« EelmineJätka »
bit the same symptoms as those already mentioned, and eventually perish; having, no doubt, been infected either by rubbing themselves against the dead worm, or, which is more probable, having received upon their skins the infinitely minute seeds dispersed by the Botrytis. If healthy crysalids are inoculated by the introduction, below their shell of a little of the Botrytis matter upon the point of a needle, they also sicken and die. - - In these cases effects are produced upon insects similar to those upon timber; that is to say, vitality in the one case and cohesion in the other is destroyed by the growth of the thallus of certain fungi, which spread with great and irresistible rapidity, and fructify where occasion offers. DSHIKKETEI (Zikketei). Cuvier writes the word Dzi ggueta, and Buffon Dzigithai, the native name for the Fines Hemionus of Pallas, Asinus Hemionus of Gray. HoRse. [ §§l. NUMBER. The Greek, Sanscrit, and Gothic of antient, and the Lithuanian .# modern languages, in addition to the undefined plural which they share with other tongues, possess also forms of the verb and noun in which two persons or things are denoted, called the dual number. On a careful consideration of the suffixes which are supposed to convey this notion, there seems reason for believing that the idea of duality was not originally contained in them, but simply that of unlimited §. The suffix of plurality which belongs to the Indo-Teutonic languages seems to have had two forms, en and es, as in the English housen and houses. Thus the Greeks had two forms for the first person plural of their verbs active, tuptomen and tuptomes. In the second person, the Latin language gives the suffix tis, scribitis; probably the Greek, in its oldest character, would have presented us with a suilix tes, but the forms of that language which have come down to us give only the abbreviated te, tuplete. But if there existed a double form for the second person as well as for the first, we should in that case have also tupteten, or rather tupteton, seeing that to the Greek ear ton was a more familiar termination. In the third person the dual ton might well represent a plural, as the oldest form of that person in the singular gives a suffix ti, esti ; and this, with the plural termination n, would produce a syllable which might readily take the same shape as the second person dual. In the nouns the same analogy prevails. The nominatives and genitives of the dual and plural differ no more than might be expected in two dialects; in the dative, the difference consists in the one number having a final n, the other an s : while the accusative dual has lost the final sigma, a fate common enough with that letter in the Greek language, as may be seen even in the plural nominatives, mousai, logoi, which the analogy of the other declensions proves to have once possessed that letter. We have already seen an example of the same loss in the second person plural of the verb. In the pronouns, again, the same con: fusion of the two numbers prevails. Thus the Greek dual of the pronoun I contains the very same element, no, which in the Latin is appropriated to the plural. In the Gothic verb the same principle may be traced. A specimen may be seen in the second person dual which has the suffix ts, a form more closely approaching the old plural suffix tis, which has been above mentioned, than even the th, which is the suffix of the same person in the plural. Again in the Lithuanian, while the first person plural of the verb, which ends in ma, has derived that suffix from , the older form mus or mes, the dual of the same person ends in wa, which has a strong resemblance to our plural we. The same observation applies to the Sanscrit verb of the Parasmaipadam form of the |..'. and imperative moods, and of the preterits called by Bopp 'Praeteritum augmentatum uniforme et multiforme.’ The terminations of the first persons of the dual and plural respectively in the present of the Parasmaipadam are was and mas; of the second and third persons dual respectively, thas and tas; and of the second person plural, tha. If it be admitted then that the dual in its origin was not confined to the notion of two, it remains to consider how that notion was superadded. Perhaps the following may not be an unreasonable conjecture. In many countries there are two or more dialects co-existing, one among the educated and in towns, the other belonging more particularly to the cottage. In the places of K. meeting, whether for religious or political purposes, the dialect which happens to belong to the more educated class will prevail,
