Page images

as he could. He did so; but shortly after he again awoke her, and said that he had, a second time, had the same dream. The same vision was repeated a third time; on which, notwithstanding his wife's entreaties that he would lie quiet and endeavour to forget it, he arose (then between one and two o'clock) and dressed himself. At breakfast the dreams were the sole subject of conversation; and in the forenoon Mr. W. went to Falmouth, where he related the particulars of them to all of his acquaintance that he met. On the following day, Mr. Tucker, of Trematon Castle, accompanied by his wife, a daughter of Mr. W., went to Scorrior House on a visit. Mr. W. related to Mr. T. the circumstance of his dreams; on which Mr. T. observed that it would do very well for a dream to have the chancellor in the lobby of the House of Commons, but that he would not be found there in reality. Mr. T. then asked what sort of a man he appeared to be, when Mr. W. described him minutely. Mr. T. replied, “Your description is not at all that of the chancellor, but is very exactly that of Mr. Perceval, the chancellor of the exchequer.” He then inquired whether Mr. W. had ever seen Mr. Perceval, and was told that he had never seen him, nor had ever had anything to do with him; and further, that he had never been in the House of Commons in his life. At this moment they heard a horse gallop to the door of the house; and immediately after a son of Mr. Williams entered the room, and said that he had galloped out from Truro, having seen a gentleman there who had come by that evening's mail from town, and who had been in the lobby of the House of Commons on the evening of the 11th, when a man called Bellingham had shot Mr. Perceval. After the astonishment which this intelligence created had a little subsided, Mr. W. described most minutely the appearance and dress of the man that he saw in his dream fire the pistol at the chancellor, as also of the chancellor. About six weeks after, Mr. W. having business in town, went, accompanied by a friend, to the House of Commons, where, as has been already observed, he had never before been. Immediately that he came to the steps at the entrance of the lobby, he said, “This place is as distinctly within my recollection, in my dream, as any room in my house;” and he made the same observation when he entered the lobby. He then !ointed out the exact spot where Bellingham stood when e fired, and which Mr. Perceval had reached when he was struck by the ball, where he fell. The dress both of Mr. Perceval and Bellingham agreed with the description given by Mr. W., even to the most minute particulars.’ This dream is related also by Dr. Abercrombie (p. 300), with a slight variation as to the time that elapsed between the dream and the announcement of the event, and with some additional circumstances. The two following are among many instances mentioned by Dr. Abercrombie, who vouches for their truth. A Scotch clergyman, who lived near Edinburgh, dreamt one night, while on a visit in that town, that he saw a fire, and one of his children in the midst of it. On awaking, he instantly got up and returned home with the greatest speed. He found his house on fire, and was just in time to assist in saving one of his children, who in the alarm had been left in a place of danger. Two sisters had been for some days attending a sick brother, and one of them had borrowed a watch from a friend, her own being under repair. The sisters were sleeping together in a room communicating with that of their brother, when the elder awoke in a state of great agitation, and roused the other to tell her that she had had a frightful dream. “I dreamt, she said, “that Mary's watch stopped; and that when I told you of the circumstance, you replied, “Much worse than that has happened; for 's breath has stopped also,”’—naming their sick brother. The watch, however, was found to be going correctly, and the brother was sleeping quietly. The dream recurred the next night; and on the following morning, one of the sisters having occasion to seal a note, went to get the watch from a writing-desk in which she had deposited it, when she found that it had stopped. She rushed into her brother's room in alarm, remembering the dream, and found that he had been suddenly seized with a fit of suffocation, and had expired. (Abercrombie's Intellectual Powers, pp. 289-302.) The following is written in the fly-leaf of an old copy of Cotton's Concordance, belonging to a friend of the writer of this article. Its circumstantial manner of narration entitles it to belief; and the prediction of the beheading of Charles P. C., No. 549.

