« EelmineJätka »
the quantity. This is allowed to fall on a wooden or metal cylinder below. In the circumference of this cylinder are several cavities where the seed lodges, and is carried down into a tin funnel below; the remainder is prevented from falling through by small brushes in which the eylinder turns. The motion is communicated from the wheel which runs on the ground to the cylinder by means of a chain on two pullies placed on the axes of the wheel and cylinder. The improved Northumberland drill, of which a figure is annexed, is a more perfect as well as more complicated instrument. It is supported on two wheels, and drawn by a horse. It sows ground bones, ashes, rape cake, or any other dry manure at the same time with the seed. The body of the drill consists of two boxes, A and B, divided by a partition between them, and each again divided into two by another partition at right-angles to the first. In the box A is put the manure, in B the seed. Iron slides are fixed in each compartment to regulate the supply of seed or manure. In the lower part of the boxes, and just before the opening, which is regulated § the slides, are two cylinders, one for the box A and another for B. On the cylinder in A are fixed shallow cups with short stems, which dip in the bones and carry a certain quantity over the cylinder as it turns, which falling in the funnels KK is deposited in the furrows made by the coulters H. H. The cylinder in the box B has projecting pieces of iron, with a small cavity in each near the end, which takes up a very small quantity of seed, and discharges it in the same manner into the two funnels K.K. On the axis of the wheel E is a toothed wheel, which turns
a small wheel D on the axis of the cylinder in A, and this turns another wheel C on the axis of the cylinder in B. As these two wheels move towards each other, the two cylinders turn in contrary directions, which is a convenience in throwing the seed and the manure into the funnels KK at the same time. The wheel F may be lifted up by means of a lever G, and then the cylinders do not revolve. There are various other contrivances which cannot well be explained without a more detailed figure of the different parts.
In some districts there is still a prejudice against the use of the drill even for turnips. In Norfolk, where the corn is usually drilled, the turnips, are still very generally sown broad-cast. The cause of this appears to be, that as the cultivation of turnips was first introduced from Flanders into Norfolk, and in Flanders turnips are never drilled, because there they are generally sown as a second crop immediately after rye harvest, they have continued the old method first introduced, and the labourers are become very skilful in setting out the plants at proper distances with the hand-hoe. In the north they were introduced at a later date, and the improved mode of sowing in rows was immediately adopted. The Norfolk farmer insists that the barley, usually sown after turnips, is better when the manure has been equally distributed than when it lies in rows, as the land is only slightly ploughed after sheep have been folded on the turnips, and the manure remains in stripes.
On the whole, however, drilling in the Northumberland method, seems to be the best practice, and is adopted very generally by all scientific farmers.
On light friable soils, drilling the seed is very generally adopted. There is a neatness in the appearance which recommends it to the eye; and machines have been so improved, that the seed is sown more regularly and is better covered than it could possibly be by the best broad-cast sower followed by the harrows. In very stiff heavy soils, and in moist seasons, it is not so practicable to use the drill. It is sometimes impossible to get the land sufficiently dry and pulverized to allow of drilling to advantage; and when the land is wet the tread of the horses would greatly injure it. If wet clay soils were more generally underdrained, and the subsoil plough were used to loosen them to a considerable depth, they might be rendered so dry and friable that the drill could be used at all times.