while the other, as genuine, though not so fortunate a dialect, will still maintain its ground by the fireside. The former will be addressed to hundreds, the latter commonly to one or two individuals. Hence the colloquial and friendly dialect of the cottage may well be borrowed by even the public speaker when speaking of two persons; and thus the notion of duality which at first was only accidentally united with a certain suffix becomes in the end the inseparable and essential meaning thereof. Something parallel to this may be seen in the double forms of the English verb to be. While am, art, is, are honoured by the favour of the learned, the unlearned still retain, and with as good a title, the genuine forms be, best, bes or be. These are both indicatives, yet it is already a common practice to look upon the latter set of forms as constituting a subjunctive. An interesting discussion by William Humboldt on the dual is printed in the Transactions of the Academy of Sciences of Berlin for the year 1827 (Abhandlungen der historisch-philologischen Klasse der Königlichen Academie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, aus dem Jahr 1827,) page 161-187), to which we refer our readers, though the views explained in that essay differ from those in the present article. DUBLIN, an archbishopric of Ireland, including the dioceses of Dublin, Kildare, Ferns, Leighlin, and Ossory; and extending over the counties of Dublin, Wicklow, Wexford, Kilkenny, Carlow, Kildare, Queen's County, with the exception of one parish, and part of King's County. By act 3rd § 4th William IV., c. 37, sec. 46, so soon as the archiepiscopal see of Cashel becomes void, the jurisdiction of the archbishopric of Cashel is to be vested in the archbishop of Dublin for the time being. In 1834 the total population of this province was 1,247,290; of whom there were 177,930 members of the Established Church; 1,063,681 Roman Catholics; 2,517 Presbyterians, and 3,162 other Protestant Dissenters; being in the proportion of rather more than 13 Roman Catholics to 3 Protestants of whatever denomination. In the same year there were in this province 1612 daily schools, educating 108,474 young persons; being in the proportion of 85% per cent of the entire population under daily instruction, in which respect Dublin stands second among the four ecclesiastical provinces of Ireland. Of these schools there were in the same year 204 in connection with the National Board of Education. DUBLIN, a bishop's see in the ecclesiastical province of Dublin. The chapter consists of dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, two archdeacons, and nineteen prebendaries. The collegiate chapter of Christ Church, in Dublin, consists of dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, archdeacon, and three prebendaries: this deanery has heretofore been held in commendam with the bishopric of Kildare. É. 3rd & 4th William IV., cap. 37, sec. 50, the deanery of Christ Church, when next void, is to be united as to spiritualities, with the deanery of St. Patrick; and the temporalities, as portion of the revenue of the see of Kildare, are to be vested in the ecclesiastieal commissioners. This see comprehends the county of Dublin, the greater part of the county of Wicklow, parts of Carlow and Kildare, and some small portions of King's and Queen's Counties. In 1834 it contained 178 parishes, constituting 95 benefices, in which there were 124 churches of the Establishment, 9 other places of worship in connection therewith, 121 Roman Catholic ditto, 7 Presbyterian ditto, and 27 other places of Protestant worship. The gross population in the same year was 501,977; of whom there were 106,599 members of the Established Church, 391,006 Roman Catholics, 2290 Presbyterians, and 2082 other Protestant Dissenters, being in the proportion of rather more than seven Roman Catholics to two Protestants of whatever denomination. In the same year there were in this diocese 509 daily schools, educating 37,219 young persons; being in the proportion of 7# per cent. of the entire population under §. instruction, in which respect this . is much inferior to the province at large, and ranks on a par with the see of Cork, nineteenth among the 32 dioceses of Ireland. Of the above schools, 62 were in the year 1834 in connection with the National Board of Education. There is no certain mention of the see till the seventh century. In the year 1152 it was erected into an archbishopric in the person of bishop Gregory; and in 1214 it was united with the see of Glendaloch, which had been founded in the sixth century. The archbishops of Dublin did not, however, obtain full possession till the year 1479. The union of the sees of Dublin and Glendaloch still subsists. The first Protestant archbishop of Dublin was George Browne, who had been an Augustinian friar of London. The present (1837) archbishop is Dr. Whateley. The archiepiscopal residences are St. Sepulchre's, now disused, and converted to a police barrack; at Tallaght, where archbishop Hoadley repaired the old mansion in 1729; and in Stephen's Green, in Dublin. DUBLIN, a county in the province of Leinster in Ireland ; bounded on the north-west and north by the count of Meath; on the east by the Irish channel; on the sout by the county of Wicklow ; and on the south-west by the county of Kildare. Greatest length from Gormanstown on the north to Bray upon the south, 25 Irish, or 31# English miles. Greatest breadth from the promontory of Howth upon the east to the boundary of Kildare at Leixlip on the west, 15 Irish, or 18+ English miles. The coast line from Bray to the point of junction with Meath is about 55 Irish, or 70 English miles. Until the publication of the Ordnance Survey Map of Dublin, the area cannot be stated with certainty. It is given by Dr. Beaufort at 228,211 statute acres, or 335 square statute miles, including the county of the city of Dublin. According to the more accurate survey made for the grand jury in 1821, by Mr. Duncan, the superficial contents are, arable 132,042 acres; not arable 