I. and of the fire to the old woman is no more extraordinary than that of the death of Mr. Perceval to a gentleman who had never seen him, and was in no way connected with him. It is signed Richard Fiennes, to whom, it is to be presumed, the Concordance once belonged; and it is dated September 14th, 1666, the year of the fire of London. “In the yeare 1653, on the 26th day of May, Mr. Fortescue of Ware, in the county of Devon, a person of greate honoure and sobriety, told me at Heanton in the said county, in the presence of my nephew, Roll, and other gentlemen of quality, that there was a woman of his knowledge, that was then living, that many yeares before the warres had a vision of them, and of the king's beheading, and amongst many other particulars, of the destruction of London. This I writt down in my Almanack for the yeare 1653, the same day it was told me with Avertat Deus under it; but it hath pleased God that for our sinne London is allsoe now consumed. I pray God we may all receive instruction by it.’ We shall conclude these instances with an account of two concurrent dreams furnished by Dr. Abercrombie, which were not, like those we have already given, followed by the event on which they are said to have turned, but of which the coincidence is very extraordinary. “A young man, who was at an academy a hundred miles from home, dreamt that he went to his father's house in the night, tried the front-door, but found it locked; got in by a back-door, and, finding nobody out of bed, went directly to the bed-room of his parents. He then said to his mother, whom he found awake, “Mother, I am going a long journey and am come to bid you good bye.” On i. she answered under much agitation, “Oh dear son, thou art dead!” He instantly awoke, and thought no more of his dream, until a few days after, he received a letter from his father, inquiring ve. anxiously after his health, in consequence of a j. dream his mother had on the same night in which the dream now mentioned occurred to him. She dreamt that she heard some one attempt to open the front-door, then go to the back-door, and at last come into her bed-room. She then saw it was her son, who came to the side of her bed, and said, “Mother, I am going a long journey and I am come to bid you good bye;” on which she exclaimed, “Oh dear son, thou art dead!". But nothing unusual happened to either of the parties.” (p. 295.) Instances of such dreams as these have been related in all times. The dream of Caesar's wife, Calpurnia, the night before the assassination (Sueton. Caesar, 81), is such an instance. There are many dreams recorded both in the Old and the New Testament, which, together with the attendant circumstances, rest on very strong historical evidence, resembling the instances occurring in what is called profane history; and a supernatural agency being admitted in them, there. is no reason why it should not exist also in other instances of dreams. For when once we allow the inadequacy of natural means for the explanation of a particular phenomenon, we cannot stop where we please, and say there is a reason why supernatural causes should have operated in this case, but there is none why they should have operated in that. In speaking of o causes or of supernatural agency, phrases to which we attach no definite positive meaning, and which we can only explain negatively, we confess our inability to account for the manner in which an event or events came to pass; and if unable to account for the manner, we cannot take upon ourselves to explain the reason of the occurrence. The supernatural interpositions to which, in our difficulty, we resort for aid, must, if they exist, be determined by general laws, which in the course of time it either may or may, not be given to men to know. At present we see only the particular interpositions, particular events belonging to another system, which we call supernatural, which is governed, however, doubtless, like our own or the natural system, by general laws, and which moves perhaps co-ordinately with this to a common end; and knowing not the laws of that system, nor the connexion between it and our own, we can do no more at present than record the particular instances. It is certainly not philosophical to refer each particular interposition to a particular providence, as is done by Bishop Bull in his sermon concerning the : Holy Office of Angels; but in an admission of our own ignorance, combined with an opinion that the interpositions (as they are called) are regulated by general laws, there seems to be nothing to be objected to. Vol. IX—U