In poor sandy and gravelly soils where bones have been found of so great advantage as a manure, drilling is the only mode by which the bones and the seed can be sown in contact with each other; an important circumstance. When the ground has been well prepared and laid into stitches of a convenient width, a whole stitch may be drilled at cnce, with so much regularity, that an instrument with as wnany \oes as there are drills, and of the same width, may be drawn over the land to stir all the intervals, without
danger of injuring the plants. This requires great practice and attention; but it may be considered as the perfection of the drill system. here drilling seed is generally adopted, and the farms are not so large as to make it prudent for the occupier to purchase expensive instruments, drilling is become a separate profession. An industrious man with a small capital buys improved drills, and undertakes to drill the seed at a certain price per acre. The farmer finds horses and seed, and the driller finds the machine, and attends to the management of it himself. By constantly doing the same thing he becomes very expert; and in a neighbourhood where there are many small occupiers, a good drilling-machine, which costs from 30l. to 50l., procures the owner a very good livelihood during the whole season of sowing; and if the instruments for hoeing were more generally used, the profession of a hoer of land might be advantageously united to that of the driller. Corn is generally drilled at the distance of eight or nine inches; and a machine which drills twelve rows will cover a stitch ten feet wide. Some prefer the rows to be nearer, but in that case the hoeing is not so easily performed with a machine, and it is done by hand. e most improved machine for drilling is Cook's patent lever drill, which sows
from ten to fifteen rows at once. The description of the Northumberland turnip-drill will make the construction of Cook's drill more easily understood. In the annexed figure the box for sowing manure is not added, as it is in the Northumberland drill. The drill is supported on a frame and two wheels. The box A, which holds the seed, lets it down gradually into a lower part, in which the cylinder, which has the small cups fixed to its circumferenee, is turned by the wheel D. By means of the lever G this may be raised so that its teeth are freed from those of the wheel E, and the motion of the cylinder is stopped. The coulters which make the drills are each fixed to a lever, at one end of which, B, a weight is fixed to press the coulter into the ground. Each coulter has a separate lever, so that it adapts itself to all the inequalities of the soil. A chain proceeds from the end of each, and may be wound round a cylinder C by turning the handles fixed to it at H, where there is also a racket-wheel to prevent its unwinding. The intent of this is to raise all the coulters out of the ground, when the drill is not intended to act, or is moved from place to place. When the drill is used, the box A is filled with seed, and the slide in it so adjusted as to supply it regularly; the lever G, which was fixed down, is raised, and the wheel D connected with the wheel E. As the horses proceed, the cylinder turns, the cups take up the seed, and throw it into the funnels KK, which conduct it to the drill behind the coulter. A light harrow, or a bush-harrow, follows, which covers the seed. In very loose soils the roller completes the operation. DRIMYS. [CANELLA. ALBA.; WINTERA.] DRIN, or DRINO. [ALBANIA.] DROGHEDA is a seaport town, forming with its liberties the county of the town of Drogheda, in the province of Leinster in Ireland, situated between the counties of Meath and Louth, upon both sides of the river Boyne, about four miles from its entrance into the Irish channel, and 23} Irish or 29; English miles from Dublin. The town and liberties occupy the parish of St. Mary’s, towards Meath, on the south side of the river, and the parish of St. Peter's, and part of the parish of Ballymakenny, towards Louth, on the north side of the river. The total area of the town and liberties is 5802 statute acres. The recent boundary act has not made any alteration in these limits, The name Drogheda, of which Tredagh (as it is generally written in old books) is a corruption, signifies the bridge of the ford. A synod was held here by Cardinal Paparo, the Pope's legate, in 1152; which was very numerously attended by the Irish ecclesiastics, and at which the autho. rity and discipline of the church of Rome were greatly strengthened in Ireland. After the conquest, the first care of the English seemed to have been the erection of a sub
