ulster Railroad, from Boot to Armagh, will pass through parts of the parishes of Moira and Shankill in this county. The entire length, when completed, will be 36 miles and 291 yards; A railroad has been projected from Belfast to Holywood, a bathing-place much resorted to by the citizens of Belfast in summer

The vicinity of the sea prevents the continuance of frosts on the east and south; and the insulated position of the mountainous tract confines the heavier mists and rains to that part of the county where their effects are least felt. The general inequality of the ground carries off surface waters and prevents damps, so that the climate, although somewhat cold, is considered very wholesome. The prevailing winds in spring are from the east: westerly winds, although more frequent than from any other point, have not so great a prevalence as in the o: counties. Larch timber thrives on very exposed situations on the Mourne mountains. The chief geological features are strongly marked. The Mourne and Slieve Croob groups consist of granite. The boundary of this primitive district begins from the east at Dundrum, whence passing northward to Slieve Croob, it runs nearly due west, including the lordship of ..". and asses into the adjoining counties of Armagh and Louth. his mass of granite reappears in Cavan, and probably is the same which rises on the opposite side of the island in the mountains of Sligo. Northward and eastward of the granite district the whole of the remainder of the county is occupied by an extension of the transition series which forms the southern basin of Loch Neagh. Clay slate in greater or less degrees of induration is the prevalent rock. Towards the sea on the north-east and east slate quarries are common. On the Antrim boundary near Moira an extension of the tertiary limestone formation which occurs throughout the basaltic district occupies a small portion of this county, and affords a most valuable supply of lime manure to the north-western baronies. Limestone boulders are found along the eastern shore of the Bay of Belfast; and at Carthespil, near Comber, on the western side of Strangford loch, there is a quarry of reddish granular limestone. Great quantities of marl are raised in the neighbourhood of Downpatrick. The junction of the greywacke and granite may be observed along the eastern branch of the river Lagan, where it rises on Slieve Croob. Copper ore has been found in the mountains about five miles north-east of Rosstrevor; also near Portaferry, and at Clonligg, between Newtownards and Bangor. At the latter place is a lead-mine which has been worked with moderate success at various times. Lead ore occurs on the estate of Ballyleady, in the same neighbourhood, and on that of Bryansford, near Newcastle; also at Killough, and near Portaferry. A lead-mine has likewise been worked in the Blundel estate, half a mile from Dundrum. Indications of coal have been observed in the north-east of the county, and ochreous earths have been found in various places; but hitherto without leading to any practical result. Chalybeate spas occur at Newry, Dromore, Magheralin, near Donaghadee and Rathfriland, and at various places in the barony of Ards. A chalybeate strongly impregnated with sulphur and nitre rises about two miles north-west of Ballynahinch, on the declivity of Slieve Croob mountain, which has been found very efficacious in scorbutic cases: the village of Ballynahinch has become a rather fashionable resort during the summer months in consequence. The prevalent soil in the low district is a stony loam formed by the decomposition of the schistose rock. Clayey soils are confined to the north-east of the county and the barony of Ards, and are of a strong and productive quality, but they are wet and require a large quantity of manure. The richest soil in the county is in the district of Lecale, and a small tract of loam incumbent on limestone gravel in the neighbourhood of Moira and Magheralin: the timber here is of larger growth than elsewhere in Down. Alluvial tracts are frequent, and yield luxuriant crops of grass without manure. The bogs in general are not larger than is advantageous for purposes of turbary. Moory land is confined to the mountain district: the soil is here light and gravelly; but with proper cultivation, as in the vicinity of Newry and of Castlewellan, can be made to yield good crops of oats and barley, Considerable quantities of wheat are raised throughout the county, but chiefly along both shores of Strangford loch; oats and barley are the chief produce of the south and centre of the county. Numerous resident nobility and gentry set an example of the best modes of cultivation; and several farming societies encourage competition among the landowners by annual ploughing matches and cattle-shows. The contrast between the slovenly farming of Meath and the workmanlike manner in which the

