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shelter, the climate would be greatly improved by draining and planting. Wood is much wanted in the county, particularly on the higher ridges, both for use and ornament; and diaining would be a most important improvement. At a moderate expense not only Lochar moss, but several other extensive tracts of wet and mossy ground might be drained and converted into valuable meadows and cornfields. There are a few belts and clumps of trees, and young plantations which are thriving well, but their extent is very limited. Agriculture.—The soil in the lower parts of the county is generally light and sandy. Along the margins of the great rivers are considerable tracts of rich alluvial soil. Between Tinwald and Torthorwald, and from the Hook to Lockerby are fine fields of loam ; peat-moss prevails on many of the hills, and in some of the vales: the most extensive moss is that of Lochar, near Dumfries, which is eleven or twelve miles long, and between two and three broad. Clay is found extensively as a sub-soil, and in a few places as a soil mixed with other substances. In Annandale and Nithsdale the dry soil prevails. On many of the hills the soil is naturally wet. Many of the estates are freehold, and are held immediately of the crown. A considerable number are held of a subject superior. Lands of both tenures may be laid under entall for an unlimited period, and in favour of heirs yet unborn. As the right of superiority may be conveyed without property, some gentlemen hold superiorities who have no property in the county. In the vicinity of the castle of Lochmaben small parcels of rich and fertile land called Four Towns are held by a very antient and peculiar mode of kindly tenure, and are transferred simply by possession. The proprietors pay a small fixed sum annually to the earl of Mansfield. Feu-holding, which enables the owner to alienate at pleasure, and subjects him to an annual payment equal and sometimes superior to rack-rent, is mostly confined to houses and gardens. Near the royal burghs certain tracts of land are held under burgage tenure. The owners of these pay every year a certain sum as rent or duty to the magistrates of the burghs. Tithes, or teinds, as they are called, are very light. By an act of the Scottish parliament, dated 1663, a o: of the rent was directed to be returned as the tithe, and fixed as a money payment; the valuations to be made at the request of the landowners. In consequence of the depreciation of money and the increase of the value of land, the tithes are considered exceedingly moderate. The rental of a great portion of land has been more than doubled within the last forty years. Though several landlords have lately made considerable reductions, many farms, on account of the reduced price of produce, are over-rented, and for want of capital the farmers are unable to make improvements. Long leases of small ortions of land for building are very common in villages. }. of arable land are generally let on leases of 15, 19, or 21 years. On sheep farms the ordinary leases are from 9 to 13 years. Various forms of leases are in use. Some landowners have printed conditions, which are seldom read or attended to by the tenants, except so far as regards the rent and term of the lease. There is a kind of rule that not more than one third part of the arable land shall be under white crops, yet some adopt the four-field and others the six-field course of husbandry. A variety of crops are now cultivated, and the practice of farmers with respect to rotation is various. Some very judiciously endeavour to suit their rotation and course of management to the different soils; others, by altering the rotation or by varying the genera or species of the crops, adopt a double rotation. The following is a frequent order of husbandry: 1st year, oats; 2nd, potatoes and turnips, the latter fed off by sheep; 3rd, wheat or barley, and sown with grass seeds; 4th, hay; 5th, grass. Oats and potatoes are cultivated more extensively than any other crop, both for home consumption and for exportation. Potatoes are much used in fattening cattle and pigs... A great quantity of hams and bacon of the very best quality are cured in this county, and sent off to the Liverpool, London, and Newcastle markets. The very general adoption of the culture of turnips has lately been one of the greatest improvements in agriculture. Bone manure is used with advantage upon high ground of difficult access. The farm implements in use are very similar to those in Cumberland, with the exception of the sickle, the use of which is in some places much laid aside, and the scythe substituted for it. The horses in general are of a middle size, and are the result of many crossings of different