stantial bridge, as appears by a grant of pontage made in 1228 by Henry #. who in to.". year also divided the town into two parts, viz., Drogheda versus Uriel, on the Louth side of the river, and Drogheda versus Midiam, on the Meath side. In 1412, the division of the town into two corporations being found productive of much animosity between the inhabitants of the opposite sides of the river, was repealed by Henry IV., since which time Drogheda on both sides of the Boyne has continued to be one body corporate. Being a frontier town of the pale, Drogheda was a principal rendezvous for the forces which were so frequentl required in Ulster between the fourteenth and seventeent centuries; and many of the Irish parliaments were held here, particularly during the fifteenth century. In the parliament which met at Drogheda in 1494 was passed the statute called Poyning's Act, which made it necessary to the validity of all future acts of the Irish parliament that the bills should first be certified as fit for the consideration of that assembly by the king in council (10 Hen. vii. c. 22). By this act the freedom of the Irish legislature was virtually destroyed, and in this state of subjection it continued until the assertion of independence by the Irish volunteers in 1782. A mint was at this time established at Drogheda, and the town appears to have been a place of much greater importance than at any subsequent period. On the breaking out of the rebellion of 1641, Drogheda was besieged by Sir Phelim O'Neill, and a large force of Irish, who invested the town on both sides on the 1st of December. The garrison consisted of only about 1000 men, under Sir Henry Tichborne and the Lord Moore, who having taken an oath to defend the place to the last extremity, not only repulsed several attacks of the Irish, but succeeded in capturing large booties and doing great damage to the rebels in numerous sallies, until the 28th of February, when they finally forced them to raise the siege. On the arrival of Cromwell in Ireland in 1649, the Marquis of Ormond placed a garrison of nearly 3000 men in Drogheda, under the command of Sir Arthur Aston; and satisfied of its security, withdrew into the midland counties to recruit. Cromwell left Dublin on the 30th of August, and came before Drogheda on the 2nd of September, but, owin to some delay in the arrival of his artillery, which he ha sent round by sea, he did not open any battery till the 9th. On the 10th, at 5 o'clock in the afternoon, having effected a breach, without the delay of making regular approaches, he gave the assault; and although twice . succeeded on the third attempt, which he led himself, in carrying the town. Quarter was promised by his officers and men, and the bulk of the garrison are said to have laid down their arms on that assurance: nevertheless they were all put to the sword, with the exception of a very few who escaped by the north gate, and about thirty whom Cromwell after
wards transported to Barbadoes. Drogheda was last held for the Roman Catholic party by the Lord Iveagh, with a garrison of 1000 men, in 1690, but it surrendered to a detachment of King William's army the day after the battle of the Boyne. [BoyNE.] The old walls and four gates were standing within the last fifty years. A few buttresses and St. Laurence's gate are all that now remain. The last is a striking object, and is in good preservation. Drogheda is rich in ecclesiastical antiquities. The Dominican Friary on the north part of the town was founded by Lucas de Netterville, archbishop of Armagh, in 1224, and is celebrated as the scene of the submission of four Irish princes to Richard II. in 1394. A lofty tower of this friary, called the Magdalen Tower, is still standing, together with some of the cloisters. The ruins of the Carmelite Friary, founded in 1240, on the south side of the river, are still to be seen on the right hand of the great rorthern road coming from Dublin. The present parish church of St. Mary’s is partly built on these ruins. The Franciscan Friary on the north-east of the town is standing, although much ruined, and forms a striking feature in the view of Drogheda from the approaches on the Dublin side. A gable and bell-tower, with part of the aisle, of the Priory of Canons Regular also remain on the west of the town near the river; and there are some traces of the Priory of St. Laurence near the gate, and of the Hospital of St. Mary, beyond the Canons Regular. Besides these, there was an Augustinian Priory, founded before the coming of the English, of which no trace now remains; as also the Priory of St. John, and the religious