land is fenced and laid down in this county strikes an observer travelling from Dublin to Belfast very forcibly. The system of green crops and stall feeding is now being pursued by most of the gentlemen-farmers; but has not yet become general among the ordinary landowners. Fences on the Antrim boundary and along the line of the Dublin road are of quickthorn ; clay banks and dry stone walls are most common in the other parts of the county. Large quantities of sea-weed are used as manure along the north-east and eastern coast. The distance of limestone uarries renders lime manure very expensive throughout the central baronies; but in the south and south-east there is an abundant supply of marl in the barony of Lecale. This valuable substance is found in morasses and alluvial tracts at the bottoms of hills, and consists entirely of marine exuviae: the bed of marl is sometimes five feet in thickness. It was first brought into use in 1707, before which time the neighbouring country was only moderately fertile in oats and barley: but with a judicious use of this manure it now yields excellent crops of wheat. The immediate advance on the value of land which followed its introduction was four-fold, and a corn trade was opened from Strangford in consequence. The eagerness, however, with which this manure was applied led to the bad consequences which always attend strong manuring and over cropping; and it is said that so late as 1804 some of these lands had not yet recovered. The annual agricultural produce of Down has been valued at 1,396,000l.; the rental of proprietors at 172,3291. per annum, and the rent to occupiers of land, at 22s. per acre. The following table exhibits the quantities of wheat, &c., sold at the principal grain markets of Down in the years 1834-5. The market of Newry is supplied from Armagh and other counties, as well as from Down; and large quantities of the produce of Down are disposed of at Belfast.

Whether general

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tons. I tons. I tous. to us. tous. increasing or de

creasing. Downpatrick || 3,200 || 380 2,400 :00 450 Increasing. Portaferry 1,600 244 | 1,600 - - - - - - distu Strangford . 570 195 800 Decreasing. Ardglass . 400 390 400 -- --- ditto Killough . . 1,600 200 | 1,000 -- --- Increasing. Ballynahinch 1,700 7 : 4 - Decreasing. Killileagh ..] 1,900 200 110 ! -- Increasing. Banbridge . . 1,330 --- --- --- --- ditto Moira . . 214 90 - --- --- Decreasing. Dromore . . . . . . --- --- --- No return for 1833. Newtow nards. 1,000 700 800 --- --- lucreasing. Newry . . .] 7,710 |23,850 3,610 --- --- ditto

I

Down is not a grazing county, nor are there any sheep farms; but great numbers of pigs are reared for the provision markets of Newry and Belfast. The general condition of the people is much superior to that of the peasantry of the southern counties. Wages of labourers are 10d per day in winter, and 1s. during the rest of the year: the average number of days' work obtained in agriculture each year is 160. The resident nobility and gentry are more numerous in proportion to the extent of the county than in any other part of Ulster. Among the principal may be mentioned the marquisses of Downshire and Donegal, and during a part of each year the marquis of Londonderry and Lord Clanwilliam, th. earl of Roden, Earl Annesley, Lord Dufferin and Claneboy, Lord Bangor, Sir Robert Bateson, Mr. Ker, Colonel Forde, Mr. Sharman Crawford, &c., with incomes varying from 8000l. to 60,000l. per annum. The yeomanry of the county are an intelligent class. Blue cloth is the usual dress of the better class of the easantry, and the loose frieze coat so common in Louth and the borders of Armagh is rarely seen here. The provisions of the lighting and paving act have been put in force in Newry and Downpatrick, and Banbridge, and are about being extended to Dromore.

Pown contains seven baronies, and part of the lordship of Newry; the remainder of this division lying in Armagh. The baronies are—Ards, on the east and north-east, between Loch Strangford and the sea, containing part of the town of Newtownards, total population (in 183i) 4442; and the towns of Portaferry, population 2203; Bangor, population 2741; Donaghadee, population 2986; Bally walter, population, 664; and Kirkcubbin, population 537; Castlereagh, on the north-east and north, between Loch Strangford and the county of Antrim, containing the towns of Bally

Inacarratt (the eastern suburb of Belfast), population 5168;