breeds. The quality of the cattle and sheep stocks has been lately much improved. The Galloway breed of cattle mostly prevails, except for the dairy, for which business many intelligent farmers prefer cows of the Ayrshire breed. The sheep are of the Cheviot and black-faced breeds, but there are not many of them perfectly pure and unmixed. Latterly they have been crossed by the Leicesters, and where the land has been drained, which is usually by open cuts, the offspring are found to answer exceedingly well, and make more profitable returns to the farmer. The native breed of dun-faced small sheep does not now appear in the county. . A great number of pigs are kept by the farmers and cottars, and bacon may be considered a staple commodity of the county. Grass lands are generally entered upon at Whitsuntide; and corn lands in August, after the removal of the crop. The rent is payable at Whit. suntide and Martinmas in equal portions. Sheep farms vary in size from 300 to 3000 acres, and two sheep for three acres may be considered an average number of stock. The management of these is by far the least expensive branch of farming, though a good deal more is necessary than the shepherd and his dog. Arable farms extend from 50 to 600 acres; many are about 100 or 150 acres. Some farms contain both sheep-walk and arable lands, and these are considered the most convenient and productive. Arable farms, and those of small size, prevail on the low grounds and near the market towns and villages. Those of larger extent, where pasture greatly pre nderates, are more distant, and more highly situated. The rent of land varies according to quality and situation. Arable land in a good situation lets from 21. to 5l. per acre, but about 11, per acre may be considered an average of the county for arable lands, and 4s for sheep-walk. The annual value of real property, as assessed in 1815, was 295,621 l. Most of the modern farm buildings are commodious and well arranged; they are constructed of stone and lime, and generally covered with slate. Very few are now thatched with straw or built of clay as formerly. Great improvements have been also made in the churches, schools, roads and fences. There are two or three district farming societies, but no general agricultural association for the county. These societies have been very useful by stimulating attention to the improvement of stock. The present depressed state of agriculture bears hard on the peasantry, who are intelligent, frugal, and industrious people. A remarkable difference exists in the food oil. by the farmers in England and . in Dumfriesshire for their labourers. In Dumfriesshire the haymakers, reapers, &c. have oatmeal porridge, milk, potatoes, and broth, but no meat except a piece of bacon boiled in the broth to give it a relish. The gray plaid thrown round the body is very common. The popular games are curling in winter, and quoits in summer. Married servants generally reside in a cottage near the farmer's house, and are furnished with a quantity of oatmeal, potatoes, and peats. They have also a cow's grass each, and supplies of money, the whole supposed to be worth about 35l. a year. House servants are engaged at hiring fairs at a fixed wage, for six months, for which period men, have about 61, and women 31. The people are very sensible of the benefits of education, and can almost all read and write. In the country parishes, as well as in burghs and larger villages, there are parish schools, in which not only the ordinary branches of education, but also the classics and French are generally taught. A few of them are well endowed, but the emoluments on an average do not perhaps exceed 50l. each. The poor in the country are relieved by the ministers and elders from funds collected in alms at the church doors, voluntary donations, and small fines. In many parishes sums of money have been bequeathed, or mortified, as it is termed, for the use of the poor. The great evil of this system is constant and uninterrupted public begging, the only remedy for which would be to enforce residence in the parishes where the poor are known. In a few parishes on the border a rate is levied, and paid in equal proportions by the landlords and tenants. The independent disposition which induced the poor to refrain from seeking parochial relief, it is feared, is fast wearing out. The practice of making salt by filtering the sea-sand, or sleetch, for which the inhabitants had a right of exemption, has altogether ceased along the coast since the removal of the salt duty. Fairs.--The county town has three annually, for horses and black cattle, February 13th and September 25th, if these days fall on Wednesday; if not, the Wednesday after; and Martinmas Wednesday. The last is chiefly for fat cattle, and for hiring servants. There are markets here also for cattle on Wednesdays, from the beginning of April to the end of December. For lambs: Langholm, July 26th; Lockerbie, August 16th and October 16th, excepting Saturday, Sunday, or Monday, and in that case on the Tuesday following. For sheep: Langholm, September 18th. For tups, sheep, lambs and wool: Sanquhar, July 17th, if Friday; if not, on Friday after. For tups: at Moffat in the latter end of June; at Annan in May and October; at Moffat in March and October; and at Lockerbie in April; and fourteen days after Michaelmas are fairs for hiring serWants. Formerly a very singular custom was observed at a fair held at the meeting of the White and Black Esks. At that fair, it was the custom for unmarried persons of both sexes to choose a companion according to their liking, with whom they were to live till that time next year: this was called hand-fasting. If they were pleased with each other at that time, they continued together for life; if not, they separated, and were free to make another choice as at first. Divisions, Towns, &c.