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into the water in a state of intoxication. It is usually considered as a sign that a person has been drowned while living, and that the body has not been thrown into the water after death, that the ends of the fingers are excoriated, and that there is a collection of dirt or sand under the nails, appearances resulting from the efforts which the drowning person has made to avert his impending fate; but if the water be deep, no appearance of this kind is present, because the power of struggling is over before the body touches the ground, and a pèrson in the state of intoxication, who falls into deep water, may expire without the power to make a single effort to save himself. With regard to the internal organs, the heart and its great blood-vessels are always found preternaturally loaded with dark-coloured blood, sometimes to such an extent that the heart seems completely to fill the bag of the pericardium. This accumulation of black blood is always on the right side of the heart, which usually contains somewhat more than double the quantity contained in the left caVities. The lungs are invariably very much reduced in volume, and are exceedingly loaded with black blood. Both the ulmonary arteries and veins are likewise distended with lack blood. The substance of the brain is of a darker colour than natural, and its vessels are commonly turgid with black blood; but sometimes the turgescence of the cerebral blood-vessels is not in proportion to the accumulation of blood in the other organs. There is always a quantity of water mixed with frothy matter in the trachea and bronchi. Occasionally this frothy matter is mixed with blood. The quantity varies a good deal in different cases, but it is never very great. At one time it was thought to be so great as to be the cause of death in drowning. It was conceived that the water flows into the lungs by the trachea in such abundance as to occasion asphyxia. The controversy which was long agitated on this point is now set at rest by numerous and accurate experiments, which demonstrate that only a very inconsiderable quantity of water enters the trachea, and never sufficient to occasion death. A similar controversy prevailed on the question whether water enters the stomach, which is now equally decided in the negative. It is proved beyond all doubt that no water passes into the stomach, or at least that no quantity enters it capable of contributing in the slightest degree to the fatal event. The establishment of this point is important, because the contrary notion had led to the adoption of most permicious practices. With a view of evacuating the water supposed to be accumulated in the lungs and stomach, the bodies of the drowned, when taken out of the water, were held up by the heels, rolled on barrels, and subjected to other practices calculated rapidly to extinguish any remaining spark of life; and though the notion which led to these absurd practices is exploded, the practices themselves continue. In a paper published in the ‘Medical Repository’ for July, 1824, Mr. D. Johnson, surgeon, Farringdom, in detailing a case of suspended animation in a seaman who had fallen from a yard-arm into the sea when the ship was going at the rate of nine knots and a half per hour, and was afterwards picked up in an insensible state, says, “When brought on board the ship he showed no signs of life. I had him immediately suspended with his head downwards, and well shaken for a minute or two. He was then laid on the cabin-table, and rubbed all over by two or three men with flannels, &c. Tartarized antimony was rubbed into the root of the tongue, and tobacco-smoke blown into the mouth and nostrils.' Short of decapitation no experiments could be devised better calculated to destroy the smallest chance of resuscitation. The proper remedies for the recovery of the drowned are few and simple. The body, placed on a bed-chair, should be removed to the receiving house or any place where the conveniences required may be most easily obtained. The wet clothes should be stripped off as rapidly as possible, the body well dried and surrounded by warm air, if it can be readily procured, by the portable warm air bath, of which there ought to be one at every receiving house. At first the heated air should only be a few degrees above the temperature of the body, and the heat, which ought always to be ascertained by a thermometer, should be subsequently increased with caution. The body being thus surrounded with warm air, artificial respiration should be performed without