16, 191 do. Total, exclusive of county of city, 148,233 acres. Exclusive of the county of the city of Dublin, the population in 1831 was 176,012. The county of Dublin, excepting a small tract on the south, is a champaign country highly cultivated. The only portions of the county not under cultivation are the promontory of Howth, and the range of mountains which separates Dublin from Wicklow on the south. The Dublin mountains, of which the central group has an average height of 1000 or 1200 feet, are partially separated from the loftier elevations of the county of Wicklow by the valley of Glencullen on the east, and by that of Ballynascorney or Glenismael on the west; a neck of elevated land, intervening between these valleys, connects the advanced range with the group of Kippure and Seechon on the south. The elevation of Kippure, part of which is in the county of Dublin, is upwards of 2700 feet. The whole range forms a fine mountain back-ground to the rich scenery of the plain of Dublin. The northern part of Dublin county is more undulating than the immediate vicinity of the capital. A low range of cultivated eminences, called the Man-of-War Hills, extends across the line of communication with Meath and Louth, and the ground on the north-western border next Meath and Kildare is pretty much broken by picturesque valleys. The only marked eminences, however, north of the mountainous tract, are the islands of Lambay and Ireland's Eye, and the hill of Howth. The isthmus which connects Howth with the mainland is a low narrow neck, which gives Howth very much the appearance of an island. The highest point of the promontory of Howth is 567 feet above the level of the sea. The cliffs towards the bay and channel are lofty, and the whole promontory contributes much to the picturesque effect of Dublin bay. The principal creeks north of the bay of Dublin are those of Baldoyle, Malahide, and Rogerstown; but these tideharbours are of little commercial advantage. The only tolerable harbour north of Howth is that of Balbriggan. The town of Balbriggan, which in 1831 contained 3016 inhabitants, has taken its rise almost solely in consequence of the construction of a pier here by the late Baron #. who received 1500l. towards this work from the Irish parliament in 1761, and a further sum of 3752l. for the same purpose in 1765. The total cost is stated at upwards of 15,000l. The quay is about 600 feet in length, and is frequently occupied with craft; but it would still require a large expenditure to make it complete for vessels of the second class. From 80 to 100 cargoes of coal are annually delivered here, besides rock-salt, bark, slates, &c. There is an excellent light-house on the pier-head, built by the Ballast Board. Four miles south from Balbriggan is Skerries, the chief fishing village on the east coast of Ireland, with a pier for small craft 450 long, built in 1755. South of Skerries the sandy shore gives place to a limestone cliff as far as the creek of Loch Shinney, another site well adapted for the construction of a harbour. One mile
south from Loch Shinney is Rush, a considerable village, with a small pier for fishing boats. Off the creek of Malahide is the rocky island of Lambay. In 1821 the population was only thirty-four. There is good anchorage all round the island in five to eight fathoms water, clear ground; it has also a small pier and harbour. The Muldowny bank lying off the creek of Malahide is a good artificial oyster bed. The peninsula of Howth contains about 1500 acres, and excepting towards the low isthmus which connects it with the mainland, stands in deep water. The sound between Howth and Ireland's Eye, a rocky picturesque island of thirty acres, which lies about three quarters of a mile off the northern side of the promontory, being a sheltered situation with considerable depth of water, was selected by government in 1807 for an asylum and packet harbour; but unfortunately this object has not been accomplished. The work, which was completed under the direction of the late Mr. Rennie, consists of two piers, of which that on the east is 2493 feet in length, and that on the west 2020 do. On the extremity of the eastern pier is a lighthouse. The entrance between the extremities of the piers is 300 feet across; and the space enclosed 52 English acres. The whole work is faced with cut granite, except the sloping glacis under water which is of red grit from Runcorn in Cheshire. The entire amount expended on Howth harbour from the 2nd July, 1807, to 5th January, 1832, was 420,472l. 8s. 53d. The deepest and best anchorage afforded by the sound is left outside the \". one-half of the space enclosed is dry at half-ebb, and two-thirds at low-water; and the sands from the bank on the west side are daily accumulating in the entrance; so that the mail packets for want of water in the basin have been latterly transferred to the Kingstown station. From Howth round to the sands of the North Bull the whole of the promontory which stands in deep water is rocky and precipitous towards the sea. On a detached rock at the south-eastern extremity, called the Bailey, stands a lighthouse, which marks the northern entrance to the bay | Dublin. Another lighthouse now disused stands on the brow of the promontory above, a little to the north. From the Bailey of Howth to the island of