houses of St. James and St. Bennet. The possessions of the Augustinians and Carmelites, as also of the Priory of St. Laurence and the house of the blessed Mary de Urso, came into the hands of the corporation by charter of 3 and 4 Philip and Mary, A.D. 1557. Drogheda is governed by a corporation, consisting of mayor, sheriffs, 24 aldermen, and an unlimited number of freemen. This body is nearly self-elected, and has uniformly acted on the principle of excluding Roman Catholics. They hold their authority under numerous charters, from the i2th of Henry III. to the 3rd of William IV. Assizes for the county of the town are held here twice a year before the mayor and the judges of assize. Drogheda is the first town on the north-east circuit. A civil bill court is also held here twice a year before the assistant barrister of the county of Louth. Petty sessions are held once a fortnight. The gaol of the county of the town, on the road to Tirsecan, was lately built by grand jury presentment, and is in good condition, though sometimes deficient in accommodation. Drogheda is watched and lighted by rates imposed under acts of parliament. The expenses of paving, within the walls, are defrayed by the corporation: the roads and streets without the walls are repaired by grand jury presentments. The expense of watching in 1833 was 310!. 10s. 7d. ; of lighting, 320i.; of paving within the walls, 2131. 13s.; and of repairing roads, &c. without the walls, 1351.6s. 5%d. Drogheda returns one member to the Imperial Parliament. The port and harbour are under the direction of harbour commissioners, constituted by 3 Geo. III. c. 39, and 7 and 8 Geo. III. c. 35. These and the corporate authorities under whose control the harbour was formerly, have received from time to time a sum of 6000l. for the improvement of the quays and river. Their receipts in tonnage dues for 1834 amounted to 1 1,668l., and in 1835 to 58291. Vessels of 250 tons come up to the bridge, and the channel of the Boyne is capable of great improvement. The amount of postage collected at Drogheda in each year from 1833 to i836 was as follows:–1833, 1935l. 14s. 3d. ; 1834, 2040l. 15s. 5d. ; 1835, 20571. 18s. 5d.; 1836, 2244!. 7s. 1d. The increase under this head shows that the trade of the town is reviving. This corporation is subject to the ‘New Rules' of the 25th of Charles II. [Corporations of IRELAND..] Their estates consist of 2032 acres, besides houses and tenements, producing an average annual revenue of 4500l. It is estimated that these estates, if out of lease, would now let for 12,000l. per annum. They are principally tenanted by members of the corporation, who, up to 1833, were alone permitted to become tenants, and who still enjoy peculiar advantages in renewing their leases: Drogheda is a compact and well-built town; but the miserable suburbs extending north and south greatly dis
figure the approaches. The chief part of the town lies on
the northern side of the river, which is the higher ground. The principal street runs nearly north and south, and forms a portion of the great northern road. Other good streets branch east and west. About the centre of the town, on the western side of the main street, stands the town-house, a handsome building with a clock and cupola; and north of this, on the opposite side of the main street, is the parish church of St. Peter, a respectable edifice of cut stone, with a spire designed by Johnston. The Roman Catholic chapel of St. Peter is capacious and well-built; and there is a handsome Presbyterian meeting-house, and a Methodist chapel of chaste architecture. Besides these there are four other Roman Catholic chapels, and two nunneries; one of the latter, called the Sienna Nunnery, near the site of the Franciscan Priory, is a large establishment. There are two barracks. There is a considerable import of coal from Workington and Whitehaven. It sells at from 12s. to 14s. per ton; but even this low price precludes the purchase of coal by the poorer classes, who in many instances burn little else than weeds and brambles. The linen manufacture, about twenty years ago, was the staple trade of Drogheda. The articles manufactured were dowlas, sheetings, and a narrow web called market linen. The number of weavers in the county of the town at that time was about 2000. The quantity of linen sealed in the Drogheda market in 1820 was 53,697 pieces; and in 1821, 61,866 pieces: the average of the years from 1830 to 1834 (both included) was only 19,495 pieces. The number of looms now employed in Drogheda and the country around does not amount to 1000; the number of weavers at present (1837) employed in the town is not much more than 200; and the wages they earn rarely amount to 5s. per week. The lower class of the population are miserably poor; and as numerous vagrants pass through the town to and from Dublin, the streets are constantly filled with beggars, who collect in crowds round the different stage-coaches, when changing horses, and seriously annoy travellers upon the northern road A mendicity institution was established in Drogheda in 1821 the corporation give a house rent free, and the establishment is supported by voluntary contributions. The expendi ture from the 1st May, 1831, to the 25th June, 1833, was 812l. 8s. 2d.; and the receipts were 786l. 2s. 2d. There is also an almshouse, with a rental of 24 ll. 12s. 6d.; and an hospital for the county of the town, constituted under the provisions of 47th Geo. III. c. 50, which receives 90 in-door patients, and gives dispensary relief to about 4000 poor an nually. It is supported by a grant of 50l. per annum from the corporation, by voluntary contributions, and grand jury presentments: total receipts for 1833, 364l. 10s. 3}d. There is a savings bank in the town, the deposits in which are increasing. The total number of depositors in 1835 was 671; gross amount of lodgments 17,7291. 