the delay of a moment, and this should be assisted by electricity applied at first in the form of very gentle shocks. By the application of heat the capillary blood-vessels are stimulated to action, the determination of blood towards the external surface of the body is favoured, and the interna. organs are thus relieved of their oppressive load. By artifi cial respiration the cavity of the chest is enlarged, the collapsed state of the lungs is removed, and atmospheric air, the great agent needed for the decarbonization of the blood, and on the want of which all the dangerous phenomena of drowning depend, is transmitted to the lungs and brought into contact with the venalized blood. By electricity the organs which carry on the mechanical part of respiration, that is, those which alternately enlarge and diminish the capacity of the thorax are roused and excited to resume their natural action. There are some few other useful auxiliaries, but so important and efficacious are these three powerful agents, when judiciously and perseveringly employed, that they may be considered as the only remedies worth regarding. But unfortunately they are as potent for evil as for ood. A slight mismanagement of any of them may utterly ity that life which the delicate and skilful use of it would have reanimated. It is impossible in this place to enter into a detail of the dangers with which the incautious employment of these powerful remedies is fraught, or minutely to detail the mode in which they ought to be applied in practice. It is a subject which deserves much greater attention than it has hitherto received. The apparatus for heating the bodies of the drowned, for the artificial inflation of the lungs, and for the application of electricity, are susceptible of vast improvement both with reference to the efficacy and the safety of these remedies; and there are few subjects to which mechanical genius and scientific knowledge could be applied with greater prospect of conferring signal service on mankind. DRUIDICAL BUILDINGS. Ston EHENGE. DRUIDS. [BRITANN1A.] DRUM, a pulsatile musical instrument, of which there are three kinds,-the Side Drum ; the Base or Turkish Drum ; and the Double Drum. The first is a cylinder, formerly of wood, but now invariably of brass, on each end of which is a hoop covered with vellum or parchment. This is the ordinary regimental drum. The second is formed as the first, but of oak, on a much larger scale, and used, not in conjunction with the fifes, but as part of the regimental band. It is likewise employed occasionally in the orchestra. The third is made of copper, nearly hemispherical, covered with a strong head of calf's-skin, and stands on three iron legs. The Double Drums vary in dimensions, from nineteen inches to three feet in diameter. They are always in pairs, and are tuned, by means of many screws which tighten the head, to the key-note and the fourth below. Very recently, however, a most decided improvement has been effected in the manner of tuning these instruments. By means of a lever operating on several hooks which act simultaneously on the head, or hoop on which the skin is strained, the tuning is performed at once, and with such rapidity, that, in our presence, the melody of ‘God save the King was performed on a single drum in a time not much slower than that usually adopted. A patent has been obtained by the ingenious mechanist (Mr. Cornelius Ward) to whom we are indebted for this useful invention; and it is to be presumed that in future all double drums will be constructed on his principle. DRUM. [Dome.] DRUMMOND, WILLIAM, the son of Sir William Drummond of Hawthornden, was born December 13, 1585. He was educated at Edinburgh, and studied civil law in France. On his father's death, in 1610, he relinquished his profession and devoted himself to literary pursuits at his paternal mansion of Hawthornden. He did not, however, experience that freedom from trials which he had probably anticipated in his retirement. His betrothed bride died on the eve of their marriage; and in order to divert his thoughts from brooding over this deep and bitter affliction, he undertook a tour which lasted eight years, during which time he visited Germany, France, and Italy, and collected a library of great value, of which part is now in the possession of the university of Edinburgh. In his 45th year he married a lady whose fancied likeness to the former object of his affections is said to have constituted her chief attraction for him. When the civil war broke out, his
[Ave BURY: CARNAc; litical bias exposed him to grievous annoyances, particuarly that of o: compelled to supply his quota of men to serve against the king. This, and regret for Charles's death, shortened and embittered his days, and he died at Hawthornden, December 4, 1649.
Southey has observed that he was the first Scotch poet who wrote well in English. A comparison of his works with those of his predecessors, Douglas and Dunbar, will show the progress made during the sixteenth century towards fixing and perfecting the ining. as well in Scotland as in England. His sonnets, and indeed nearly all his poems, mark strongly that indulgence in sorrow which causes it to take the form of habit, and as such conveys a feeling of passive pleasure by its exercise. The resemblance which his versification presents to that of Milton's minor poems is so striking as only to require mention in order to be acknowledged; and few, we should think, could read his poem on the death of Prince Henry without being reminded of ‘Lycidas.' Besides his poetical works, he wrote a history of the five Jameses, kings of Scotland, several pamphlets and tracts, which, with his letters, were published at Edinburgh in 1711. (Biogr. Brit, and Retrospective Review, vol. xi.)
DRUPA'CEAE, the name given by some botanists to that division of rosaceous plants which comprehends the peach, the cherry, the plum, and similar fruit-bearing trees. They are more generally called Amygdaleae.