Dalkey at the opposite extremity of the bay of Dublin, is a distance of 6? English miles. Between these points the bay recedes in a semi-elliptical sweep to a depth of about six miles inland. The shore surrounding the head of the bay, where the Liffey, Tolka, and Dodder rivers empty themselves, is low; it rises, however, towards Blackrock and Kingstown, and beyond the latter town is of a very bold and picturesque character. The river of Bray, which discharges itself about half a mile north of the bold promontory of Brayhead, is the county boundary. As a harbour, the bay of Dublin is materially encumbered by a great tract of sand, which is bisected by the Liffey in a direction from west to east. The portion on the north of the Liffey is called the North Bull, and that on the south the South Bull. In order to protect the navigation of the Liffey from the sands of the South Bull, a pier consisting
of a mound of gravel contained between double stone walls
was undertaken by the Irish government in 1748. It runs from the suburb of Ringsend along the northern margin of the South Bull, to a distance of 7938 feet. Here the main work at first terminated in a basin and packet station, called the Pigeon-house; and the remainder of the channel, extending 9816 feet from the Pigeon-house to the northeastern extremity of the Bull, was protected by a range of frame-work and piles. The expense however of keeping this part of the wall in repair was found so heavy, that in 1761 a light-house was commenced at the extremity of the Bull, and from it the wall was carried inwards towards the Pigeon-house until completed in 1796. This sea-wall is composed of two parallel walls of hewn granite, alternate headers and stretchers, laid without cement. The space between is filled to a certain height with gravel and shingle; over which is a course of stone-work imbedded in cement; and the whole is finished on the top with a course of granite blocks of large dimension, laid in tarrass. The wall is thirtytwo feet broad at bottom, and twenty-eight at top. The Pigeon-house, since being disused as a packet station, has been converted into a strong depôt for artillery and military stores. The amount of parliamentary aid given to the con: struction of the south wall from 1753 to 1780, was 57,1691. 4s. 6d. Another wall, running nearly south-east from the opposite shore of Clontarf, is intended in like manner to confine the sands of the North Bull, and to scour the channel. This, which is called the north wall, has been constructed by the Ballast Board of Dublin, and cost from 1819 to 1824 a sum of 103,054l. 19s. 11d. Notwithstanding these great undertakings, the navigation of the Lissey is still very imperfect, and requires constant dredging. The bar, on which there are but five feet of water at spring-ebbs, runs across the channel immediately outside the lighthouse. The insecurity of the bay, joined to the failure of the works at Howth, led to the commencement of the present noble asylum harbour of Kingstown, on the site of the old harbour of Dunleary, on the south side of the bay, in 1817. The small pier and tide harbour at Dunleary have been enclosed within the new works, and are now crossed by the Dublin and Kingstown railroad. The new harbour is entirely artificial, consisting of an area of about 200 acres contained between two piers, of great dimension. There is a depth of 24 feet at the pier-head, at the lowest springs, which is sufficient for a frigate of 36 guns, or an Indiaman of 800 tons. The work was commenced under the authority of two acts of the 55th and 56th George III.; the latter of which grants certain duties on all vessels entering the port of Dublin, to be vested in commissioners for carrying the work into execution. The Liffey has a course of little more than eight miles from the point where it enters Dublin county to the bay of Dublin at Ringsend. It is navigable for vessels of 200 tons to the Custom-house, and for barges and row-boats to Chapel Izod, about two miles farther up. The Dodder, the course of which lies almost wholly within this county, takes its rise from numerous small streams descending from Kippure mountain, and forming a rapid stream which descends in a course of about ten miles into the bay of Dublin at Ringsend. The Tolka is a small river rising near Dunbryna in the county of Meath; it flows east by south, through Blanchardstown and Glassnevin to the north-western ex!. of Dublin bay, which it enters by Ballybough bridge. The Royal Canal running west by north from its chief terminus at Broad-stone on the north-west of the city of Dublin, unites the capital with the Upper Shannon at Richmond harbour in the county of Longford. A short branch encircling the north-east of the city connects the basin at Broad-stone with docks opening into the Liffey east of the Custom-house. The width of the line throughout, at top is 42 feet, and at the bottom 24 feet, with locks, and a depth of water calculated for boats of from 80 to 100 tons. The entire length of the canal from the Liffey to the Shannon is 91 English miles. Loch Ouil, in Westmeath, suplies the summit level, which is at a height of 307 feet above igh-water mark in the Liffey docks. The supply of water to the northern part of the capital is drawn from the Royal Canal. The canal is the property of a company of subscribers