Many dreams which have in former times been accounted supernatural, as revealing facts and truths of science, may doubtless be explained by means within our own knowledge. We have spoken of Franklin's belief in revelations made to him during dreams concerning political events, and have given a natural explanation of their revelations. The dream which is related in Sir Walter Scott's Notes to The Antiquary would, there is little doubt, have formerly been considered supernatural. There are several instances of dreams, similar to those related of himself by Franklin and that related by Sir Walter Scott, given by Henry More in his “Immortality of the Soul, (ii. 16,) all of which may be explained similarly ; as, for instance, the dream of Avenzoar Albumaron, an Arabian physician, to whom his lately deceased friend suggested in his sleep “a very soverain medicine for his sore eyes.” Indeed all dreams of the appearance of ghosts, where they are believed to relate what may have been before known to the dreamer, may be explained by the two circumstances, that ideas in dreams are taken for sensations, and that trains of ideas associated together are not liable to be interrupted by sensations, as they are in sleep. Mr. Coleridge has very happily observed that, in the cases where ghosts are believed to appear in dreams, we have the idea of the person to whom the ghost belongs as being in the room in which we ourselves are sleeping; and further, that such ghosts always appear in a half waking state, when ‘the impressions of the bed, curtains, room, &c., received by the eyes in the half moments of their opening, blend with, and give vividness and appropriate distance to, the dream image, which returns when they close again.” (Literary Remains, vol. i. p. 202.) here is a long “Essay on the Phenomenon of Dreaming’ in Baxter's “Inquiry into the Nature of the Human Soul; the object of which is to prove that dreams are brought about by the agency of spirits. However fanciful is this object, the essay is valuable, as containing many facts and displaying much ingenuity. The theory of dreams is treated briefly in Dr. Hartley's work, in Mr. Stewart’s “Philosophy of the Human Mind' (vol. i. chap. 8), in which, however, but little is done towards the elucidation of the subject, and in Dr. Beattie's “Dissertations.’ (Lond. 1783, 4to). Dr. Abercrombie's and Mr. Macnish's works are valuable for nothing else than the instances which they furnish. There is an article, occasioned by Mr. Macnish's book, and written by Sir William Molesworth, in the first volume of the ‘London Review,’ which shows great metaphysical acumen, and from which the reader will derive much instruction. The works of Aristotle contain a short treatise on dreams (repi 'Evvirvitov); and many valuable observations, as well as fancies, are scattered through the poem of Lucretius. There is also extant, in Greek, a work on dreams by ARTEMIDORUs, besides the Oneirocritikon of Astrampsychus, and that attributed to Nicephorus, a patriarch of Constantinople. DRENTHE, a small province in the kingdom of Holland, bounded on the north by Groningen, on the east by the kingdom of Hanover, on the south by Overyssel, and on the west by Overyssel and Friesland. Drenthe lies between 52° 35' and 53° 12' N. lat., and between 6° 5' and 7° E. long. Its extreme length from north to south is 41 English miles, and its greatest breadth 39 miles. The soil of the province is in general poor in quality, comprising a large proportion of marsh-land and of sandy wastes. There are only three towns requiring mention, viz.: Assen, the capital, Meppelt, and Koevorden. Assen is about 22 miles south of the town of Groningen; the population in 1814 amounted to 1175 souls, and at present is about 1900. Meppelt, which is in the south-west corner of the province, is more populous, and contains about 5500 inhabitants, many of whom are employed in weaving canvass. Koevorden, situated on the small river Aa, in 52° 41' N. lat. and 6°42' E. long, stands in a morass. It is a place of great strength, being considered the chef-d'oeuvre of Coehorn and the key to the provinces of Overyssel, Groningen, and Friesland. It was besieged in 1672 by the bishop of Munster, and taken by him through the treachery of the governor; but it was soon after retaken by the Dutch. The population is about 2200. In the statistical publications of the Dutch government Drenthe is for most purposes included with the adjoining province of Groningen, so that it is not possible to offer any, details of that nature. The

population of the entire province is about 50,000. [KAMrPEN, &c.] DRESDEN, the capital of the kingdom of Saxony (in the circle of Meissen), is situated on both banks of ther Elbe, in 51° 3' N. lat., and 13° 34' E. long., at an elevation of about 410 feet above the level of the sea: it is equidistant from Frankfort and Hamburg, Vienna and Munich, Stockholm, and St. Petersburg. The fine plain in which it stands is bounded on the east by the eminences which belong to the Saxon Switzerland and are mostly crowned with vineyards and gardens: on the south and south-west there are similar elevations, which are the termination of the Erzgebirge or Ore-mountains of Saxony and Bohemia, on this side. Westward lies the beautifully romantic ‘vale of rocks,” or “Plauische Grund,’ through which the Weiseritz flows before it traverses part of Dresden and falls into the Elbe. On the north-western side of the city the Elbe winds round an enclosure planted with avenues of trees, and on the north the distance is bounded by a succession of hills, in general covered with firs and pines. Though Dresden does not rank among the largest, it is certainly one of the most agreeable and interesting capitals in Europe, and well deserves the appellation of the ‘German Florence.’ It is divided into three parts; on the left bank of the Elbe is Dresden Proper, or the “Altstadt' (Old Town,) with its three suburbs, and the ‘Friedrichs-stadt,” which is separated from it by the Weiseritz: these two quarters form by far the larger portion of the city, and are disjoined from the third, or the “Neustadt' (New Town,) by the Elbe, which is here 480 feet in breadth. In continuation of the New Town, there are some later erections, called the “Neue Anbau,” or new buildings, which form a kind of suburb to it. The space gained by levelling the fortifications in the years 1810 and 1817 has been appropriated to gardens, promenades, and building. Dresden contains altogether 11 gates or entrances, 27 public squares, 146 streets, and 20 churches and chapels, viz. 13 for Lutherans, 1 for Reformed Lutherans, and 6 for Roman Catholics; besides 5 synagogues. The population about two hundred years ago was inconsiderable, as the average births from 1617 to 1725 did not exceed 500 yearly: at the close of the eighteenth century however they rose to 1950, but at the commencement of the present fell to 1600. After the year 1815 they increased again to 1800, and in 1830 had reached 2000. In 1833–1834 the average of births was 2108, and of deaths 2993. In 1813 the number of inhabitants was 41,218; in 1831 it was 63,979; and at present it is upwards of 66,000. Of this number about 4200 are Roman Catholics, and 800 Jews: the remainder are Protestants. The houses, in number about 3000, are principally built of Pirna freestone, and in general are from five to six stories in height. The old town, sometimes called Old Dresden, has four squares and 41 streets. The most interesting structure in this quarter is the royal palace, 1300 paces in circuit, which faces the west side of the bridge: it is an irregular building in the Gothic style, embellished with a church, which has the highest tower and steeple in the town. The chief parts of this edifice are the royal audience chamber, the Roman Catholic church, called a chapel, adorned with paintings by Rubens and Mengs, the chamber of ceremony (prachtzimmer) on the second floor, the porcelain-cabinet, the walls of which are ornamented with porcelain, the PropositionSaal (hall of propositions), in which the sessions of the Saxon legislature are opened, the royal library, the hall of audience, with a splendid ceiling painted by Sylvester, and the parade-chamber, with paintings by the same master. The celebrated Grüne-Gewälbe (green vault) opens upon the palace-yard, and contains a costly collection of precious stones, pearls, and works of art in gold, silver, amber, and ivory, arranged in eight rooms, the painting of which is green, and the walls are decorated with mirrors laid into compartments of marble and serpentine stone. This collection, which was begun by King Augustus, and has been gradually increased by his successors, is estimated at nearly one million sterling in value. Close to the palace are the chancery building, the depository for the national archives, and the Stallgebäude (mews), in which there are four noble collections in art, namely, the armoury, the gallery of arms, the cabinet of casts and models, and the picture gallery. The armoury contains upwards of 20,000 specimens of armour, weapons, &c., principally from all ages in Saxon and