DRUPE, a §. one-celled, one or two-seeded seed
vessel, whose shell is composed of three layers, the outer membranous or leathery, the inner hard and bony, the intermediate succulent or fibrous. A peach, a cherry, a mango, are all fruits of this description. A cocoa-nut is a compound drupe, being composed of three consolidated, two of which are abortive; and a date is a spurious drupe, the hard inner shell being represented by a membrane. In theory the stone or inner bony layer of the shell is equivalent to the upper side of a carpellary leaf, the external membrane to the lower surface, and the intermediate pulp or fibre to the parenchyma. • DRUSES, DOROU'Z, a people who inhabit the chain of Libanus, in Syria, are under the government of their own chiefs, and have a religion peculiar to themselves. The vernacular language of the Druses is Arabic. Although the mountaineers of Libanus in general obey the emir, or prince of the Druses, yet they are not all Druses, but a great part, perhaps the greater part, of them are Christians of the Maronite communion, and belong to the western, or Roman church. [MARoxites.] There are Syrian Greeks, or Melchites, who belong to the western church, the chief difference between whom and the Maronites is, that the Maronites have their ritual in Syriac, and the others in Arabic. The Druses live together with the Christians in the towns and villages in perfect harmony, but without intermarrying with them. The Druses live chiefly in the south part of Libanus, east and south-east of Beiroot, and as far south as the district of Hasbeya, about the sources of the Jordan. But the dominion of the emir of the Druses extends also over the north part of Libanus as far as the latitude of Tripoli, which part of the mountains is chiefly inhabited by Maronites, whose patriarch resides at Canobin, south-east of Tripoli. Towards the east the jurisdiction of the emir extends over part of the Bekaa, or plain intervening between the Libanus and the Antilibanus. North of the Bekaa is the Belad, or district of Balbek, which is inhabited chiefly by Musselmans, and is under a distinct emir of the sect of the Metwalis, subject to the pacha of Damascus; but the emir of the Druses appears to o; gained a sort of authority over this district also since Burckhardt's time. The emir of the Druses is tributary to the pachalik of Acre, on condition that no Turk shall reside within his territories. (Burckhardt, Travels in Syria; Captain Light's Travels in Egypt, Nubia, the Holy Land, Lebanon, and Cyprus in 1814.) The capital of the emir of the Druses is Deir el Kamr, in a fine valley on the west slope of Libanus, about eight or nine hours' ride south-east of Beiroot: the town is said to have about 5000 inhabitants, partly Druses and partly Christians. There are two Maronite and two Melchite churches at Deir el Kamr. The town is built in the Italian fashion, and is said to resemble a second-rate country town of Italy. Captain Light saw about twenty silk looms at work round one of the squares. The emir resides at the palace or castle of Bteddin, about one hour's ride from Deir el Kamr some of
the apartments of the palace are described as very handsomely furnished, paved with marble, and adorned with rich folding draperies and divans, the walls inlaid with ivory and gilding, and adorned with passages of the Koran and Scriptures in Arabic, in large embossed gilt characters, enclosed in pannels of various size. The Reverend William Jowett (6 hristian Researches in Syria), who visited Bteddin in 1823, describes the palace as like a small town; 2000 persons are said to live in or about it, men of all trades, soldiers, scribes, carpenters, bricklayers, blacksmiths, breakers of horses, cooks, tobacconists, &c. Druses and Christians were intermixed together, and even Christian priests were among the attendants of the emir, who is said to have been christened in his youth, and had at one time a confessor, but of late showed no preference to any religion, and treated all his subjects, whether Druses or Christians, with the same impartiality. The emir Beshir, as he was called, was the same whom Captain Light had seen in 1814: he is described as an elderly man of an intelligent and prepossessing appearance, and said to be very regular and abstemious in his habits. He had come to the sovereignty by defeating several competitors, whom he imprisoned and put to .#. (Light's Travels.) In 1822, having supported the rebellious Abdallah, pacha of Acre, he incurred the displeasure of the Porte, and took refuge in Egypt, but returned soon after by the mediation of Mehemet Ali, the pacha of Egypt. At the time of the occupation of Syria by Ibrahim, Mehemet's son, the Druses joined him at first; they afterwards quarrelled with him; but peace appears now to be restored. The emir has under him several subordinate emirs, or local chiefs, in various districts of the mountains, some of whom are Druses and others Maronites. As the whole population is armed and trained to the use of the gun, it is said that in case of need the emir can collect in a very short time 30,000 men; but this must be only part of the individuals capable of bearing arms, as the Maronite population alone is said to be more than 200,000, and the Druses cannot be much less in number. Dr. Hogg, in his ‘Visit to Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Damascus,' London, 1835, has given the latest information concerning the Druses. The religion of the Druses has been a subject of much inquiry, being involved in a kind of mystery. The Rev. W. Jowett had the following information from the physician to the emir, which agrees with the accounts of former travellers. The Druses are divided into three classes: the Djahelin, or ‘the ignorant, the partially initiated, and the adepts, or fully initiated. The second class are admitted to a partial knowledge of the secret doctrine; they may, if they like, return to the class of Djahelin, but must never reveal what they know. The third class, or adepts, continue late together at their places of meeting on Thursday evenings, performing their rites, after all others have been excluded. Should they reveal what they know they would incur the penalty of death, which would also be incurred by any one who should turn Mussulman or Christian. They make no proselytes. As to the nature of their secret doctrine, we o an account of it in De Sacy’s “Chrestomathie