19s, 7%d. There has been little or no increase in the population of Drogheda since the year 1798, when the lists which the inhabitants were obliged to put up on their doors gave a population of about 17,000. In 1821 the numbers were, males, 8702; females, 9416; total, 18, 118: and in 1831 the numbers were, males, 8178; females, 9187; total, 17,365 showing a considerable decrease, which has been attributed partly to the emigration of decayed weavers, and partly to the mortality caused by the cholera, which, since 1831, is estimated to have carried off upwards of 1500 inhabitants. In the latter year, the number of males upwards of twenty years of age returned as employed in manufactures, or in making manufacturing machinery, was 946; of whom 153 are stated to be employed in the linen manufacture, 788 (not accurately classed) in the cotton and linen manufacture, and 5 in the manufacture of tobacco. In 1821 there were in the county of the town of Drogheda 1147 young persons receiving daily instruction, and in 1834 the numbers were—
The town expenses are defrayed by grand jury assess. ments. The total sum so levied in 1833 was 1863. 14s. 33d. An obscure work, entitled ‘A History of Drogheda,” Was published some time ago in this town; but as yet this part of Ireland has not been made the subject of adequate historical illustration. - (Cox's History of Ireland; Temple's History of the Ear. Irish Rebellion; Bernard's History of the Siege of Drogheda ; Parliamentary Papers, &c.) DROHOBYCZ or DROHOVITSCH, a royal town in the circle of Sambor, in the Austrian kingdom of Galicia, situated on the Tyszmanika, a o of the Dniester. It lies in 49° 22' N. lat., and 23° 35' E. long. A great portion of the houses are filthy, cabins, without chimneys, constructed of boards. The town however has several buildings of consequence, among which are the high-church, a fine structure of the Gothic order, a Basilian monastery, with a grammar-school conducted by the brotherhood, a chapter-house, several churches, a synagogue, castle, and seminary for teachers. The town, with its eight suburbs, contains about 1200 houses, and 7250 inhabitants. The royal salt works, including the adjacent works at Mobrzyc, Solec, and Stebnik, produce about 3700 tons anmually, which are extracted from salt rocks and saline clay. There is a brisk trade in native and foreign produce, particularly wine, linens, cottons, leather, and grocery, which is mainly carried on by the Jews, who form full seveneighths of the population; and the corn and cattle markets bring much profit to the place. DROITS OF ADMIRALTY are the perquisites attached to the office of Admiral of England (or Lord High Admiral), and belonging, when that office is vacant, to the crown. Of these perquisites the most valuable is the right to the proerty of an enemy seized on the breaking out of hostilities. ł. sums were obtained by the crown on various occasions in the course of the last war from the seizure of the enemy's property, most of which however was eventually given up to the public service. By the last arrangement of the civil list (1 Will. IV. cap. 25), whatever Droits of Admiralty may accrue during the present reign are to be paid into the Exchequer for the use of the public. The Lord High Admiral's right to the tenth part of the property captured on the seas has been by statute relinquished in favour of the captors. DROITWICH. [WoRcestERshire.] DROME, a river in France, belonging to the basin of the Rhône. [DRöME.] DROME, a department in the south of France, bounded on the north and north-east by the department of Isère, on the east by the department of Hautes Alpes; on the southeast by the department of Basses Alpes, and on the south by the department of Vaucluse: on the whole of the west side it is bounded by the river Rhône, by which it is separated from the department of Ardèche. The form of the department is irregular: its greatest length is from north-north-west near the village of St. Rambert, on the Rhône, to south-south-east, near the village of Ferrassières de Montbrun, 88 or 90 miles; its greatest breadth, at right angles to the length, is from Pierre-latte, on the Rhône, to the neighbourhood of Lussettes, on the Buech, 60 miles. It is comprehended between 44° 6' and 45° 20' N. lat., and 4° 36' and 5° 45' E. long. The area is given by M. Malte Brun at 336 square geographical leagues, or 2570 square miles; about the area of the English county of Devon. The population in 1832 amounted to 299,556, about three fifths of the population of Devonshire. The area of the department is above the average of France, but the absolute and relative population (117 to a