German history; the gallery of arms, a hall one hundred paces in length, comprises 2000 specimens of antient and modern arms, weapons used in hunting, &c.; the cabinet of casts was formed by Raphael Mengs, purchased by the late king, and enlarged by casts moulded by Bianconi of Rome. The picture gallery, in the upper story of the building, is composed of the outer gallery, which runs round the four sides of the Stallgebäude, the inner gallery towards the yard, and the Pastell-cabinet. The outer gallery contains above 500 paintings of the Flemish school, 90 of the Italian, and many of the French and German: the inner gallery is occupied by 356 specimens of the Italian school; and the Pastell-cabinet comprises 150 paintings of various masters. Near this o stands the Palace of Princes, in which are a handsome chapel, a gallery of portraits of princes of the Saxon and Bavarian lines, a porcelain cabinet, a library of 10,000 volumes, and cabinet of engravings. It is the residence of the co-regent, Prince John. A covered way leads from this palace to the opera-house, where there is space on the stage for 500 performers, and in the house itself for 8000 spectators. The square adjoining it is called the Zwinger; three sides of it are occupied by six pavilions connected by a gallery one story high; the quadrangle contains four fountains and three hundred orange trees. The six pavilions, which are profusely ornamented, contain a museum of natural history, consisting of four galleries and six saloons; a cabinet of engravings, comprising 200,000 plates and upwards, arranged in twelve classes; a collection of mathematical and philosophical instruments; a collection of works of art in ivory, alabaster, silver, iron, wood, &c.; a chamber of models useful in hydrography, mining, military architecture, &c.; and a miscellaneous cabinet. The other buildings of note in the Old Town are the Brühl Palace, at present the residence of one of the royal family. It is the principal depository for the Meissen china; and behind it are spacious gardens and grounds, commanding delightful views of the banks of the Elbe and the surrounding scenery. Immediately adjacent are the hall, in which there is an annual exhibition of the productions of Saxon artists; the Academy of Arts and School of Design, and the Gallery of Duplicates, in which there are 250 paintings for which there was not sufficient room in the Great Gallery, and the celebrated tapestries worked after Raphael's designs. On one side of the square of St. Mary's church is the Mint; and adjoining it is the Arsenal, which contains a valuable collection of every kind of arms, and in one of the apartments, the portraits of all the Saxon sovereigns from Maurice to the present times. Facing the Arsenal stands the Academical Building, now used for a medical and surgical school ; below it there is a subterraneous hall decorated with paintings by Francisco Casanova. In the Pirna Street is the House of Assembly, a building of two stories, where the states hold their sittings and committees. The only handsome square in the Old Town is the Old Market Place, of which the town-hall is the great ornament. In this direction lie also the * mansion and garden, now a botanical garden, New Post-Office, Kaufhalle (Trades' Hall), with its colonnade, Treasury, German theatre, two royal villas, with fine gardens and chapels, the Observatory and grounds attached, the Mews and Riding School, Military Hospital and gardens, and the Orphan Asylum and church. The most remarkable churches in the Old Town are, St. Mary's, built in 1726, after the model of St. Peter's at Rome; the Church of the Cross, a parallelogram, with a steeple 305 feet in height containing three tiers of columns; the Protestant church of St. Sophia, an irregular structure erected in 1351; and the Roman Catholic chapel or church of the court, begun in 1751 by Gaetano Chiavero, on which more than 30,000l. have been expended. This chapel is connected with the royal palace, has two side churches, and a pyramidically disposed steeple, with three tiers of columns, in all 302 feet high, and contains the vaults for the royal family, besides a multitude of paintings, statues, monuments, carvings, altars, &c. Three suburbs are connected with the Old Town by means of as many avenues; the Pirna, See or Dohna, and Wildsruf suburbs. The first of these, which extends from the banks of the Elbe to the Kaidiz brook, has a long street, in which is the palace where the present king usually resides, with delightful grounds attached to it. The Botanical Garden, belonging to the Medical School, is close adjoining; and likewise Maurice's Avenue, on part of the