—There is no division of the county for political purposes, but within its limits are four royal burghs, Dumfries, Annan, Lochmaben, and Sanquhar. The natural division is into the districts or dales of the three principal rivers; Nithsdale, Annandale, and Eskdale. Langholm is a well built town delightfully situated in the bosom of some picturesque woodland and mountain scenery on the banks of the Esk. ... It consists of one principal street, in which is a town-hall and jail in the marketplace; and the village of New Langholm on the opposite side of the river. The castle, which is now in ruins, has only been a square tower. There is an old church, two dissenting meeting-houses, an endowed school, and a savings'bank. The late Mr. Telford, civil engineer, left 1000l. to the Langholm library, and as there are two libraries, the legacy is in dispute between them. There are also two woollen manufactories and a small whiskey distillery. Wednesday is the market day. Parish population 2676. . A handsome monument has lately been erected by subscription on Langholm Hill to the memory of the late Sir John Malcolm. The principal mansion-houses in the vicinity, are Langholmlodge, Broomholm, Burnfoot, and Westerhall. Near the old castle is a place where several reputed witches were burnt in the last century, some of whom, it is said, acted as midwives, and had the power of transferring the pains of labour from the mother to the father. Moffat, a celebrated watering-place, stands on very dry and gravelly ground, which gently declines towards the south, near the river Annan, 20 miles north by east of Dumfries. It is protected on the north-east by a noble screen of lofty mountains. Here are elegant baths, assembly-rooms, a church and burgher meeting-house, a subscription and a circulating library. Parish population in 1831, 2221. A weekly market is held on Friday. The seat of Rae-hills is about eight miles distant. Among the places in the vicinity noted for fine scenery, and much visited by strangers for the purpose of recreation, are the old caves at Newton ; Earl Randolph's tower; Craigie wood; Bellcraig rock and lin, and Gray Mare's Tail. The sulphureous water of Moffat, according to the analysis of Dr. Garnet, contains 4 cubic inches of nitrogen gas in the wine gallon, 5 cubic inches of carbonic acid gas; 10 cubic inches of sulphureted hydrogen gas; and 36 grains of sulphate of soda. The chalybeate water of Hartfell, according to the analysis of the same chemist, contains 5 cubic inches of azotic gas in a wine gallon; 84 grains of sulphate of soda, 12 grains of sulphate of alumina, and 15 grains of oxide of iron. The sulphureous water is found of great service in scrofula, cutaneous eruptions, and bilious complaints; the chalybeate in disorders of the stomach and bowels, and in those connected with local and general debility. Lochmaben is a very antient burgh and market town seated on the west side of the Annan. It was several times plundered and burnt by the o It consists chiefly of one broad street, and is governed by a provost, three bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and nine ordinary councillors. The revenues are very small. The town-hall, under which is the jail and lockup-house, was built in 1745. A handsome and substantial new church was erected in 1819. It possesses also a burgher chapel, a subscription library, and an endowed school. Population 1000; 39 of whom are elec
tors under the Reform Act. During the winter there is a weekly market for pork, in which business is done to a large amount. The castle, now in ruins, has been a place of great strength, the fortification covering nearly 16 acres. Lockerbie is a market-town situated between the rivers Annan and Milk, 12 miles east of Dumfries. The number of inhabitants is 1414. There is a good parish church, and also an antiburgher meeting-house, a library, and a public reading-room. The old tower was lately converted into a temporary lockup-house. Thursday is the market day. The winter weekly markets are principally for pork. Sanquhar, a royal burgh, is seated on the Nith, 27 miles south-west of Dumfries. It has a handsome church, erected in 1820, and three dissenting places of worship; a prison, savings’-bank, and a subscription library. The castle is a very picturesque ruin. . The town is governed by a provost, three bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and eleven ordinary councillors. Revenue about 40l. yearly. The only manufacture, except weaving and sewing of muslin to a certain extent, is a carpet manufactory at Crawick-mill. Parish population in 1831, 3268. The town about 1400. The number of electors of the burgh was 50. At Eliock-house, in this parish, was born the Admirable Crichton. Ecclefechan is a meat village on the Glasgow and London road, on which a market is held every month on a Friday, and a pork market weekly. In its vicinity are Hoddamcastle, and the Tower of Repentance. Graitney or Gretna Green, a neat small village long celebrated for the clandestine marriages of fugitive lovers, is situated within a mile of the English border; on which border is also Solway-moss, remarkable for a disastrous battle in the time of Henry VIII., and for a sudden and overwhelming eruption that took place in 1771. Divisions for Ecclesiastical and Legal purposes. The synod of Dumfries extends over the whole county, and also over a part of some other counties. It comprehends fiftythree parishes, forty-two of which are in this county. The next court in authority is a provincial synod, which consists of all the clergy of the established church, and one elder from each parish. The synod of Dumfries comprehends five presbyteries, viz. Dumfries, Lochmaben, Annan, Penpont, and Langholm. The number of clergymen within its limits is fifty-four, and of these forty-three are in this county. Prior to the year 1756, there were three jurisdictions in the county, viz. the sheriffship of Nithsdale, the stewartry of Annandale, and the regality of Eskdale. Since then one sheriff, whose authority extends over the whole county, has been deputed by the crown. He appoints a deputy, and holds office during life and good conduct. The