square mile) are both considerably below the average. Valence, the capital, is on the Rhône, 295 or 296 miles south-south-east of Paris, in a straight line, or 352 miles by the road through Melun, Auxerre, and Lyon. The eastern side of the department is mountainous, being occupied by the branches sent off from the mass of the Alps. This mountainous tract occupies two-thirds of the department. The mountains are for the most part calcareous or argillaceous: the highest, which are on or near the eastern boundary of the department, have an elevation of about 5800 feet: they become lower toward the west, and gradually subside into the valley of the Rhône. Two of the mountains, the Inaccessible Mountain and Mount Devez, are reckoned among the curiosities of this part of the country. The Inaccessible Mountain is re
markable for its form, being in one part narrower at the base than at the summit, which gives it the appearance of an inverted pyramid: the Mount Devez is considered to be the cause of a healthy breeze which pervades the territory oi Nyons; it is said to be occasioned by the condensation of the vapours from the neighbouring mountains, which are, for a part of the year, covered with snow. The mountainous tract is intersected by valleys, communicating with each other by narrow and dangerous bye-roads, and watered by streams, which, when swollen by the melting of the snows, overflow their banks and occasion great devastations. These rivers are numerous, but none of them are very considerable. The Rhône bounds the department on the western side for a distance of seventy miles, for the greater part of which its channel is full of small islands. It carries off the drainage of the whole department: its tributaries rise in the mountains of the eastern district, and flow westward into the main channel. The valley of the Rhône contains the most condensed population, and several of the principal towns are on its banks. The Isère, one of the most important of the tributaries of the Rhône, which rises in the highest part of the Alps, near Mount Iseran, crosses the department in the northern part and falls into the Rhône on its border. About eighteen or twenty miles of its course belong to this department. The Drôme rises on the eastern boundary of the department, and flows north-north-west about twenty-two miles to Die, receiving the little river Bes, or Bez, and some other streams by the way: from Die it flows seven or eight miles west to Pontaix, and from thence south five or six miles to the junction of the Rouane, or Roanne, which receives the Ribière, or Ribierre: from the junction of the Rouane the Drôme flows twenty-five miles west into the Rhône, receiving several streams by the way. Its whole course may be estimated at about sixty miles, all within the department: it is not navigable, but is used for floating timber below Luc sur Diois, about twelve miles from its source. From Luc to Die the timber is floated in rafts of twelve to fifteen trunks: from Die to Pontaix in single trunks, on account of the rocks which obstruct the bed of the river: below Pontaix the timber is again collected and formed into rafts. The Bez is also used for floating. The other rivers of the department are very small. In the part northward of the Isère are the Suzon (twenty-five miles long, chiefly belonging to the department of Isère), the Bancel, and the Galaure, which all flow into the Rhône, and the Herbasse, which flows into the Isère. In the country between the Isère and the Drôme are the Bourne, which flows into the Isère ; the Vernaison and Lyonne, which flow into the Bourne; the Leoncel, which joins the Lyonne; and the Veoure, which flows into the Rhône. In the country south of the Drôme are the Roubion and the Jabron, which unite at Montelimar, and fall into the Rhône just below that town: the Berre, which falls into the Rhône near Pierre-latte, and the Lez, the Aigues, and the Ouvèze, which all join the Rhône in the neighbourin department of Vaucluse. The Lez receives the Leron j some other streams, the Aigues receives the Oulle and the Zeynnées, and the Ouvèze receives the Tolerene. The Rhône and the Isère are, we believe, the only navigable rivers. There are no canals in the department. The great road from Paris by Lyon to Aix, Marseilles, and Toulon, crosses the department from north to south, Y. through the towns of St. Valier, Tain, Valence, ivron, Loriol, Montelimar, and Pierre-latte. From Valence a road runs north-east through Le Péage and Romans to St. Marcellin and Grenoble, in the department of Isère another road, from Pont St. Esprit, on the Rhône, into the department of Hautes Alpes, and by Mont Genèvre into Italy, just crosses the southern part of this department through Nions or Nyons. The other roads are all bye-roads. The department is very deficient in the means of communication with other parts. The calcareous and argillaceous strata which occupy the mountainous tract in the east of