Arabe,” vol. ii.; but how far it can be relied upon is still a question with some, as it depends upon the authenticity of the books from which de Sacy has extracted it. (See also Adler's Museum Cusico-Borgianum, Rome, 1782.) Mr. Jowett saw MSS. shown about secretly, purporting to be the sacred books of the Druses, and a set of them was offered to him for the price of no less than 5000 dollars. It appears however pretty certain that the Druses are, or were originally, disciples of Hakem biamr Illa, the sixth Fatemite caliph of Egypt, who in the eleventh century proclaimed himself to be an incarnation of the Divinity, and who established a secret lodge at Cairo, divided into nine degrees, the last of which taught the superfluousness of all religions, the indifference of human actions, &c. (Von Hammer, Geschichte der Assassinen, 1818.) The Assassins themselves were a derivation of Hakem's sect, which was itself an offshoot of the great schism of the Ismaelites, a remnant of whom still exists in Syria, in the mountains east of Tortosa, near their antient stronghold Maszyad. (J. F. Rousseau, Mémoire sur les Ismaelites et les Nosairis de Syrie, with notes by de Sacy.) Hakem disappeared, probably by assassination, in one of his solitary walks near Cairo, but his disciples expect his return, when he is to reign over the world. The Druses are said to believe in transmigration. The story of their worshipping a calf's heads is variously
told. (De Sacy, Mémoire sur le culte que les Druses rendant d la figure d'un veau, in the 2nd vol. of the Mémoires de la classe d'Histoire et de Littérature Ancienne de l’Institut.) They are also accused, like the Nosairis, of licentious orgies in their secret meetings, and yet Mr. Jowett was told by Christian residents that as soon as a young Druse becomes initiated, he leaves his former licentious course of life and becomes quite an altered man, at least in appearance. Burckhardt observes on this subject that the Druses are more observant of outward decorum than of genuine morality. All agree however in saying that they are indus. trious, brave, and hospitable: their country is a land of refuge from Turkish oppression; they pay few taxes, as the emir has lands or domains belonging to him, from which he draws his chief revenue. Silk is the staple article for exportation, by way of Beiroot. The mulberry, the vine, the fig, and other fruit-trees, are reared in the lower ridges of the Libanus, while the higher range affords good pastures. Cotton is also cultivated and manufactured. The plains, especially the Bekaa, produce corn. There are a number of convents scattered about the mountains; there is a Maronite college for the study of Syriac at Aain el Warka, and another for the Melchite students at Deir el Mhalles. Burekhardt, who crossed the Libanus in different directions, §. the names of many towns or villages inhabited by ruses and Maronites, some of them considerable places, such as Hasbeya, with 700 houses; Zahle, in the Bekaa, with 900; Shirrei, near Tripoli, &c. The Druses dress differently from the Maronites: the men wear a coarse woollen beneesh, or cloak, black, with white stripes, thrown over a waistcoat, and loose breeches of the same stuff, tied round the waist by a sash of white or red linen with fringed ends; their turban is swelled out from the head into a shape resembling a turnip, and flat at the top. The women wear a coarse blue jacket and petticoat, without any stockings, and their hair plaited and hanging down in tails behind. When they dress they put on their head the Takeel, a hollow tube of silver or tin, from six to twelve inches high, shaped like a truncated cone, over which is thrown a white piece of linen, which completely envelops the body; they also wear silver bobs tied to their tresses. (Light's Travels.) DRUSUS, CLAU'DIUS NERO, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and of Livia, was born in the year 38 B.C., three months after his mother's marriage with Augustus. He served early in the army, and was sent in 17 B.C., with his brother Tiberius, against the Rhaeti and Vindelici, who had made an irruption into Italy. He defeated the invaders, ursued them across the Alps, and reduced their country. }. celebrated this victory in one of his finest Odes (lib. iv. 4). Drusus married Antonia Minor, daughter of Antony and Octavia, by whom he had Germanicus and Claudius, afterwards emperor, and Livia or Livilla. In 14 B.C., being sent to quell an insurrection in Gaul occasioned by the extortions of the Roman tax-gatherers, he succeeded by his conciliatory address. In the following year he attacked the Germans, and carrying the war beyond the Rhine, he obtained a series of victories over the Sicambri, Cherusci, Catti, and Tencteri, and advanced as far as the Visurgis, or Weser, for which the senate bestowed the surname of Germanicus upon him and his posterity. In 9 B.C. Drusus was made consul, with L. Quintius Crispinus. He was soon after sent again by Augustus against the Germans, crossed the Visurgis, and advanced as far as the Albis or Elbe. He imposed a moderate tribute on the Frisians, consisting of a certain quantity of hides, which, being afterwards aggravated by the extortion of his successors, caused a revolt under the reign of Tiberius. (Tacitus, Ann. iv. 72.) He caused a canal to be cut, for the purpose of uniting the Rhine to the Yssel, which was known long after by the name of Fossa Drusi; and he also began to raise dykes to prevent the inundations of the Rhine, which were comleted by Paulinus Pompeius under the reign of Nero. B. did not cross the Albis, probably because he thought he had advanced already far enough: he retired towards the Rhine, but before he reached that river he died, at the age of thirty, in consequence, as it was reported, of his horse falling upon him and fracturing his leg. (Livy, Epitome.) Tiberius, who was sent for in haste, and found his brother expiring, accompanied his body to Rome, where his funeral was performed with the greatest solemnity. Both Augustus and Tiberius delivered orations in his praise. Drusus was much regretted both by the army and by the Romans in general, who had formed great expectations from his manly P. C., No. 551.
and generous sentiments. One of his grandsons, Drusus, son of Germanicus and of Agrippina, was starved to death by order of Tiberius, and Nero, the other, was put to death in the island of Ponza.