site of the former fortifications: this avenue derives its name from a piece of sculpture in stone, nearly three centuries old, exhibiting Maurice, the elector, and Augustus, his successor, with their consorts, as large as life; Maurice being represented as threatened by the scythe of death. and delivering his electoral sword to Augustus. In front of the external entrance into the Pirna suburb is the Great Garden, which is nearly five miles in circuit; and to the right lies the Nursery of Fruit Trees, which contains upwards of 65,000 plants, and a building in the centre, where concerts are held every week. The See suburb covers the south-west, and the Wildsruf the western side of the Old Town. From the last-mentioned suburb is an avenue called the Ostra-Allee, on one side of which are Prince Maximilian's palace, gardens, and observatory, and the buildings where the silver bullion is pressed, cut, and prepared for use at the Mint: this avenue opens upon a massive bridge across the Weiseritz, which leads to the Friedrichs-stadt (Fredericstown or Neu-Ostra), the second grand quarter of Dresden, between which and the Elbe are the wooded grounds, called the Ostra-Gehege. Here are the cemetery and infirmary for Roman Catholics, in which is Balth; Permoser's monument to his own memory, chiselled by himself, and representing the Descent from the Cross; the Marcolini Palace and grounds, with an observatory, chapel, and collection of engravings, and drawings in sepia by Seidelmann, and in the grounds Mutielli's fine marble group of Neptune, drawn by sea-horses, and attended by marine deities and tritons, in the act of crowning Amphitrite with a wreath, the group serving as the channel for a cascade; the Freemason's Lodge; and a riding-house. This part of Dresden is inhabited almost entirely by mechanics and others of the lower classes. The access from the old town to the new town, the third grand quarter of the city, which lies to the north east on the right bank of the Elbe, is across the palace square and celebrated stone bridge, called the Bridge of the Elbe, from its being the largest and handsomest structure of the kind which traverses that river. It is also denominated Augustus's Bridge, in honour of Augustus II., its founder. It is the work of Pöpelmann, rests on sixteen arches, is 1420 feet long and 36 broad, and was completed in the year 1731. The fourth pier, which was blown up by Marshal Davoust in 1813, was restored by the Russians in the following year. A cast-metal gilt crucifix, resting on a gilt copper globe placed on a mass of rustic stone about 28 feet in height stands upon the fifth pier. The bridge opens, on the new town side, upon an inclosed space, planted with linden-trees, 400 paces in length and 20 in breadth, and embellished with an equestrian statue of Augustus II., arrayed in the imperial costume of antient Rome, with a modern wig and field-marshal's baton, the work of Wiedemann, a coppersmith of Augsburg, and erected in 1723. A broad street, lined with linden-trees runs from the bridge to the northern extremity of the new town; on the western side of it is the Japanese Palace, and parade in font, and on the eastern a range of barracks for the cavalry and infantry, for 2300 officers and men, besides horses. The palace, now called the Augusteum, has this inscription in front, “Museum usui publico patens,’ and is the depository of four choice collections: —The Cabinet of Antiquities, founded in 1725, and arranged in 12 spacious and welllighted rooms on the ground-flour, which contains some splendid statues and other remains of antient art; the Cabinet of Coins, founded in 1716, also on the ground-floor, and particularly rich in the coins of Saxony, as well as remarkable for a fine series of medals struck in honour of illustrious individuals of all countries; the Cabinet of Porcelain, displayed in 18 rooms, also on the ground-floor, and containing a rare and extensive collection of china, of Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Meissen, Sévres, &c. manufacture, besides specimens of Florentine and Roman mosaic work, Chinese decorations, Saxon works in marble, &c.; and the Royal Public Library, deposited in three saloons and 21 apartments in the first and second stories, and consisting of more than 220,000 volumes, 2700 MSS., above 150,000 pamphlets, and 20,000 maps. Among these are upwards of 1600 printed books of the fifteenth century. The new town also contains the Church of the Trinity; a Town-hall; the Cadet Academy; Engineers' School, and Academy for artillery cadets; and the commandant's residence and main guard. It has 22 streets in all. To tho, orth-east of the fiew town lies what is called the Neue Anbau o build2