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Comber, population 1377; Holywood, population 1288; and Saintfield, population 1053. Dufferin, on the western shore of Locn Strangford, contains the town of Killileagh, population 1147. Iveagh, Lower, on the north and north-west towards Antrim, and Loch Neagh, containing the towns of Hillsborough, population 1453: Dromore, population 1942; and Moira, population 787. Iveagh, Upper, on the west and midland, containing the towns of Banbridge, population 2469; Rathfriland, population 2001; Loughbrickland, population 618: Warrenspoint, population 1856; Rosstrevor, population 996; and Castlewellan, population 729. Kinalearty, midland, between Upper Iveagh and Dufferin, containing the town of Ballynahinch, population 970. Lecale, on the south-east, between Strangford Loch and Dundrum bay, containing the borough of Downpatrick, population 4784; and the towns of Ardglass, population 1162; Killough, population 1162; and Strangford, population 583; Mourne, lying between Dundrum bay and Carlingford Loch, containing the town of Kilkeel, population 1039; and part of the lordship of Newry, containing part of the borough of Newry, the total population of which is 13,065. Down returns four members to the imperial parliament, viz., two for the county, one for the borough of Newry, and one for the borough of Downpatrick. Besides these boroughs, Newtownards, Bangor, Killileagh, and Hillsborough returned members to the Irish parliament, and are still corporate towns. The lordship of Newry, the greater part of which lies within this county, is subject to a peculiar ecclesiastical jurisdiction exercised by the family of Needham as representatives of Sir Nicholas Bagnall, to whom, after the dissolution of religious houses in Ireland, the abbey of Newry with all its immunities and privileges was granted in fee by Edward VI. The manor of Mourne formed a portion of the original grant, and passed by marriage to the family of Paget, who claim the same ecclesiastical immunities for it in the diocese of Down as the Needham family for their portion in the diocese of Dromore, but hitherto without success. The authority of the representatives of the late Lord Kilmorey in his lordship of Newry extends to the presentation to livings, the granting of marriage licenses, probates, &c., in their ecclesiastical capacity, and to the holding of courts baron and leet, and discharging all recognizances to the Crown forfeited within that jurisdiction, in their civil capacity. The linen manufacture is the staple trade of Down, and gives employment to a greater number of operatives, in proportion to the population, than in any other part of Ireland. In 1831 the number of linen weavers was 671 l; and of weavers of damask, 6: the number of wheelwrights (makers of wheels for spinning linen yarn by hand) was 142; and of those employed in making other machinery for the manufacture of linens, millwrights, reed-makers, shuttle-makers, &c., 2207; together with 34 engaged in making machinery for drapers, and 32 for damasks; all exclusive of female hand-spinners throughout the county; so that the entire number to whom the trade gives occupation may be safely stated at 10,000. The linen manufac ture has been long carried on in Ireland, but its first great impulse was in consequence of the settlement of French refugees on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, who, by introducing the improved machinery of the continent, and setting an example of more business-like habits, raised the manufacture to a high degree of perfection and importance. To M. Crommelin, who settled at Lisburn in the reign of William III., Down owes the introduction of the improved manufacture on an extensive scale: before his time no web finer than of the quality called ‘a fourteenhundred' had been made in Ireland. This enterprising ind,vidual imported a thousand looms from Holland, and gave the manufacture such importance as secured it the attention and patronage of government. In the 4th of UJueen Anne the export duty on Irish linens was taken off, and from that time the trade has continued to flourish. The importation of flax-seed employs a considerable capital in Belfast and Newry. It is generally thought necessary to renew the seed from year to year; but a few farmers have latterly saved their own seed, and the practice has so far proved successful. The dressing of the grown crop gives employment to numerous scutchers and hacklers throughout the county; but the introduction of linen spinning machinery has materially lessened the demand for hand labour

however, prefer hand-spun thread for the weft, and the demand is still sufficient to give occupation to numerous females, who, except at the times of harvest, haymaking, and raising the potato crop, can make from 3d. to 4d. per day, besides attending to their ordinary rural concerns. Weaving is mostly carried on in the houses of small farmers, and there are few weavers who do not give part of their time to agriculture; hence they are generally a healthy and long-lived class of men. Hand-spinning and weaving are not confined to any particular district. When the webs are ready for the bleacher, they are carried to market. The following table, drawn up in 1802, exhibits the quality of cloth manufactured in the district surrounding each town. It is difficult to ascertain the quantity made in the county at large, as the markets of Lurgan, Lisburn, and Belfast, are in a great measure supplied from the northern parts of Down, and it not unfrequently happens that what is sold in one market is resold in another.