which was incorporated by royal charter in 1789. The chief terminus of the Grand Canal, the most important line of water-carriage in Ireland, is at James's Street Harbour, on the south-west of the city, from which it crosses the counties of Dublin, Kildare, and King's County, in a direction west by south to the Shannon at Shannon Harbour, about two miles north of Banagher. The summit level commencing at 17 Irish miles from Dublin, is 261 feet 10 inches above the tide-water in the Liffey. This level is supplied by the Middletown and Blackwood rivers, which are branches of the Barrow; and is ascended from James's Street Harbour by four double and fourteen single locks. The total length from the western extremity of the eapital is 79 English miles. From the summit level, at a distance of 20% Irish miles from Dublin, a branch of similar dimensions with the main trunk descends 103 feet half an inch in 22} Irish or 28% English miles, through two double and nine single locks, by Rathangan and Monasterevan to the navigable river Barrow at Athy. The dimensions throughout are, at the top, 45 feet; at the bottom, 25 feet; the depth of water, 6 feet in the body of the canal, and 5 feet on the sills of the lock-gates. The locks are generally 70 feet long, 14 wide, and calculated to pass boats of 60 tons in from two and a half to five minutes. The Grand Canal has a second terminus in an extensive range of docks covering an area of 25 English acres on the south side of the Liffey near Ringsend. The communication with the river is by three sea locks, and the basins
within are capable of containing 600 sail in 16 feet of water. Attached are three graving-docks for vessels of different. dimensions, with several extensive piles of stores; the whole being surrounded by spacious wharfs. This portion of the works has failed in a remarkable manner. The stores have long been unoccupied, and the wharfs are for the most part overgrown with grass. The Dublin and Kingston railway passes the western dock by a viaduct and raised causeway, and a factory for the repair and supply of locomotive engines is being erected by the proprietors of the railway on the southern side of the same basin. The communication between the Grand Canal docks and the line from James's Street harbour is by a branch canal of about three miles, running from the docks round the south-east and south of the city. The canal is now the property of a company which was incorporated in the year 1772, and who are stated to have spent from time to time on these works a sum of a million and a half sterling. The supply of water for the southern part of the capital is drawn chiefly from the canal. The main roads subject to turnpikes, which issue from Dublin, are those to Howth, Malahide, Drogheda by Swords, and the Naul, Drogheda by Ashbourn, Ratoath, Navan, and Mullingar, Carlow by Rathcoole and Tallaght. The chief lines free from toll are the military road and the roads to Enniskerry, Bray, and Kingstown. The only railway at present completed in Ireland is that between Dublin and Kingstown in this county. It is the property of a company incorporated by 1st & 2nd William IV., c. 69, with a capital stock of 200,000l., in shares of 100l. each. The line extends from Westland Row, in Dublin, to the jetty opposite the main street of Kingstown, called the Forty-foot road, a distance of nearly six English miles. The entire line is lighted with gas. The railway bed consists of layers of gravel and concrete, with numerous cross drains. The sleepers are massive blocks of granite, which it was supposed would give unusual solidity to the structure, but the want of elasticity in these supports causes the engines to work harshly. The railway was opened for traffic on the 17th of December, 1834, between which day and the 1st of March, 1836, the number of passengers carried was 1,237,800, being, on the average, 2000 rsons daily. Since that period the number of passengers |. increased considerably, as appeared by the following statement for the year, 1836 of the number of passengers conveyed by the Dublin and Kingstown Railway:—May, 119,000; June, 119,080; July, 146,000; August, 139,000; total, 523,000. The cost of constructing the railroad and stations, locomotive engines, carriages, &c., and the expenses of obtaining the act of incorporation, amounted, on the 1st of March, 1836, to 237,000l., or upwards of 40,000l. per mile, exclusive of 972 yards since added. Of this sum, 75,000l. has been advanced as a loan by Government. At the same period the company had realized a net profit of 11,517 l., yielding about 8 per cent. per annum on the capital paid by the shareholders. By act 6th and 7th William IV., c. 132, a company is incorporated for the purpose of making a railway from Dublin to Drogheda. At present the only incorporated railway companies in Ireland are those above mentioned, and the Cave-hill and Ulster Railway Companies. [Down.] The climate of Dublin is temperate; frosts rarely continue more than a few days, and snow seldom lies. The heaviest fall of snow on record is that which commenced on the 18th of January, 1814, and continued undissolved till the beginning of the next April. The prevailing winds are from the west. The average proportion of winds, as stated by Rutty, is west, south-west, and north-west, to east, south-east, and north-east, as 9061 to 5141. Of 68 storms noted by Rutty, 57 were from the south-west, and but two from the east and north-east. The easterly and north-easterly winds which prevail in spring not being broken by any high grounds, are violent and ungenial. On an average of forty-one years there were in this county—of springs, 6 wet, 22 dry, 13 variable; of summers, 20 wet, 16 dry, 5 variable; of autumns, 11 wet, 11 dry, 19 variable. It also appears by a mean of observations that the dry days in Dublin are to the rainy as 110 to 255. The quantity of rain is, however, by no means as great as at Cork or Belfast. In 1792, one of the wettest years on record, the depth of rain which fell