sheriff-court for the county and the commissary court are held every Tuesday during the session; the sheriff small debt court every second Thursday throughout the year; and the justice of peace small debt court every second Monday. The county sends one member to parliament, and the burghs of Dumfries, Annan, Lochmaben, and Sanquhar join with Kirkcudbright in electing another representative. Three newspapers are published weekly at Dumfries, the county town. Antiquities, History, †. The remains of Druidical temples exist in the parishes of Holywood, Graitney, Eskdalemuir, and Wamphray. . Near Moffat are vestiges of a British encampment and also of a Druidical temple. A Roman way has extended from Carlisle by Graiti.ey through the procestrium of the station at Burnswark. This way afterwards divided into two branches; one of which took the route of Nithsdale, and the other of Annandale. They united again at or near Crawford castle. Another Roman way led from Carlisle by the station at Netherby and Liddel-strength through Canobie into Teviotdale. Several fortifications, both of a circular and square form, and some large Roman encampments can be distinctly traced in various parts of the county. At Castleo'er or Overby is a very complete encampment of an oval form supposed to be of Saxon origin, and at Raeburn-foot is a Roman camp which probably communicated with those of Middlebie and Netherby. There are ruins of many old towers, vestiges of forts, and a great number of cairns or burians in different places. The most remarkable towers are at Achincass, Lag, Amisfield, Robgill, and Lochwood. At Dryfesdale is the most entire British fort, and at Burnswark-hill near Ecclefechan are very distinct remains of Roman encampments. There are many moats or artificial mounts on which the people are supposed to o: mat to 2 C 2
make laws and administer justice. Of these Rockhall moat near Lochmaben is one of the largest and most beautiful. Among the antiquities, the cross of Markland, which is an octagon of solid stone, and a very curious antient obelisk, supposed to be of Anglo-Saxon origin, found in the churchyard of Ruthwell, are deserving of notice. The latter is ornamented with figures in relievo descriptive of sacred history, and inscribed partly with Runic and partly with Roman characters. The antient buildings in Nithsdale are the castles of Caerlaverock, Morton, Closeburn, Torthorwold, and Sanquhar. In Annandale are the castles of Comlongan, Hoddam, Lochwood, and Achincass. In Eskdale there are some remains and vestiges of the castles of Langholm and Wauchope. Gilnochie in the parish of Canobie was the residence of Johnny Armstrong, a celebrated and powerful border-chieftain. In this parish there are also some vestiges of a monastery, which was pillaged, and laid in ruins by the English soldiers after the battle of Solway-moss in 1542. Vast quantities of antique pieces of armour, medals, and coins have been found in the county. The Selgovae were the most antient inhabitants of this county. In the time of the Romans, Dumfriesshire formed a part of the Roman province of Valentia (BRIT ANNIA]; and after the Romans had relinquished Britain it constituted a portion of a new kingdom founded by Ida and the Angles. In the eighth century it was under the domunion of the Picts, who dismembered Galloway and Dumfriesshire from the Northumbrian monarchy. Until the reign of James VI. this county was the scene of many battles and of many a feud and foray, which were often occasioned by the jealousies of the rival chieftains. Being seated on the borders it was also liable to the incursions of the English and to frequent predatory warfare. It was likewise the birth-place and residence as well as the scene of the heroic actions of many warriors distinguished in Scottish history. For a long time many of the inhabitants subsisted entirely by spoil and pillage, and the rapine of those freebooters was as intolerable to their own countrymen as to the English. This life of predatory warfare was afterwards exchanged for vicious idleness and lawless independence. The contraband trade with the Isle of Man prevailed to a great extent, and the borders were for a considerable time infested with daring bands of smugglers. In the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, but particularly in the latter, the country districts endured various outrages, and the county town sustained damage to the amount of 4000l., but in 1750 the crown granted a dividend of 2800l. on the above sum out of the forfeited estate of Lord Elcho. (Dr. Singer's General View of the Agriculture, &c. of the County of Dumfries; New Statistical Account of Scotland; Jameson's Mineralogical Survey of Dumfriesshire; Chalmers's Caledonia; Beauties Qf Scotland; Communications Jrom Dumfriesshire.) DUMONT, ETIENNE, was born at Geneva in July, 1759. His father died when he was very young, leaving a widow, three daughters, and a son (the subject of the present article), with very small means of support. The mother, however, was a woman of strong mind, and struggled against the difficulties arising from her straightened circumstances, that she might give her son a good education. At college Dumont assisted to support himself by giving private lessons. In his twenty-second year he was ordained minister of the Protestant church in Geneva; and we are told by M. Sismondi that his preaching was greatly admired. He left Geneva in the spring of 1783, owing to the triumph then achieved by the aristocratical party in that state through foreign interference; and he betook himself, a voluntary exile, to St. Petersburg, where he assumed the charge of the French Protestant church. He stayed in that city eighteen months, acquiring fame by his preaching; when he was invited to London by Lord Shelburne, afterwards the Marquis of Lansdowne, to undertake the education of his sons. In Lord Shelburne's house he made the acquaintance of Fox, of Sir Samuel Romilly, of Lord Hol..and, and most of the other distinguished members of the Whig party; and with Sir Samuel Romilly in particular he formed a strong friendship. In 1788, Dumont and Sir Samuel Romilly visited Paris together, and it was on the occasion of this visit, which lasted only two months, that Dumont first became acquainted with Mirabeau. In 1789 Dumont made a second visit to Paris, accompaled by M. Duroverai, in order to negociate with M. Necker,