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The next process, and that which employs nearly an equal number of hands, is the bleaching and preparing for market the green web as purchased from the weaver. The chief manufacturing district of this county, as of Ireland at large, is along the valley of the Upper Bann. The waters of this river are peculiarly efficacious in bleaching; and its rapid descent affords numerous sites for the machinery emÉ. From Tanderagie in Armagh, to five miles above anbridge in Down, the banks of this river present an almost continuous succession of bleaching greens. On that part of the river which flows through Down there are eighteen of these establishments, each covering a large tract of ground, and giving employment to a numerous rural population. Besides these establishments, there are upon the Bann several extensive flour mills, a vitriol manufactory, and two factories for spinning linen thread by machinery. The waste of these bleach greens is found highly valuable as a manure. The neighbourhood of Guilford and Moyallan, about half way between Banbridge and Tanderagie, is celebrated for its rural beauty. Orchards are attached to all the better class of cottages, and the vicinity of so many bleach greens gives the effect of a continuous tract of rich park scenery on each bank of the river. The proprietors of the majority of these establishments are Dissenters and members of the Society of Friends, and the population generally is Protestant. he cotton and muslin manufacture in 1831 gave occupation to 3278 individuals: of these 307 were muslin weavers, and 13 were weavers of corduroy. The principal market for muslin fabrics is Belfast. This trade is not on the increase. The leather manufacture is carried on pretty briskly in Newry and in various parts of the county. The number of operatives employed in both in 1831 was 89. There is an extensive iron foundry near Ballymacarratt, which supplies much of the machinery used in the factories of Belfast. Here also are salt and vitriol works, with a manufacture of coarse glass. The manufacture of kelp is carried on to some extent on the shores of Loch Strangford. The exports ond imports of Down are made almost entirely through the so of Belfast and Newry. The net receipts of customs' duty at Newry in 1836 was 43,8671. About 80,000 firkins of butter are exported yearly from Down, and this as well as all other exports is increasing: The fishery on the coast from Bangor to Carlingford bay is pursued with a good deal of industry, but hitherto without sufficient capital or skill. The herring fishery com

• The linens being one yard wide, are distinguished by the number of threads contained in that breadth; thus an eight hundred web is one whose

in converting the dressed flax into thread. Manufacturers, P. C., No. 545.

warp contains that number of threads of yarn. Vol. IX.-Q

mences in July, and is pursued throughout the autumn and beginning of winter. The principal fishing ground lies off Locale, at a distance of a quarter of a mile to two leagues from shore, in three to seventeen fathom water, and extends with little interruption from Newcastle on the south to the entrance to strangford Loch upon the north. The fish taken are herrings, mackarel, haddock, cod, ling; glassan, bream, pollock, gurnet, plaice, bait, and turbot. Besides this there är... everal other fishing grounds off the coasts of Mourne and Ards.

The following table exhibits the number of boats and men employed in the fishery in 1835 at each of the coast-guard stations as below:—