in Dublin was 30.7 inches; of this 5.8 inches fell in the month of August. The average annual depth of rain which fell in Dublin during the sixteen years preceding the year 1817, was 23 inches 7 lines. The greater part of the county of Dublin is occupied by a tract of mountain limestone, being a part of the central limestone field of Ireland, which exte.ds from the Atlantic to the Irish sea. This secondary tract extends into Meath on the north, and is bounded in this county on the south by primary rocks. Along the northern coast also there are patches of primitive rock, as the greenstone and argillaceous schists, which form the Man-of-war Hills and the island of Lambay, and the stratified quartz and schist of Howth. Lambay consists of strata of argillaceous schist and greenstone porphyry. The schistose strata are much indurated and contorted. In Howth the stratification is very obvious, and the schistose beds exhibit a great diversity of hues from purple to red. Some of the strata rest on their edges, others are undulated, and sometimes curved upon themselves so as to resemble the concentric crusts of some spheroidal formation (Dr. Scouler). The primitive formation on the south of the limestone plain consists of a ridge of granite supporting flanks of micaceous and argillaceous schists. The granite extends on the south from Dalkey island to Blackrock, and from thence to Dundrum and Rathfarnham; it then takes a southerly direction and crosses the range of the Dublin mountains by the line of the military road; whence, crossing the northern extremity of Glenismael, it extends into the group of the Kippure mountains. On the south it runs from Dalkey to the hill of Killiney, and thence inland by Rochestown hill to the Scalp, whence, holding a southerly course, it passes on to Glencree, in the county of Wicklow, and so southward to a distance of nearly sixty miles, forming the nucleus of the entire range from Killiney to Blackstairs mountain, between the counties of Cârlow and Wexford. The granite comprising the greater part of this range is of a coarse texture, and easily disintegrated; in Glenismael particularly, it is frequently found decomposed to a depth of several feet, and hence probably the uniform outline presented by the summits of the range. At Dalkey, however, and generally along the eastern and north-eastern limits of the granite district, the stone quarried is of the closest grain, and excellently adapted to all purposes of building. It is here free from hornblende: the felspar is of a pearly whiteness, and in the stone obtained from the quarries of Kilkenny the mica, instead of occurring in plates, is found in the form of plumose mica. This mass of granite is almost everywhere in contact with the micaceous schist, both on its western and eastern flanks; and the junction of the rocks may be observed at Killiney, the Scalp, and Rathfarnham. The argillaceous schist ap}. it very closely at Ballynascorney; and between lackrock and Dundrum the edges of the limestone field are in several places within a few yards of the granite, the intervening rocks of the series not being observable. The limestone which elsewhere possesses the usual character of carboniferous limestone, is extremely compact along the margin of the field towards the primitive series, and has a schistose structure (the Calp of Kirwan), which renders it highly useful as a material for building. Dolomite, or magnesian limestone, occurs near the junction of the primary and secondary strata, at Sutton on Howth. Magnesian limestone also occurs on the Dodder, near Milltown. It dresses with peculiar sharpness under the hammer or chisel, and is the material of some beautiful specimens of building; among others, of the Lord-Lieutenant's chapel in the castle of Dublin. The only mines at present worked (and that but partially, in the county of Dublin, are the lead mines at Ballycorus) within half a mile of the Scalp. Galena, potters' clay, and manganese have been found on Howth. #. earth of a middling quality has been found at Castleknock, on the north bank of the Liffey. The soil of Dublin abounds in mineral springs: of those within the city, ten were analysed about the year 1750: they are all saline purgative springs, and some of them so strongly impregnated as to yield on evaporation from three to four hundred grains of salts per gallon: of some of those salts two drachms operated as a brisk cathartic. In 1758 a spring strongly impregnated with sulphureted hydrogen gas was discovered in the vicinity of a disused chalybeate spa at Lucan, on the south bank of the Liffey. These waters have been found very efficacious in cutaneous diseases.