who was then minister, for the liberty of Geneva and the return of her exiles. He stayed in Paris until the begin. ning of 1751, and during this second visit the acquaintance previously formed with Mirabeau ripened into intimacy, We learn from Dumont's posthumous work, entitled “Souvenirs sur Mirabeau, (a work which has thrown great light on Mirabeau's character, and which is further interesting as giving Dumont's views concerning the French Revolution,) that Mirabeau frequently during this period availed himself of the assistance of Dumont and Duroverai, especially the former, in the preparation of speeches and reports. These three also set on foot conjointly a paper called the ‘Courier de Provence;’ though Mirabeau’s share in the composition of it was not very great. It was not until Dumont's return to England in 1791 that his intimacy and co-operation with Mr. Bentham com menced. [BENTHAM]. Admiring Mr. Bentham's talents, and in pressed with the importance of his pursuits, he craved leave to arrange and edit those writings on legislation which their author would not himself publish. The task was one comparatively humble, yet useful. Further, it was a task of some difficulty. “I have had.” says Dumont himself, in his preface to the “Traités de Legislation,’ ‘to select from among a large number of various readings, to suppress repetitions, to clear up obscurities, and to fill up lacunae which the author had left that he might not slacken in his work. I have had to do much more in the way of curtailment than of addition, of abridgment than of extension. The mass of manuscripts which has passed through my hands, and which I have had to decipher and compare, is considerable. I have had to do much to attain uniformity of style, and in the way of correction; nothing or next to nothing as regards the fundamental ideas. The profuseness of their wealth was such as to need only the care of an economist, and being appointed steward of this large fortune, I have neglected nothing which could improve its value or help to put it into circulation.” (p. 2.) The following are those of Mr. Bentham's works which were edited by Dumont. 1. The “Traités de Legislation,’ 3 vols., published in 1802. 2. The ‘Théorie des Peines et des Recompenses,’ 2 vols., in 1811. 3. The ‘Tactique des Assemblées Legislatives,’ in 1815. 4. The ‘Preuves Judicaires,’ 2 vols, in 1823. The “Organisation Judiciaire et Codification,’ in 1828. In 1814 Dumont had returned to Geneva, his native state having then recovered her independence. He was elected a member of the representative council of Geneva, and, having been appointed on a committee that was to draw up laws and regulations for the council, he was the author of the plan that was ultimately adopted. He afterwards directed his efforts to a reform of the penal system and the prison system existing at Geneva. Under his auspices, a penitentiary establishment was erected at Geneva in 1824, on the Panopticon plan of Mr. Bentham. Dividing his time between his senatorial duties and the publication of those of Mr. Bentham's works which have been named, he lived a useful and a happy life to the age of sixty. He died suddenly in the autumn of 1825, while travelling in the north of Italy. There is a brief memoir of Dumont by M. de Sismondi in the Revue Encyclopédique, tom. 44, p. 258; and another by M. de Candolle in the Bibliothèque Universelle for November 1829. M. Duroverai has also prefixed a short notice of his life to the “Souvenirs sur Mirabeau.” DUMOURIEZ, CHARLES FRANCOIS, was born at Cambrai in 1739. His father was commissary in the army, and was also an author and a poet. Dumouriez entered the army at an early age, and served in Germany during the seven years' war. After the peace of Paris, 1763, he travelled about Europe, offering his services to several states: he visited Corsica, and afterwards Spain and Portugal, and wrote an essay on the military situation and resources of the latter kingdom. Having returned to France, he was appointed quarter-master-general to the French expedition for the conquest of Corsica, 1768-9. He was afterwards sent to #. on a mission to the confederates of Bar, with whom he made the campaign of 1771 against Russia. He was afterwards sent by Louis XV. on a confidential mission to Sweden, in the same manner as the Chevalier D'Eon, count Broglie, and others, who were sent to England and other countries, and who corresponded directly with the king without the intervention of his ministers. The ministers however became jealous of Du