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Arklow, skerries, and other places on the Irish coast. This
concourse of fishermen causes a considerable trade in Ard-
glass. Three additional butchers have booths here for the
sale of meat during the season. The English and Man
boats are larger and better found than the Irish. Their
tackle and gear also are of a superior description; and
although so many inhabitants of the coast appear by the
above table to be engaged in the pursuit, it is a remarkable
fact that neither at Newry, Downpatrick, nor Belfast, is there
a sufficient supply of fish, and that the salt, herrings con-
sumed throughout the county are invariably of Scotch
curing. There is ample occupation for five times the num-
ber of men at present engaged in the fishing off this
coast.
The county assizes are held twice a year at Downpatrick.
Quarter sessions are held by the assistant barrister twice a
year at Downpatrick, Newry, Dromore, and Newtownards.
The constabulary force stationed in Down in the year 1835
consisted of 5 chief constables, 30 constables, 114 sub-con-
stables, and 6 horses; and the expense of their support was
6,8841.6s., of which 3,2971. 10s. 8d. was chargeable against
the county.
Before and for some time after the coming of the Eng-
lish, Down was known as Ulladh or Ulidia, the original of
the name of Ulster. The antient inhabitants are supposed
to have been the Voluntii of Ptolemy. The north-eastern
ortion of Down was at an early period occupied by the
icts, of whom there was a considerable colony so late as
the 6th and 7th centuries, extending from Strangford Loch
to the Lower Bann in Antrim. Whether these Picts, who
are called Cruithne by the annalists, were of a nation essen:
tially different from the bulk of the Celtic inhabitants of
Ireland is still under discussion: the region occupied by
them abounds with stone-circles, cromlechs, and subterra-
nean galleries, which usually mark the presence of this pe-
culiar people. The territory occupied by them was called
Dalaradia, and extended from the Ravil river in Antrim

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The presence of St. Patrick in this county in the sixth century is attested by authentic records, and can be traced with topographical exactness at the present day. Downpatrick, Saul, Dromore, Moville, and Bangor, are the chief ecclesiastical foundations of Patrick and his immediate successors. Of these the last was the most famous, having a college, which for many years rivalled the schools of Armagh and Lismore. The foundation of the abbey of Newry for Cistertian monks, by Maurice MacLoughlin, king of Ireland, in 1153, is the most interesting event connected with Down prior to the English invasion, as the charter is still extant (O'Connor's Rer. Hib. Scrip. Vet. Proleg. ii., 153), witnessed by the celebrated primate Gelasius and by the petty kings of most of the northern provinces. The lands are conveyed with their woods, waters, and mills.

Down was overrun by the English under John de Courcy In 1177. The chief families introduced by the conquest were the Savages, Whites, Riddles, Sendalls, Poers, Chamberlains, Stokes, Mandevilles, Jordans, Stauntons, Logans, Papelaws, Russels, Audleys, Copelands, Mártells. Of these the Savages, Whites, and Russels still remain : most of the other names have become extinct in consequence of subsequent conquests by the Irish, and forfeiture. The county was originally divided into two shires, Down, and Newtown or the Ards, to which sheriffs were regularly appointed until 1333, when the revolt of the Irish on the murder of William de Burgho (BELFAst] overturned the English authority throughout Ulster. The family of Savage, who had possessed the baronies of Ards and Castlereagh, were driven into the peninsula between Loch Strangford and the sea,

and the Whites, who had held the centre of the county, were
confined to that part of Dufferin which borders on Loch
Strangford on the west. Castlereagh fell into the hands of
the O'Neills; Kinelearty into those of the Mac Artanes;
and MacRory and Magennis obtained the whole of Upper
and Lower Iveagh. Lecale and Mourne, being protected
until the middle of the seventeenth century by the castles
of Ardglass, Dundrum, and Green Castle, held out against
the natives, and having a sea communication with Louth,
were considered as part of that county, while the rest of
Down remained without the pale.
The Whites and Savages being separated from the Eng-
lish fell soon after into Irish habits, but still maintained an
independence among the hostile tribes around them. Ard-
uin in Upper Ards, and Killileagh on the shore of Loch
o were their respective places of defence. The
attainder of Shane O'Neill, who was slain in rebellion in
1567, threw all Iveagh, Kinelearty, Castlereagh, and Lower
Aris into the hands of the Crown. The dissolution of re.
ligious houses had already enabled the government to place
an English colony at Newry, which had been granted to
the family of Bagnall, and an attempt was made in 1572 to
occupy the Ards and Castlereagh with a similar force under
the family of Smith: but the son of Sir Thomas Smith,
who led the expedition, being killed by Neal Mac Brian Ar-
tagh, one of the attainted O'Neills, i. project miscarried.
Some indulgence was now shown to the O'Neills, Magen-
nises, and MacArtanes, who upon submission acquired grants
of their estates. In 1602, however, O'Neill of Castlereagh
being seized on some slight pretext, and imprisoned in Car-

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