There are tepid o near Finglass and Leixlip; the heat is 75% degrees Fahr. In general the water, which rises from the Calp district around Dublin, is impregnated with a considerable portion of sulphate or nitrate of lime, which renders it unfit for most domestic purposes, unless with the use of large quantities of soda. It deposits a copious sediment on the vessels in which it is used; and in one distillery mentioned by Whitelaw an incrustation of sienite, half an inch in thickness, had frequently to be cleared from the inside of the boilers. The vegetable soil of the county of Dublin is generally shallow. On the granite bottom it is a light gravel, which requires strong manuring. The subsoil of the Calp district is a tenacious clay, which retains the water and renders the loamy soil wet and cold; but drainage and an unlimited supply of scavengers’ manure from the city have brought that part of this district, which lies immediately round the capital, into a good state of productiveness. The quality of the land improves towards the west and north, and the district bordering on Meath is not inferior to the generality of wheat lands in the midland counties. The soil along the junction of the northern primary strata and the limestone is also of excellent quality. There is but a small proportion of the county under tillage. Villas, gardens, dairy farms, kitchen gardens, and nurseries occupy the immediate neighbourhood of the capital, and grazing farms and meadow lands extend over the country which is not occupied by demesnes, to a distance of ten and twelve miles beyond those on the west and north. The mode of feeding generally pursued is grazing during summer and hay feeding in winter. Many extensive farmers and resident proprietors however pursue the system of green crops and stall-feeding the year round. The total annual value of the agricultural produce of the county of Dublin has been estimated at 1,145,800l. ; the rental of proprietors at 343,700l. per annum, and the rent paid by them at 31, per acre. The rents paid by land-occupiers vary from 41. and 4!. 10s. to 10l. in the vicinity of the capital. Dublin County is divided into nine baronies; namely:I. Balrothery on the north, containing the towns of Balbrigan, population in 1831, 3016; Skerries, population 2,556; ush, population 2144. II. Nethercross, scattered through the other baronies in seven separate divisions, of which six lie north of the city of Dublin, containing the towns of Swords, population 2537; Lusk, population 925; and Finglass, po}..." 840. III. Coolock, on the north-east of the city of ublin, containing the towns of Clontarf, population 1309: Baldoyle, population 1009; Howth, population 797; and Glassnevin, population 559. IV. Castleknock, on the northwest of the city of Dublin, containing part of the town of Chapel Izod, total population 1632. V. Newcastle, on the west and south-west of the city of Dublin, containing the towns of Lucan, population 1229; Rathfarnham, population 1572; Crumlin, population 544; and Newcastle, population 3915. VI. Donore, a small barony, embracing a portion of the south-west of the city of Dublin, with a population of 11,153. VII. St. Sepulchre's, a small barony embracing a portion of the south of the city of Dublin, with a population of 13,631. VIII. Uppercross, on the southwest of the city of Dublin, containing the towns of Ranelagh (a suburb of Dublin), population 1999; Rathmines (do.), population 1600; Harold's-cross, population 1101; Milltown, population 673; Rathcoole, population 602; Clondalkin, population 756; Dalkey, population 544; and Ballymore Eustace, in the detached portion of the county, population 841. IX. Half Rathdown, on the south-east of the city of Dublin, containing the towns of Kingstown, population 5756; Blackrock, population 2029; Little Bray, population 1168; Stillorgan, population 650; and Dundrum, population 680. . ere is not at present in the county of Dublin any town exercising corporate privileges. Swords and Newcastle each returned two members to the Irish parliament. The county of Dublin, the city of Dublin, and the university of Dublin are each at present represented by two members in the imperial parliament. The commerce of the county of Dublin, exclusive of the capital and its immediate vicinity, is limited to the small coast-trade carried on at Balbriggan, Bray, and the other coast towns. The cotton and stocking manufactures are carried on at Balbriggan with considerable spirit. There are two cotton factories, and numerous establishments for stocking weaving; the Balbriggan hosiery has long held a high character in the market. Considerable quantities of flour are manufactured in this county. The principal ornmills are on the Liffey, the Balbriggan river, and the Kimmage brook, on the south-west of Harold's-cross.
In 1835 the number of boats belonging to the county of Dublin, which were employed in the fisheries, was as follows:–
Decked vessels, 121 ; tonnage, 4651; men, 789 :-halfdecked vessels, 27; tonnage, 255; men, 150 :-open sail. boats, 66; men, 297:—row-boats, 65; men, 249 ; number of fishermen, 1505.
The fishing grounds lie in from 15 to 60 fathoms water between the Dublin coast and the Isle of Man. The fish consist chiefly of turbot, brit, sole, and plaice, which are sent to market daily throughout the year. There is a well-known fishing ground between Rush and Lambay Island, on which cod, ling, haddock, whiting, &c., are taken. Trawling is the mode of fishing generally practised by the decked and half-decked boats. White trout and salmon are taken at the bars of the Bray river and Liffey. Since the withdrawal of bounties the fisheries along the coast, as well as elsewhere in Ireland, have declined.
The census of 1831, as compared with that of 1821, exhibits an increase of population and houses, and a decrease in the number of families, which, if not arising from some error in the returns, is very remarkable.
The civil history of the county of Dublin is immediately connected with that of the capital. The whole of the fee of the county, with the exception of the estates of the St. Lawrence family, and with the exception, to some extent, of the estates of the families of Barnwall, Lutterel, and Talbot of Malahide, has frequently changed hands since the period of the Reformation. The forfeitures consequent on the rebellion of 1641 extended to 67,142 acres, 2 roods, 26 perches, profitable, and 1666 acres unprofitable, in this county. The amount of forfeitures in the county of Dublin, consequent on the war of the Revolution in 1688, was 34,536 acres profitable, of the then annual value of 16,0611. 16s., and of the then total estimated value of 208,796l. 18s. The families which chiefly suffered by these confiscations were those of Barnwall, Fleming, Plunket, Walsh, Peppard, Archbold, Cruise, Fagan, Hackett, Archer, Sweetman, Dowdall, and Trant.