Coin of Drusus,
British Museum. Actual size. Copper. Weight, 4284 grains.
DRUSUS, the son of Tiberius by Vipsania, daughter of Agrippa, served with distinction in Pannonia and the Illyricum, and was consul with his father A.D. 21. In a quarrel he had with the favourite Sejanus, he gave him a blow in the face; Sejanus, in revenge, seduced his wife Livia or Livilla, daughter of Drusus the elder and of Antonia, and the guilty pair got rid of Drusus by poison, which was administered by the eunuch Lygdus. The crime remained a secret for eight years, when it was discovered after the death of Sejanus, and Livia was put to death. (Tacitus, Annal.)
DRY ANDRA, a genus of Australian shrubs, with hard dry evergreen serrated leaves and compact cylindrical clusters of yellow flowers, seated upon a flat receptacle, and surrounded by a common imbricated involucre. It is in the latter respect that the genus principally differs from Banksia. The species are much esteemed by cultivators for their beautiful evergreen leaves. They are commonly regarded as greenhouse plants, but will, in several cases, survive an English winter without injury, if protected by a glass roof in winter, and planted among rockwork high above the dampness of the level of the soil.
pRYDEN, JOHN, was born about the year 1631 or 1632*.
Tradition gives Aldwinckle in Northamptonshire as his birth-place; but this much only is certain, that his father, Erasmus Driden, was the third son of Sir Erasmus Driden of Canons Ashby, in that county, who was created a baronet in 1619. The poet was educated at Westminster school under Dr. Busby, and came up as a Westminster scholar to Trinity College, Cambridge, May 11, 1650. Almost the only notice which the college archives give respecting him is one dated July 19th, 1652, whereby he is “put out of Commons for a fortnight at least,' confined to walls, and sentenced to read a confession of his crime at the fellows' table during dinner timet.
In 1654 his father's death put him in possession of an estate worth about 60l. per annum; he did not however leave Cambridge till three years afterwards, when he was introduced into a subordinate public office by his maternal relation Sir Gilbert Pickering. The stanzas on Cromwell's death, his first poem of any importance, were written in the following year, and in 1660 he signalized himself by ‘Astraea Redux,’ a congratulatory address on the Restoration.
It seems scarcely worth while attempting to excuse this change of views. Dryden was yet a young man, and had probably never before been in a situation to express his own opinions, apart from the influence of his kinsman; and after all, the lines on Cromwell contain, as Sir W. Scott has observed, little or nothing in the way of eulogy which his worst enemies could have denied him. In the year 1663 Dryden began his dramatic career with ‘The Wild Gallant.” The plague and fire of London soon interrupted him for a time, and he employed himself upon his ‘Es: say on Dramatic Poesy,' a performance containing much elegant writing, and worthy of notice as the o: regular work of the kind in our language. It woul, be easy to show the deficiencies and mistakes of this “”P"
• The monument in Westminster Abbey says 1632. o, 3..." not put up until twenty years after his death; the point i* o: . vacation is not s
+ What he could be doing in Cambridge during the "o. claimed u o clear; but perhaps those on the foundation have. ** now, le
right of staying theie. Vol. IX.-Y
tion, but they are fully counterbalanced by that manly avowal—the first since the Restoration—of the supremacy of Shakspeare. About this time he married a daughter of the first Earl of Berkshire. On the revival of stage plays, he engaged to supply the King's Theatre with three plays a year, for the annual sum of 300l. to 400l. Malone has proved that the number really produced was far less than this, and did not amount to more than eighteen in sixteen years, while Shakspeare wrote, as is probable, two plays a year for several years, and Fletcher with assistance wrote more than thirty in ten ears. y Towards the end of 1671, that celebrated attack on heroic dramas called the ‘Rehearsal' was produced on the stage. Its effect, though sure, was not immediate ; except that Dryden exchanged tragedy for comedy, and composed two comedies in 1672. A few years afterwards he took leave of rhyme; his last rhyming tragedy called ‘Aureng-Zebe,’ being brought out in 1675; but he continued to write for the stage until 1681, when the struggle between the parties of the Dukes of Monmouth and York seemed drawing to a crisis, and there appeared some need that the scurrilous abuse which had been in every way poured on the court party by means of epigram and satire should be rebutted in similar fashion. This Dryden effected by the famous satire called “Absalom and Achitophel,’ wherein Monmouth figures as Absalom. Monmouth is treated with great levity, but all the vials of the poet's wrath are poured out on Buckingham, the author of the ‘Rehearsal, as Zimri, and on Shaftesbury as Achitophel. The last-named nobleman had been committed to the Tower, not long before, under a charge of high treason: he was however released upon the grand jury's refusal to find a true bill against him, which the Whig party celebrated by a medal struck for the occasion. This afforded Dryden a fresh subject, and in March, 1681, appeared “The Medal,’ a bitter lampoon on Shaftesbury, followed up in the next year by ‘Mac Flecknoe,’ and the second part of ‘Absalom and Achitophel”, which united gave the finishing stroke to his old enemies Settle and Shadwell, besides a numerous host of