the department occupy also the valley of the Rhône from the neighbourhood of the Drôme southward: the banks of the Drôme, the valley of the Rhône north of that river, and the valley of the Isère are occupied by the strata which are found above the chalk' The mineral treasures of the department are considerable. there are mines of copper and one mine of iron: granite, w - - potters' clay, gypsum, coal, and fossil coal, are obtained' and peat is dug for fuel. There are several mineral springs, but none of much repute. The soil varies much; a considerable portion of it is so bad as to be hardly susceptible of cultivation. The highest parts of the mountains afford pasturage, but not wood; and the slopes, which might be expected to produce wood, resent commonly nothing but bare rocks and steril holows. But industry and care in manuring the land have rendered this department important, not only by the amount but the variety of its produce. The quantity of corn grown is not sufficient for home consumption; but there are olives, almonds, walnuts, and excellent wines, especially those of Tain (Hermitage, Côte Rôtie, &c.), L'Etoile, and Die. The neighbourhood of Romans and some other places yield trufiles, which are considered nearly equal to those of Perigord. There are rich meadows and good pasture grounds, to which the flocks and herds of Provence are driven in the summer. Forests, chiefly of pine and beech, occupy nearly a seventh part of the department. Plantations of mulberrytrees, in which many silk-worms are reared, are numerous. Horses and neat cattle are not numerous; sheep are more so ; the mules are small, the asses of good quality. The chamois, the wild goat, and a few bears, are found in the mountains. Game is abundant, but the rivers do not afford any great quantity of fish. The air is pure and healthy, and rather cold, except along the valley of the Rhône, where the heat in summer is very great. The department is divided into four arrondissements: that of Valence, in the north, population 135,193; that of Die, in the east, population 65,663; that of Nyons, in the south-east, population 36,170; and that of Montelimar, in the south-west, population 62,530. The number of communes is 361, which are arranged in 28 cantons or districts, in the jurisdiction of a juge de paia. The chief towns are Valence, the capital, on the Rhône, population 8898 for the town, or 10,406 for the whole commune; Romans, on the Isère, population 7677 for the town, or 9285 for the whole commune; and Montelimar, near the Rhône, population 5816 for the town, or 7560 for the whole commune. [MonTELIMAR ; Roy ANs; VALENCE.] Of the smaller towns we subjoin some account. In the arrondissement of Valence are Moras (population of commune 4053); Le Grand Serre, near the Galaure; Saint Vallier (population estimated at 2000), and Tain (population 2139 for the town, 2340 for the whole commune), both on the Rhône; Montrigaud and St. Donat (population of the town 1591, of the whole commune 2084), both on the Herbasse; Montmiral; Le Péage (population 3095 for the town, 3577 for the whole commune), on the Isère; Alixan; Montellier; St. Jean de Royans, on the Lyonne; Chabeuil (population of commune 4452), on the Veoure; Etoile; Livron (population 1719 for the town, 3275 for the whole commune) and Loriol (population 1784 for the town, and 3048 for the whole commune), both on the Drôme; and Mirmande. St. Vallier is in a pleasant country; it has a Gothic château: the inhabitants are engaged in throwing silk, weaving linens, silks, and crape, pressing oil, and making porcelain and hats. Tain has an antient altar. A bridge of iron wire, completed in 1825, connects this town with that of Tournon on the opposite side of the Rhône. The wines of the neighbourhood have been noticed. Potter's clay is dug near the town, At St. Donat some silk manufactures are carried on. Le Péage, though forming a separate commune, is really a suburb of Romans. Chabeuil is a place of considerable business; it has corn, oil, paper, and fulling mills, and some manufactories for woollen cloths. Livron and Loriol, on the opposite banks of the Drôme, just above its junction with the §. are connected by a fine bridge. In the arrondissement of Die are, Die, the capital (population 3213 for the town, 3555 for the whole commune), Pontaix, Saillans, Aouste, and Crest (population 3895 for the town, 4901 for the whole commune), all on the Drôme; Chatillon on the Bez; Beaufort; Bordeaux, Saou, and Puy St. Martin, on or near the Roubion; and La Motte Chalançon on the Oulle. Die was known in the time of the Romans by the name of Dea Vocontiorum, being in the territory of the Vocontii. [DAUPhi NE.] It is not noticed by any of the antient geographers, but is found in the “Itinerary' of Antoninus, and in that from Burdigala (Bordeaux) to Hierosolyma (Jeru-salem), and in t o: Table. In the middle ages it was the capital of Diois, one of the subdivisions of DauP. C., No. 550.