The Pagan antiquities of the county of Dublin are not numerous. There is a cromlech on the hill of Carrickmoor in Howth. Another cromlech stands to the south of Killiney, on the descent into the vale of Shanganagh; and at Brennanstown, on the Bray road, 64 miles from Dublin, there is a third, of large dimensions. Dublin is, however, rich in ecclesiastical and military antiquities. The round tower of Clondalkin, 4% miles from Dublin, on the southern road by Rathcoole, is in better preservation than most other similar edifices in Ireland. The door is at a height of 15 ft. from the ground; the entire height of the tower is 84 ft., and its diameter above the basement 15 ft. The explosion of 260 barrels of gunpowder in the powder-mills in the vicinity, in 1797, did not in the slightest degree * the round tower. The antiquities at Swords, on the great northern road, 7 miles from Dublin, consist of a palace of the archbishops of Dublin, in ruins, a square steeple of the old church, and a round tower, 73 ft. in height. This tower is also in good preservation, and retains its conical stone capping. At Lusk, on the same road, 4 miles farther north, there is an antient church with a square steeple, attached to three of the angles of which are round towers with graduated parapets, and at the remaining angle a round tower of greater altitude and superior construction, supposed to be the original building. Between Swords and Baldoyle, 5 miles from the capital, is the hamlet of St. Doulagh's, containing one of the most singular stone-roofed churches in Ireland. The entire edifice measured but 48 ft. by 18 ft. It is divided into a rude nave and choir, which communicate by a narrow square-headed doorway, not suf. ficiently high to admit a full-grown person upright. The entire construction is rude and capricious; the building does not stand due east and west. Some of the arches are altogether nondescript in their shape, and for several of the
recesses and nooks between the roof it is difficult to assign any probable use. ... It is perhaps the only edifice in the empire which exhibits the o doorway, the Saxon arch, and the trefoil Gothic and lancet window, in such close juxtaposition. Near the church is a consecrated well, inclosed in an octagon building, the interior of which retains some paintings in fresco executed in the beginning of the seventeenth century. In the vicinity of Howth Castle are the ruins of St. Fintan's Church and of the collegiate church and abbey of Howth. On the opposite side of the Bay of Dublin the vicinity of Dalkey exhibits the remains of an antient town erected here at an early period for the protection of the shipping and merchandize of the capital, to which the creek of Bullock served for a length of time as port. There are also some druidical remains on the commons of Dalkey. The castles of Clontarf, Baldongan, Naul, and Castleknock are among the principal detached military edifices. In 1821 the number of young persons in the schools of this county, exclusive of the county of the city of Dublin, was 94.42, being nearly in the proportion of 6 per cent. of the entire population under instruction. The proportion of young persons under daily instruction in the diocese of Dublin, in 1834, was 7.28 per cent, in which respect the diocese, which may be taken as an index of the county, ranks nineteenth among the thirty-two dioceses of Ireland. The grand jury presentments for the county of Dublin average about 18,000l. per annum. The circumstance of so many of the roads in the county being under the control of turnpike-trustees renders this assessment comparatively light in proportion to the extent of the district on which it is levied. The constabulary force of the county, on the 1st of January, 1836, consisted of 1 stipendiary magistrate, 5 chief constables of the first class, I do. of the second class, 29 constables, 113 sub-constables, and 6 horse. The expense of maintaining this force for the year 1835 was 61291. 16s.7d., of which 2890l. 7s. 2d. was chargeable against the county. The county of Dublin, together with the county of the city of Dublin, the county of the town of Drogheda, and the counties of Meath, uth, and Wicklow, contribute, in proportion to their relative populations, to the support of the Richmond Lunatic Asylum, built in Dublin in 1815. The fever hospitals and dispensaries throughout the county are supported by equal voluntary contributions and grand * presentments. survey of the county of Dublin, on a scale of 3 inches to the mile, was made by order of the grand jury in 1821. A survey on a scale of not quite 6 inches to 3 English miles had been published in 1760 by John Rocque. A chart of Dublin, by Seale and Richards, was published in 1765, and another has since been published by Captain Bligh. An interesting account of the chief localities of this county is contained in Brewer’s “Beauties of Ireland, London, 1825.
The ‘Statistical Survey of Dublin County,’ published by