petty satirists. With Settle he had quarrelled some years before, whose chief supporter, Rochester having become implicated, and suspecting Dryden of indulging anonymous revenge, caused him to be attacked and beaten by bravos. This occurred in 1679. During the four years from 1682 to 1685 Dryden produced nothing worth notice, with the exception of a translation of Maimbourg's ‘History of the League, undertaken, as Dr. Johnson says, to promote popery. We should be at a loss to account for this apparent want of purpose, but an event which occurred in the vear last mentioned clears up the difficulty. Soon after the death of Charles II. Dryden turned Roman Catholic—not without due consideration—as the • Religio Laici,” written nearly four years before, contains sufficient evidence of his mental struggles at that period, and not, it is to be hoped, otherwise than conscientiously, as indeed his subsequent conduct appears to show. In 1690 Dryden returned to his old employment, and produced four plays between that year and 1694. This was no doubt owing to poverty, as the Revolution deprived him of the laureatship, which he had obtained on the death of Davenant in 1668, and the expenses of his family were now increasing. For the next three years he was busied in his translation of the AEneid, and about the same time with it appeared his celebrated ode on St. Cecilia's dayt, which is perhaps one of the finest pieces of exact lyrical poetry which our language possesses, although not to be named with Wordsworth’s Platonic ode. In the middle of 1698 he undertook his adaptations of Chaucer, and about a year and a half afterwards completed his Fables. His last work, a masque, with prologue and epilogue, was written about three weeks before his death, which happened, after a short illness * from neglected inflammation of the foot, May 1st, 1700. e was buried in Westminster Abbey, where a monument was erected to his memory by John duke of Buckingham. A portrait of him hangs in i. hall of Trinity College, Cambridge. It is extremely difficult to form an opinion on the character of a man of whose life we possess such scanty notice, and who, for the greater part of his literary career, wrote entirely to please others. Congreve has left a description of
• Partly written by Tate. + This was the second on that subject. The first he wrote in 1687.
him, which, if it can be trusted, ensures for him the praise of modesty, self-respect, true-heartedness, and a forgiving spirit. His manners are said to have been easy without forwardness; but there seems little doubt that his powers of conversation were rather limited. It does not seem necessary that we should attribute his extreme indelicacy as a writer to corresponding coarseness or impurity as a man. The close connexion which existed between the Cavaliers and the court of France had tended much to vitiate the taste of those who were the received judges of literary merit. To the Italian sources, whence Spenser and Milton drew, was preferred the French school; and the consequences are as apparent in the grossness of Dryden's comedies as in the stilts and extravagance of his heroic drama". Perhaps no nation ever had so little national poetry as the French ; whence the extreme worthlessness of that school in England which professed to imitate them. But of all French poetry the heroic drama, from which Dryden copied, is perhaps least worth imitation. The characters are not real, neither are they such as we should wish to see existing. They excite our surprise without engaging our sympathies. Poems such as Boileau's are only the legitimate offspring of a very artificial age. We may be astounded at the flattery which characterizes his ‘Discours au Roi,” or amused at the bigotry of his “Ode on the English; but there is much pleasing versification to compensate for these defects. The same may be said of Pope in our own country; he will always find admirers: but who ever reads Dryden's plays? Those who deny to Pope the name even of poet will allow him to be an amusing and at times an instructive writer; but the heroic drama can serve to no end either of amusement or instruction. There is another class of poets, whose influence revived for a short time after the Restoration, those whom Dr. Johnson has with no reason at all called the metaphysical poets; and one of Dryden's chief excellencies is, that he soon saw reason to desert their bombastic absurdities for a more chaste style; although the fashion of the day, which he alternately led and followed, obliged him occasionally to make use of expressions such as his better taste must have disowned. He appears to have been very late in discovering that style for which he was most fitted, namely, satire, in which he has never been surpassed, and rarely equalled. His translations of Virgil and Juvenal deserve very high praise, particularly when they are compared with the style of translation usual in his time. In his version of Chaucer he has not been so successful. That substitution of general for particular images which characterizes the performance is always a step away from poetry. Perhaps the most striking instance of the superiority of Chaucer is that description of the Temple of Mars which occurs towards the close of the second book of ‘Palamon and Arcite' in Dryden, and a little past the middle of Chaucer’s ‘Knighte's Tale.’ This passage is also curious as an instance of É.io. hatred of the clergy; he introduces two lines to convert Chaucer's “smiler with the knife under the cloak' into a priest. Dryden's prose works consist mostly of dedications, the extravagant flattery of which is only palliated by custom. His ‘Essay on Dramatic Poesy' has been already noticed. He also wrote Lives of Polybius, Lucian, and Plutarch (Biog. Brit.), and assisted in translating the last-named author: perhaps, however, only from the French. Dr. Samuel Johnson has been highly praised for his critique on Dryden. He has not, however, escaped that spirit of verbal criticism which was so prevalent in his days; and his comparison of our poet with Pope shows how little competent he was to do more than judge of the externals of poetry. Sir Walter Scott's life of Dryden is a beautiful piece of critical biography, uniting research only equalled by Malone's to taste and style of an order far surpassing Johnson's. (Langbaine's Dramatic Poets; Johnson's, Malone's, and Scott's Lives of Dryden; Quarterly Review for 1826; Edinburgh Review, 1808; Biographia Britannica; Life qf Sir W. Scott, vol. ii.) DRYOBA'LANOPS, a genus established by the younger Gaertner, from specimens of the fruit found in the Bank. sian collection, supposed by him to belong to the tree which yielded the best cinnamon. But Mr. Colebrook, from specimens sent to Dr. Roxburgh, which in the absence of the latter he received, ascertained that the fruit belonged to the camphor-tree of Sumatra, which he accordingly named Dryobalanops camphora, “until its identity with D. aromatica (of Gaertner) be established.” (Asiat. Researches, xii.) Dr. Roxburgh had, in his MS. Flora Indica, already named it Shorea camphorifera. Some botanists are of opinion ‘hat the genus is not sufficiently distinguished from DIPTERoca RPUs, but Blume, the latest author, and one who has had the fullest opportunity of examining the subject, has, in the article on Dipterocarpeae, in his ‘Flora Javae' given it as his opinion that Dryobalanops should be kept distinct; as, like Shorea, it has all five instead of only two of its sepals prolonged into long foliaceous wings, while its cotyledons are unequal and rumpled. ccording to Blume, the existence of this camphor-yielding tree was first indicated by Grimm in Ephem. Nat. Cur. Kaempfer was so well acquainted with its distinctness, that in describing the Camphor-tree of Japan (Laurus Camphora), he says, 'that natural camphor, of crystal-like appearance, which is scarce and of great value, is furnished by a tree of Borneo and Sumatra, which is not of the Laurel genus.' The first notice of the tree is in the 4th volume of the Asiatic Researches, where we learn that a tree near Tappanooly on the west coast of Sumatra yielded above 3 pounds of camphor, and at the same time near 2 gallons of camphor oil; that the tree resembles the bay in leaves, is fond of a rich red loam tending to a blackish clay, and that it grows principally on the north-west coast of Sumatra, from the Line to 3° of north lat. The fullest account is given by Mr. Prince, resident of Tappanooly, who describes the tree as growing spontaneously in the forests, and as being found in abundance from the back of Ayer Bongey as far north as Baconn, a distance of 250 miles: he says that it may be classed annong the tallest and largest trees that grow on this coast; several within daily view measuring 6 or 7 feet in diameter. But it will produce camphor when only 24 feet in diameter. The same tree which yields the oil would produce camphor if unmolested, the oil being supposed to be the first state of the secretion, which ultimately changes into concrete camphor, as it occupies the same cavities in the trunk which the camphor afterwards fills: consequently it is found in young trees. The produce of camphor of a middlingsized tree is about eleven pounds, and of a large one . that quantity. (Fl. Ind. ii. p. 616.) As stated in the article CAMPHoR, this kind of camphor is j. highly esteemed by the Chinese. It is commonly called Malay Camphor, or Camphor of Barus, from the port of Sumatra whence it is mostly shipped. Its price in China is 100 times greater than that of the common camphor of commerce. (M’Culloch's Com. Dic.) In the same work it is mentioned that camphor oil being nearly as cheap as spirits of turpentine, might perhaps be profitably imported into England as a substitute for that article or for medicinal use. Camphor, which in many respects resembles the essential oils, has been shown by Dumas to be an oxide of hydrocarbon identical in composition with pure oil of turpentine; hence the term camphene has been applied to it. But Dr. Thomson informs us that its camphor oil differs in some respects from camphene, as he was not able to produce camphor with the same facility or in equal quantity by driving a stream of oxygen gas through highly rectified oil of turpentine, which Dumas regards as pure camhene. p DRY ROT, a well-known disease affecting timber, and particularly the oak employed for naval purposes. . When dry rot is produced by the attacks of fungi, the first sign of it consists in the appearance of small white points, from which a filamentous substance radiates parallel with the surface of the timber. This is the first stage of growth of the seeds of the fungus, and the filamentous matter is their thallus or spawn. As the thallus gathers strength it insinuates its filaments into any crevice of the wood, and they, being of excessive fineness, readily pass down and between the tubes from which the wood is organized, forcing them asunder, and completely destroying the cohesion of the tissue. When the thalli of many fungi interlace, the radiating appearance can no longer be remarked; but a thick tough leathery white
* It should be observed that Spain was the birthplace of that form o comedy which Dryden derived immediately from France.