mouriez, and found means to arrest him at Hamburg, whence he was brought back to Paris under a lettre de cáchet, and lodged in the Bastile. He was released by Louis XVI. on his coming to the throne, and restored to his rank of colonel. In 1778 he was sent to Cherbourg to form there a great naval establishment connected with the proposed invasion of England, and he furnished the ministry with plans for the conquest of the islands of Jersey, Guernsey, and Wight. At the beginning of the revolution he took the popular side, and became connected with the Girondins, by whose interest he was appointed minister of foreign affairs, in which capacity he prevailed upon the king to declare war against Austria in April, 1792. Soon after he left office, upon the dismissal of the other Girondin ministers, Roland, Servan, Claviere, &c. Dumouriez had now become afraid of the violence of the revolutionary movement, the Jacobins hated him, and even the Girondins grew cool towards him. Like La Fayette, he professed his attachment to the constitutional monarchy of 1791, which the others had given up. He withdrew himself however from internal politics and went to serve under General Luckner on the northern frontiers. After the 10th of August he was appointed to replace La Fayette in the command of the army which was opposed to the Duke of Brunswick. The army was disorganised, but Dumouriez soon re-established order and confidence; he obtained a series of partial but brilliant successes, which checked the advance of the Prussians; and, lastly, he made a determined stand in the forest of Argonne, which he styled the Thermopylae of France, by which means he gave time to Kellerman and other generals to come up with fresh divisions, and give battle to the Prussians at Valmy, 20th September, 1792, an engagement which was won by Kellerman. It is generally allowed that Dumouriez' stand at Argonne was the means of saving France from a successful invasion. At the end of October Dumouriez began his campaign of Flanders; gained the battle of Jemmapes against the Aus: trians, 5th and 6th November; took Liege, Antwerp, and a great part of Flanders, but, on account of some disagreement with Pache the minister at war, he was obliged to return to Paris during the trial of Louis XVI. After the execution of the king, Dumouriez returned to his headquarters, determined to support, on the first opportunity, the re-establishment of the constitutional monarchy under the son of Louis. Meantime he pushed on with his army, entered Holland, and took Breda and other places, but being obliged, by the advance of Prince Cobourg, to retire, he experienced a partial defeat at Neerwinde, and again at Louvain. Meantime he had displeased the convention by opposing its oppressive decrees concerning the Belgians, and he wrote a strong letter on the subject to that assembly on the 12th of March, which, however, was not publicly read. Danton, Lacroix, and other commissioners of the convention came successively to his head-quarters to watch and remonstrate with him, but he openly told them that a republic in France was only another name for anarchy, and that the only means of saving the country was to re-establish the constitutional monarchy of 1791. Dumouriez entered into secret negotiations with Prince Cobourg, by which he was allowed to withdraw his army unmolested to the frontiers of France, and also his garrisons and artillery which he had left in Holland, and which were cut off by the advance of the enemy. These favourable conditions were granted by Cobourg on the understanding that Dumouriez should exert himself to re-establish the constitutional monarchy in France. Dumouriez retired quietly to Tournay, and evacuating Belgium withdrew within the French frontiers, where he placed his head-quarters at St. Amand, 30th March, 1793. He was now accused of treason at Paris: the convention passed a decree summoning him to their bar, and four com: missioners, with Camus at their head, came to St. Amand to announce to him the summons. Dumouriez replied that he was ready to resign the command, if the troops consented, but he would not go to Paris to be butchered. After a violent altercation he gave the commissioners in charge to some hussars, and sent them over to the Austrian general Clairfait, at Tournay, to be detained as hostages. His design was now to march upon Paris, but his troops, and especially, the volunteers, refusing, he was obliged to take refuge himself, with a few officers, at the Austrian head-quarters, April, 1793. He there found out that his plan of a constitutional monarchy was disavowed by the allies, and in consequence he refused to serve in the Austrian army against his country. He wandered about various
towns of Germany, treated with suspicion, and annoyed by the royalist emigrants, who hated him as a constitutionalist, while in France the Convention offered a reward of 300,000 francs for his head. Having crossed over to England, he was obliged to depart under the alien act, and took refuge at Hamburgh, where he remained for several years, and wrote his memoirs and several political pamphlets. In 1804 or 1805 he obtained permission to come to England, where he afterwards chiefly resided. He is said to have furnished plans to the British and Portuguese governments for the operations of the peninsular war; and he received a pension from the British government, upon which he lived to a very advanced age. It is remarkable that after the restoration he was not recalled to France by Louis XVIII. In 1821 he wrote a plan of defence for the Neapolitan constitutionalists. He died in March, 1823, at Turville Park, near Henley-upon-Thames, at the age of eighty-four. (Mémoires du Général Dumouriez, written by himself; and an article in the Supplement to the 6th volume of the Biographie des Contemporains, which seems fairly and soberly written.)