ings), a part of the town once an unproductive waste, and first laid out as gardens by some Bohemian gardeners, who settled here in 1730, but the site of which is becoming gradually occupied by handsome residences. It contains a playhouse and baths, a house of industry, schools for the indigent and for the garrison of Dresden, and a spacious cemetery. The house for the reception of bodies of unknown persons has been lately decorated with the Dance of Death, a rude sculpture in stone containing 24 figures. In the list of public establishments not hitherto noticed are a High School (the Kreutz-schule,) conducted by 12 masters, and attended by about 400 pupils; two schools for teachers, in which the deaf and dumb are taught; 23 free and elementary schools for about 3000 Protestant children; an asylum for the reformation of depraved children; three infant schools; several public schools for the children of the townsmen; the Schmalz foundation for educating poor children; and a public school for girls. Dresden contains altogether 71 establishments for Protestant education. The Catholics have a High School, the Josephina Foundation, for the education of the superior class of females, two ordinary schools, a free school, and a school for educating 12 soldiers’ children, attached to the latter. To these should be added the Free Masons' School (with about 100 children) and a Veterinary School. The number of institutions for the sick and maimed and orphans is eight, including three hospitals. There are a variety of learned and other societies, the chief of which are the Academy of Arts, the Society of Economy, which promotes the various interests connected with Saxon industry, the Mineralogical, the Natural History and Medical, the Bible, the Missionary, and the Saxon Antiquities Societies. The number of benevolent institutions and societies of all descriptions is 78. Dresden has no external trade or manufactures of much importance. It is a place of transit for colonial and other foreign produce from Magdeburg, Hamburg, &c., and has five general fairs, besides a yearly fair in June, at which a considerable quantity of wool is sold. Its mechanics have obtained some note in Germany for the manufacture of mathematical, mechanical, and musical instruments, engraving on steel and stone, the making of gloves, carpets, turnery ware, jewellery, straw hats, painters’ colours, &c. These mechanics are incorporated into 60 fraternities. Morocco and other leather, refined sugar, tobacco, white lead, tin ware, glass, stockings, cotton goods, &c. are also manufactured, but not on an extensive scale. There is a foundry for bomb-shells and cannon, and a yearly exhibition of Saxon manufactures. The municipal expenses of the town are about 49,000 dollars (6900l.) a year. The immediate vicinity of Dresden abounds in places of public resort, and its environs are full of attractions for strangers, among which we may notice the villages of Lochwitz, Kreischa, and Dohna, the scenery called the Schlottwitzer, and Plauische Grund, the antient burg of Tharant, the vale of Seifersdorf, the Saxon Switzerland, Pillnitz, with its summer palace, and the village of Schandau. DREUX, a town in France, the chief place of an arrondissement in the department of Eure et Loir. It is on the river Blaise, a o of the Eure, 41 miles from Paris, in a straight line west by south, or 50 miles by the road through Versailles and Houdan; in 48° 43' N. lat., and 1° 21' E. long. It is on the great western road to Alençon, Laval, Rennes, St. Brieuc, and Brest. Dreux was known under the Romans by the name Durocasses, and appears to have been included in the territories of the Carnutes. From Durocasses the name was contracted into Drocae, from which the modern form Dreux is derived. The town with the surrounding district, forming the county of Dreux, was included in the acquisitions made by the Northmen or Normans in France, but was early taken from them, and became part of the domain of the French crown. It continued, after several changes, to be held by a remote branch of the Bourbon family up to the time (we believe) of the French Revolution. In December, 1562, a severe action was fought in the plain of Dreux, between the rivers Eure and Blaise, between the royal Catholic army under the Constable Montmorency and the army of the Calvinists under the prince of Condé and the Admiral Coligny. . The Calvinists were defeated, and the prince of Condé taken prisoner. In A.D. 1593, Dreux, which was in the possession of the party of the League, was taken by Henri IV. after a vigorous resistance of 15 or 18 days. The town, which is in a pleasant country, is traversed by