phiné, and the seat of a bishoprick established in the fourth century, and for a long time united to that of Valence, but separated from it by Louis XIV. after the revocation of the edict of Nantes; it has been since suppressed. Die suf. fered much during the religious wars of the sixteenth century from the Huguenots: these seem to have retained a predominance in the town, as they had, previously to the revocation of the edict of Nantes, an o, here. The “Dictionnaire Universel de la France’ (Paris, 1804) enumerates as its manufactures paper, thrown silk, fustian, and cotton goods. Crest was successfully defended in the crusade against the Albigenses by Aimar, count of Valence, who supported the count of Toulouse against the Catholics under Montfort. It has an antient castle in a picturesque situation on the brow of a hill commanding a delightful prospect. This castle has been used as a state prison. The town is at the foot of the castle hill. The inhabitants are engaged in the manufacture of woollen cloth, cottons, and silks; in dyeing and fulling cloths, and in pressing oil. (Dict. Univ. de la France, Paris, 1804; Waysse de Williers, Itinéraire De scriptif de la France, Paris, 1813.) Aouste, which is mentioned in the Itineraries under the name of Augusta, and at which paper is made and oil expressed; Saillans, at which some silk and cotton manufactures are carried on ; and Pontaix, at which some woollens are made, are all on the road between Crest and Die. At Beaufort, Bordeaux, and Saou, woollen goods are manufactured. In the arrondissement of Nyons are only two towns, Nyons on the Aigues (population 2700 for the town, or 3397 for the whole commune), and Le Buis, on the Ouvèze (population 1886 for the town, or 2180 for the whole commune). Nyons is at the foot of Mount Devez, upon the slope of which it is partly built, and is divided into three quarters, each of which has an old wall inclosing it. It has a bridge built by the Romans, and in the environs are the ruins of an old castle demolished by the order of Louis XIII. Nyons was in the middle ages the frequent residence of the Dauphins of Viennois. The inhabitants are engaged in throwing silk and in making woollen stuffs and soap. It was the birth-place of Phillis, daughter of the Marquis de la Charce, a lady who, in 1692, put herself at the head of the inhabitants of the neighbourhood, and aided in repelling an invasion of the Savoyards. At Le Buis silk and leather are manufactured. In the arrondissement of Montelimar are Marsanne, Dieu-le-fit on the Jabron (population of the town 3010, of the whole commune 3952), Châteauneuf du Rhône, Donzère, and Pierre-latte (population of the town 2388, of the whole commune 3.447), all on the Rhône; Taulignan and Grignan, both near the Lez; and St. Paul-trois-Châteaux. Dieu-le-fit has in its neighbourhood three mineral springs: potter's clay and ochre are dug. Pottery and other earthenware, hats, woollen goods, and silks, are made in and about the town. Donzère produces wine, which has tolerable reputation. Pierre-latte is at the foot of a large rock, from which some would derive its name, Petra latra, or wide rock. At Taulignan and Grignan some silk manufactures are carried on: Grignan had formerly a castle, one of the finest in this part of France, now destroyed. Madame de Sevigné died at Grignan; her tomb remains in the church. St. Paul-trois-Châteaux was known to the Romans by the name of Augusta Tricastinorum, and was the chief town of the Tricastini. [DAUPHINE.] It was in the middle ages the seat of a bishoprick founded in the fourth century; the bishop was a suffragan of the archbishop of Arles. It has some slight remains of antiquity. The inhabitants carry on trade in fine oil, wine, and silk. The department of Drôme sends three members to the Chamber of Deputies. It constitutes the diocese of Valence, the bishop of which is a suffragan of the archbishop of Avignon: it is in the jurisdiction of the Cour Royale, or supreme court, of Grenoble, and in the district of the Académie Universitaire, or academical council, of that city: it is comrehended in the seventh military division, of which the Hot. are at Grenoble. It was formerly included in Dauphiné. The inhabitants of this department are of middling stature, active, robust, lively, and brave, but not disposed to labour. They are long-lived. Education is more attended to than in the majority of the French departments; there is one boy at school for every twenty inhabito: gonnair.