DUNA, the, or in Livonian the DA-UGAVA, and in Russian the ZAPADULA, a considerable river in Western Russia, rises from several springs not far from the source of the Volga, which flow out of marshy ground in the neighbourhood of the Volkonsky forest, near the south-western confines of the government of Tver. It winds in a westsouth-westerly direction, nearly parallel with the Dnieper, until it has passed Vitepsk, *...* navigable for flat-bottomed craft at Valisch, or Velige, above Vitepsk. Thence, forming the boundary between the governments of Polotsk and Minsk, as well as those of Livonia and Vilna, it turns to the north-west, and near Dünsburg flows almost due north until it reaches the point where it begins to constitute the frontier between Livonia and Courland; from that point it continues its course west-north-west to Dünamünde, below Riga, where it falls into that arm of the Baltic called the Gulf of Riga, in 57° N. lat. The entire course of the Düna, inclusive of its windings, is about 655 miles; its length in a straight line from the source to the mouth is about 325 miles. Güldenstädt states that the fall of its waters is, in the upper part of its course, one foot in every 2000 fathoms, and in its passage through the lower part, where the land is more level, six inches in every 2000 fathoms, its average fall being six inches in every four versts (about 23 miles). The navigable portion of the Düna, namely, from Velige to Dünamünde is about 405 miles in length, but the navigation, owing to the variableness of its depth, which ranges from two to four fathoms, to its shallows, and to a stratum of rock, which runs across its bed just above Riga, and the sandbanks at its mouth, is extremely difficult, and even dangerous, for vessels of any size. Its course above Riga, indeed, is not practicable for any but the flat-bottomed craft called Strusen. At Riga its breadth is about 3000 feet. . In the spring the surface is covered with rafts, logs, and planks, which are thus floated down from the forests of Livonia, Lithuania, and Semigallia, as well as the more westerly provinces which it passes through. It contains several islands, and abounds in fish. The tributaries of the Düna greatly augment its waters, though they are not of any great length: the chief of these are the Toroptsa, which is navigable from Toropecz to its mouth, a distance of about 60 miles; the Ulla, which flows out of lake Beloye, and is navigable for about 56 miles; the Kasplia, which is navigable from Poritsch, about 110 miles from its mouth; the Ewst, Meshna, and Disna, the last of which rises in the government of Vilna; and the Bolder-Aa, which flows past Mittau, then skirts the southern shore of the gulf of Riga, and ultimately falls into the Düna just above its mouth. The Narofma, which joins the Düna on its right bank, can be regarded only as an outlet for lake Peipus, and is from 37 to 42 miles in length. The basin of the Düna comprehends an area of about 28,350 square miles.
DUNABURG, the chief town of a circle in the northwestern part of the government of Witepsk in Western Russia, and formerly the capital of Polish Livonia. It lies on the right bank of the Düna, and on both sides of the Shunitzee, which flows into it; in 55°53' N. lat; and 26° 24' E. long. It was founded in 1277 by the Knights of the sword, and while attached to the Polish crown was the residence of a bishop, voyvode, and castellan. At the prosent day it is become of great military importance, from the strength which has been given to its fortifications, Dinaburg contains a Greek and two Roman Catholic churches, and a synagogue, a suppressed Jesuits college, and a population of about 4200. It has three fairs in the course of the year, and carries on considerable trade. DUNBAR. [HADDINGTON.] DUNBAR, WILLIAM, is supposed to have been a grandson of Sir Patrick Dunbar, of Beil, in the shire of Haddington. This Sir Patrick Dunbar was a younger son of George, tenth earl of March. He was thus also a younger brother of George, eleventh earl, who was attainted in an arbitrary manner, and had his possessions forfeited by King James I. in the palliament held at Perth on the 10th of January, 1434-5; and it appears that Dunbar, being involved in the common ruin of the house, lived in a state of great dependence without any patrimonial inheritance. he path of ambition in those days, and the road to wealth and honours, was the church, to which Dunbar was destined from his earliest years. In 1475 he was sent to the university of St. Andrews, where he passed bachelor of arts, in St. Salvator's college there, in 1477; and in 1479 master of arts. He afterwards entered the monastic order of St. Francis; and in the habit of a friar travelled not only throughout the south of Scotland, but also into England and on the continent. From his writings we learn that he was frequently employed abroad in the king's service, but in what capacity does not precisely appear. It was in all likelihood as a clerk in some of the numerous missions despatched by King James IV. to foreign courts. Of his own fidelity to his royal master on these occasions he entertained a tolerably high opinion; and few opportunities escaped of his reminding the king of the nature and extent of his services, with not merely distant hints, but direct intimations of the propriety of a recompense. It was no doubt with a view to this, but partly also, and perhaps mainly, to remunerate his higher labours of the intellect and fancy, to reward his literary merit, and to attach him to the person of the king, that, on the 15th of August, 1500, he had a grant from his majesty of an annual provision of 101. during his life, or until he should be promoted to a benefice of the value of 40l. or more yearly. In the year 1501 he was again in England, probably in the train of the ambassadors who were sent thither to conclude the negotiations for the king's marriage. The preparations for this marriage began on the 4th of May, 1503; and upon the 9th of that month Dunbar composed his poem of “The Thistle and the Rose,” a rich and elegant