the Blaise. On a hill which commands the town are the remains of the antient castle of the counts of Dreux: in the midst of these ruins rises the new chapel built on the site of a former collegiate church by the late duchess dowager of Orléans. The houses of the town are partly of brick, partly of wood, and partly of plaster: there is a small promenade, an alley of trees planted along the river, and called Boulevart. The town-hall is a Gothic building ; and there is, beside the chapel mentioned above, a parish church, also Gothic: before the Revolution there were two parish churches. The population, in 1832, was 5166 for the town, or 6249 for the whole commune. The inhabitants manufacture serges, blankets, hosiery, and other woollen goods, hats, and leather: there are tan-mills and dye-houses: beside the articles which they manufacture, they carry on trade in sheep and cattle. There are three fairs in the year. There is a good hospital and a high school. The arrondissement of Dreux had, in 1832, a population of 70,532. DRIFFIELD. [Yorkshire.] DRILL, the course of instruction in which the soldier is taught the use of arms and the practice of military evolutions. DRILL HUSBANDRY. [DRILLING..] DRILLING is a mode of sowing by which the seed is deposited in regular equidistant rows, at such a depth as each kind requires for its most perfect vegetation. It has been practised by gardeners from time immemorial, and from the garden it has gradually extended to the field. In those countries where maize or Indian corn is extensively cultivated the seed is always deposited in rows; and during the growth of the plants the soil in the intervals is repeatedly hoed and stirred to a considerable depth, as is likewise the practice in vineyards. This cultivation not only keeps the land free from weeds, but by allowing the dews and the influence of the atmosphere to penetrate into the . greatly encourages the vegetation and growth of the plants. It was no doubt from observing the effect produced by stirring the soil that Jethro Tull and his followers adopted the theory, that finely-divided earth formed the chief food of plants; and this led to the adoption of the row culture for every species of plant, and horse-hoeing the intervals, from which the practice obtained the name of the horsehoeing husbandry. This was at one time thought so important a discovery as to be called the new husbandry, which was expected by its most zealous supporters entirely to supersede the old methods. The system of Tull has been long proved to have been founded on erroneous principles. Tull himself was ruined by his experiment; and his warmest admirers, Du Hamel, Du Monceau, and De Châteauvieu, were forced to admit its fallacy, after having suffered considerable loss by adopting its practice. But the advantage of sowing the seed in rows or drills has stood the test of experience; and the drill huslo by combining the advantages of continued tillage with those of manure and a judicious rotation of crops, is a decided improvement on the old methods of sowing all seeds broad-cast. The crops which are now most generally drilled are potatoes, turnips, beans, peas, beet-root, coleseed, and carrots; and in general all plants which require room to spread, whether above or under the ground. The distance between the rows in these crops is generally such as to allow the use of a light plough or horse-hoe to be drawn by a horse between them without endangering the growing plants. The most common distance is twenty-seven inches, where the row culture is practised in its greatest perfection, which is in the north of England and in Scotland. The Northumberland mode of cultivating turnips, which is adopted by most scientific farmers, and seems to have decided advantages, consists in placing the manure in rows immediately under the line in which the seed is to be drilled, and keeping the intervals in a mellow and pulverized state by repeated stirring. In this mode of sowing the seeds vegetate more rapidly, and are sooner out of danger from the fly, and the crop is more certain as well as heavier. Should the turnips fail, which with every precaution will sometimes happen, the land has had the benefit of a complete fallow, and is well prepared for any other crop. . The instrument used for sowing turnips and other seeds in single rows is sometimes a small light wheel-barrow, which a man pushes before him; hence called a drill-barrow.