stratum is formed wherever there is room for its develop- |
ment, and from this a fresh supply of the destructive filamentous thallus is emitted with such constantly increasing rapidity and force, that the total ruin of timber speedily ensues where circumstances are favourable for the growth of the fungi.
It is generally stated that dry rot consists of the thallus of Merulius lacrymans, or Polyporus destructor, two highly-organized fungi, whose fructification is sometimes found upon rotten timber. But it is a great mistake to suppose that dry rot belongs exclusively to those two species, or that He; are even the common origin of it; on the contrary, there is reason to believe that any of the fungi that are commonly found upon decaying trees in woods are capable of producing dry rot, and it is quite certain that one of the most rapidly-spreading and dangerous kinds is caused by the ravages of different species of Sporotrichum. The latter throw up from their thallus whole forests of microscopic branches loaded with reproductive spores, of such excessive smallness that they may insinuate themselves into the most minute crevices or flaws even in the sides of the tubes of which timber consists, and they are infinitely more dangerous than Merulii or Polypori, which seldom fructify. It is the genus Sporotrichum that at the present moment is causing the dry rot in ships under repair at Sheerness. The circumstances that are most favourable to the development of the dry rot fungi are damp, unventilated situations, and a subacid state of the wood. The latter condition, especially in oak, is easily produced by a slight fermentation of the sap which remains in the timber, especially if the latter has not been well seasoned before being employed. It has been proved experimentally that fluids which, in their ordinary state, will not produce fungi generate them abundantly if ever so slightly acidulated. Dutrochet found that distilled water holding in solution a small quantity of white of egg will not generate fungi in a twelvemonth, but upon the addition of the minutest quantity of nitric, sulphuric, muriatic, phosphoric, oxalic, or acetic acids, it generated them in eight days’ time in abundance. Alkales. cent infusions possess the same property. This observer also found that the o poisons which will prevent the appearance of fungi are the oxides or salts of mercury. A solution of fish-glue yields fungi rapidly and in great abundance; but a small quantity of red precipitate or corrosive sublimate destroys this power entirely. It is moreover an important fact that no other mineral preparation has any such properties. Dutrochet so that other metallic oxides acted differently. Oxides of lead and tin hastened the development of fungi; those of iron, antimony, and zinc, were inert; and oxides of copper, nickel, and cobalt, although they retarded the appearance of fungi, yet did not prevent their growth in the end. These facts confirm in a striking manner the statement of Mr. Kyan, as to the impossibility of timber, steeped in a solution of corrosive sublimate, becoming a prey to dry rot, so far as dry rot is produced by a fungus. Of ANIMAL DRY Rot, that is, of death caused in animals by the attack of fungi, little was was known till lately, and great doubt was entertained respecting its existence. And yet, if the subject is rightly considered, there is nothing improbable in its occurrence: it is well known that living vegetable matter is subject to the ravages of fungi, as in all the cases of mildew, smut, rust, &c., with which the farmer is familiar, and therefore there is no intelligible reason why living animal matter should be exempted from the same fate. Specimens of hymenopterous insects re. sembling wasps have been brought from the West Indies, with a fungus allied to Sphaeria militaris growing from between their anterior coxae, and it is positively asserted by travellers that the insects fly about while burthened with the plant. Upon opening the bodies of the wasps they are found filled with the thallus of the fungus up to the orbits of the eyes and the points of the tarsi; the whole of the intestines being obliterated. In such cases it is to be supposed that the thallus of the sphaeria first kills the wasp by compressing and drying up the body, and then, continuing to grow, occupies the whole of the cavity of the shell of the insect. A more common instance of animal dry rot is the disease in silk worms called La Muscadine. Silk-worms of all ages are occasionally liable to become sickly and to die, soon after death becoming stiff, and acquiring such a degree of firmness as to be readily broken. hey then throw out from their surface a sort of white efflorescence, which is the fructification of the fungus called Botrytis Bassiana, their inside being filled by the thallus of the same plant. If some healthy caterpillars are placed beneath a bell-glass, along with a small portion of
worm killed by the Botrytis, they soon catch the alo, exhi2