allegory in celebration of the union. On the 7th of March following he said mass for the first time in the royal presence, and received a liberal gift as the king's offering on the occasion. In the year 1505 he also received a sum from the king in addition to his stated pension; and both that year and the next a sum equal each time to his half-yearly allowance in lieu of his “vule-gown. In 1507 his pension was doubled; and besides occasional marks of the royal bounty, he had a letter under the privy seal in August, 1510, increasing the sum to fourscore pounds a year, and until he should be promoted to a benefice of 100l. or upwards. This allowance he continued to receive, with other gifts, till the time of the king's death at Flodden in September, 1513, after which we find no farther mention of Dunbar's name in the treasurer's account, or other like records. He is supposed to have died about the year 1520. Whether he at last obtained the great object of his desires does not appear. His remaining works do not show that he ever did. On the contrary, they contain many supplications for a benefice, and many lamentations for the want of one; and the various forms and character of these pieces display not a little of that fertility of invention by which Dunbar is distinguished. He seizes every occasion and seems to exhaust every expedient to rouse the king to bestow upon him the long-cherished wish of his heart. A singular one is the poetical address to the king by Dunbar in the person of “an auld grey horse worn out in the royal service, and to the petition is appended the king's reply, written, as it seems, by Dunbar himself, in the hope, no doubt, that the king would adopt it as his own. In modern orthography the reply runs thus:–
* After our writings, treasurer,
Dunbar's writings now extant are not numerous, but they exhibit an amazing versatility of genius, from grave to gay, from witty to severe. At one time we find him the sober moralist supporting the weak, instructing the ignorant, warning the rash; at another, indulging in all the immodesty of licentiousness. But it is, in description that he shows his various powers most conspicuously. Thus, in his ‘Golden Terge,’ as in ‘The Thistle and the Rose, we have imagery brilliant and dazzling. In the “Dance of the Deadly Sins in Hell,” the same creative hand appears. “The Feigned Friar of Tungland. and “The Justs between the Taylor and the Souter' display the same power of vividly portraying character, mingled with bitter sarcasm and biting satire. And in the doggerel lines ‘On James Doig' we see the burly wardrobe-keeper pass before us, and feel
"His gang gars all the chalmer schog."
The existence of Dunbar's works is a signal proof of the immortality of real merit. We know not at what precise time he was born, nor when he died; his very name, it has been remarked, is, with one solitary exception, not to be met with in the whole compass of our literature for 200 years, and it is only after the lapse of three centuries that his poems have been collected and published; and yet he now once more stands forth as one of the very greatest of Scotland's poets.
DUNCAN, ADAM, was born July 1, 1731, at Dundee, of which his father was provost in 1745. By the mother's side he was descended, through the Haldanes of Gleneagles, from the earls of Lennox and Menteith. He entered the navy in 1746, was made post-captain in 1761, and distinguished himself in several actions, especially at that of Cape St. Vincent. In 1787 he became a rear-admiral, and seven years afterwards was appointed to command in the North Seas. In this service he watched the mouth of the Texel, where a large Dutch fleet lay at the time of the mutiny at the Nore. By skilful manoeuvring, although deserted by every ship except one (Adamant, 50), he detained them until he was joined by the rest of the fleet, and, on their leaving port, cut off their retreat and brought them to action at Camperdown, where he captured nine sail of the line and two frigates. For this service Admiral Duncan was created a viscount and received the thanks of parliament. He died suddenly, August 4th, 1804. By his lady, the daughter of Lord President, Dundas, he left two sons and several daughters. His eldest son was created earl of Camperdown, at the coronation of William IV. His youngest, Sir Henry Duncan, was principal storekeeper to the Board of Ordnance, and died in 1833.
DUNDEE, a large seaport town and parish of Scotland, on the north shore of the Frith of Tay, in the shire of Forfar. The parish extends 6 miles along the shore, and is from 1 to 4 miles in breadth. The town is in 56° 27' N. lat. and 3° 3' W. long., 42 miles north-north-west from Edinburgh. It stands on a gentle acclivity rising from the water-edge towards a high hill at the back, called the Law.
The antient Gaelic name, still used by the Highlanders, is Ail-lec (beautiful). In the Latin annals of Hector Boethius it is Alectum. Buchanan names it Taodunum (hill of the Tay), and in several antient records it is variously called Dondé, Dondie, and Donum Dei. The place, from a fishing village, became a fortress with walls, gates, and castle, and was the residence of several kings of Scotland. In various civil wars it suffered severely, and was repeatedly plundered and burned : however, it always speedily recovered from these disasters, and has long been noted as a place of commercial opulence and prosperity. When, in 1645, it was sacked and burned, it was one of the richest towns in Scotland; and when, after a siege of six weeks, it was taken by Cromwell's officer, General Monk, sixty vessels in the harbour were laden with the spoil, and each soldier's share was 60l. The commerce of Dundee has been remarkable for its successive adoption of different speculations. About forty years ago leather was a principal article, and 7000l. worth of shoes were annually exported. This trade is now extinct. At one time seven companies successfully prosecuted the cotton manufacture, which was succeeded by woollens; but the permanently prosperous commerce and trade of this town have been