It has a box in which the seed is put, with a slide to regulate

the quantity. This is allowed to fall on a wooden or metal cylinder below. In the circumference of this cylinder are several cavities where the seed lodges, and is carried down into a tin funnel below; the remainder is prevented from falling through by small brushes in which the eylinder turns. The motion is communicated from the wheel which runs on the ground to the cylinder by means of a chain on two pullies placed on the axes of the wheel and cylinder. The improved Northumberland drill, of which a figure is annexed, is a more perfect as well as more complicated instrument. It is supported on two wheels, and drawn by a horse. It sows ground bones, ashes, rape cake, or any other dry manure at the same time with the seed. The body of the drill consists of two boxes, A and B, divided by a partition between them, and each again divided into two by another partition at right-angles to the first. In the box A is put the manure, i."; the seed. Iron slides are fixed in each compartment to regulate the supply of seed or manure. In the lower part of the boxes, and just before the opening, which is regulated by the slides, are two cylinders, one for the box A and another for B. On the cylinder in A are fixed shallow cups with short stems, which dip in the bones and carry a certain quantity over the cylinder as it turns, which falling in the funnels KK is deposited in the furrows made by the coulters H. H. The cylinder in the box B has projecting pieces of iron, with a small cavity in each near the end, which takes up a very small quantity of seed, and discharges it in the same manner into the two funnels K.K. On the axis of the wheel E is a toothed wheel, which turns

a small wheel D on the axis of the cylinder in A, and this turns another wheel C on the axis of the cylinder in B. As these two wheels move towards each other, the two cylinders turn in contrary directions, which is a convenience in throwing the seed and the manure into the funnels KK at the same time. The wheel F may be lifted up by means of a lever G, and then the cylinders do not revolve. There are various other contrivances which cannot well be explained without a more detailed figure of the different parts. In some districts there is still a prejudice against the use of the drill even for turnips. In Norfolk, where the corn is usually drilled, the turnips, are still very generally sown broad-cast. The cause of this appears to be, that as the cultivation of turnips was first introduced from Flanders into Norfolk, and in Flanders turnips are never drilled, because there they are generally sown as a second crop immediately after rye harvest, they have continued the old method first introduced, and the labourers are become very skilful in setting out the plants at proper distances with the hand-hoe. In the north they were introduced at a later date, and the improved mode of sowing in rows was immediately adopted. The Norfolk farmer insists that the barley, usually sown after turnips, is better when the manure has been equally distributed than when it lies in rows, as the land is only slightly ploughed after sheep have been folded on the turnips, and the manure remains in stripes. On the whole, however, drilling in the Northumberland method, seems to be the best practice, and is adopted very generally by all scientific farmers.

Northumberland Turnip Drill, drawn from one manufactured by Messrs. Cottam and Hallen, Winsley Street, Oxford Street, London.

On light friable soils, drilling the seed is very generally adopted. There is a neatness in the appearance which recommends it to the eye; and machines have been so improved, that the seed is sown more regularly and is better covered than it could possibly be by the best broad-cast sower followed by the harrows. In very stiff heavy soils, and in moist seasons, it is not so practicable to use the drill. It is sometimes impossible to get the land sufficiently dry and pulverized to allow of drilling to advantage; and when the land is wet the tread of the horses would greatly injure it. If wet clay soils were more generally underdrained, and the subsoil plough were used to loosen them to a considerable depth, they might be rendered so dry and friable that the drill could be used at all times.

In poor sandy and gravelly soils where bones have been found of so great advantage as a manure, drilling is the only mode by which the bones and the seed can be sown in contact with each other; an important circumstance. When the ground has been well prepared and laid into stitches of a convenient width, a whole stitch may be drilled at cnce, with so much regularity, that an instrument with as many hoes as there are drills, and of the same width, may be drawn over the land to stir all the intervals, without

danger of injuring the plants. This requires great practice and attention; but it may be considered as the perfection of the drill system. here drilling seed is generally adopted, and the farms are not so large as to make it prudent for the occupier to purchase expensive instruments, drilling is become a separate profession. An industrious man with a small capital buys improved drills, and undertakes to drill the seed at a certain price per acre. The farmer finds horses and seed, and the driller finds the machine, and attends to the management of it himself. By constantly doing the same thing he becomes very expert; and in a neighbourhood where there are many small occupiers, a good drilling-machine, which costs from 30l. to 50l., procures the owner a very good livelihood during the whole season of sowing; and if the instruments for hoeing were more generally used, the profession of a hoer of land might be advantageously united to that of the driller. Corn i* generally drilled at the distance of eight or nine incho and a machine which drills twelve rows will cover a stitch ten feet wide. Some prefer the rows to be ". but in that case the hoeing is not so easil per." Moi machine, and it is done by hand. *ašio. roW 5 machine for drilling is Cook's patent lever * **h so"

« EelmineJätka »