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as Ryhope Dean, Seaham Dean, Dalton Dean, Hawthorn Dean, Castle Eden Dean, and Hasledon Bean. The river navigation of Durham, comprehending only the lower waters of the Wear and of the border rivers Tyne and Tees, is confined to the castern side of the county. There
are no canals or artificial cuts, except one, already noticed,
made to shorten the winding course of the Tees. The mail-road to Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Inverness, and the north of Scotland, crosses this county from south into north. It enters it at Croft Bridge over the Tees, and passes through Darlington, 241 miles from town, Durham (259 miles), Chester-le-Street (265 miles), and Gateshead (272 miles), where it quits the county, crossing the Tyne to Northumberland. There are two other roads from London to Durham city: they branch off from the Glasgow and Carlisle mail-road at Scotch Corner in Yorkshire, and enter the county by Pierce Bridge over the Tees (239 miles from London). Here they divide, the right-hand road passing through the villages of Heighington and Eldon, and the left-hand road through Bishop Auckland (2484 miles from London). They reunite a few miles beyond Bishop Auckland and fall in with the Edinburgh mail-road near Sunderland Bridge, over the Wear, about four miles before reaching Durham (259 miles). . #. road from London to Sunderland branches off from the Edinburgh mail-road at Thirsk in Yorkshire, and proceeding by Yarm, upon leaving that town crosses the Tees into the county of Durham, and proceeds forward to Stockton (2414 miles from London), and from thence to Sunderland, 26.8% miles. At Bishop Wearmouth, which is a suburb of Sunderland, where the road turns off to enter that town, a branch proceeding forward runs to South Shields at the mouth of the Tyne (275 miles). From this branch road another branch to the left leads to Gateshead, forming a communication (13 miles) between Sunderland and Newcastle. From Durham roads lead to Sunderland (distant 13 miles), through Bishop Wearmouth; and by Bishop Auckland (distant 10 miles), and Staindrop (19 miles), to Barnard Castle (24 miles). From Barnard Castle (245 or 246 miles from London) a road leads along the valley of the Tees, by Middleton in Teasdale (distant 9% miles) to Aldstone Moor in Cumberland; and from Darlington, one by West Auckland (distant 9 miles), Wolsingham (20 miles), and Stanhope (26 miles), along the valley of the Wear to the same town. From Wolsingham a road runs northward to Hexham in Northumberland and another to Gateshead. From Gateshead a road runs along the south side of the Tyne valley to Hexham. Other roads do not require notice. Durham has numerous rail-roads, most of which have been constructed by the coal owners for the conveyance of coals from the pits to the rivers Tyne and Wear, where they are shipped. Acts of parliament have been obtained for two more extensive rail-ways; one, the Stockton and Darlington, extending from Wilton Park colliery, west of Bishop Auckland, by a circuitous line past Darlington to Stockton, and from thence across the Tees by a suspension bridge, and by the side of the navigable cut made in the Tees to Middlesburgh and Cleveland Port on that river; with various branches: the other, the Clarence rail-road, from the Stockton and Darlington rail-road, a few miles north of Darlington, by a more direct course to the northern bank of the Tees below Stockton, with a branch to the city of Durham, and some subordinate branches. The various acts for the Stockton and Darlington rail-road were obtained in 18211828; those for the Clarence rail-road in 1828-1829. The estimated length of the former, including its branches, is about 38 miles; of the latter, nearly 46. Geological character.—The lower part of the valley of the Tees, from the junction of the Skerne, and the coast from the mouth of the Tees to Hartlepool, are occupied by the red marl or new red sandstone, the uppermost of the formations which are found in the county. Among the strata of the formation a fine-grained sandstone of a brickred colour predominates. Some attempts have been made to find coal by boring through the red marl, but without success, though the pits were sunk to the depth of more than 700 feet. At Dinsdale, near Croft Bridge, where one of these attempts was made, the strata were found to be numerous, and to consist, as far as could be judged from the miners' language, of white, grey or red sandstone, with occasional partings of a more compact nature, red or blue shale, coaly matter in thin layers, and gypsum in nodules or in beds, which in one case were three feet thick: the P. C., No. 557.
lowest bed in the two deepest workings was found to be a strong white rock of a calcareous nature. Sulphureted springs are found in this strata: one of them arose from a perforation made in boring for coal. (Mr. Winch, Geol. Trans.) . The newer magnesian or conglomerate limestone crops out from beneath the north-western limit of the red marl: it extends along the coast to the mouth of the Tyne, and along the valley of the Tees to the junction of Staindrop. Beck with the Tees, between Darlington and Barnard Castle: its inland boundary is a line drawn southward from the mouth of the Tyne, gradually diverging from the coast-line to the village of Coxhoe, between Durham and Stockton; and from thence south-west to the Tees. This limestone forms a range of round-topped hills along the coast, of small elevation, the highest §o. near the Wear) being estimated at only 400 feet. The upper stratum of the limestone here is a species of breccia, with which wide chasms or interruptions in the cliff are filled: the next strata are thin and slaty, of a white colour inclining to buff; but lower down the stratification becomes indistinct, the rock is of a crystalline and cellular texture, and of a light-brown colour. The brown variety is quarried near Sunderland: it partakes of the nature of limestone, and from containing some inflammable matter requires only a small quantity of coal to be reduced to lime. Some of it, which takes a tolerably good polish, is sold as marble. The thickness of the limestone formation varies. At Pallion, near Sunderland, it is only about seventy feet thick; but this is near the north-western or under boundary: near Hartlepool it has been bored to the depth of more than 300 feet without penetrating through it. Along the coast the strata dip to the south-east. Galena is the only ore that Mr. inch observed in this limestone, and few organic remains are found in it. Botryoidal masses (i. e. masses like a cluster of grapes) of fetid limestone, devoid of magnesia, in balls varying from the size of a pea to two feet in diameter, imbedded in a soft, marly, magnesian limestone, are found near Hartlepool. There are caverns and perforated rocks in this formation along the coast, which appear to have been formed by the action of the sea. Under the article CoAL-FIELDs the reader will find a general description of the coal-field of Northumberland and Durham. The following remarks apply more particularly to the county of Durham. Of the dykes of basalt or greenstone which intersect the coal measures, one crosses the Tyne into Durham county, near the Walker colliery, and another crosses the bed of the Wear at Butterby, near Durham. In the south part of the county is a remarkable basaltic dyke, extending several miles from Cockfield to Bolam, where the coal measures dip beneath the newer magnesian limestone: a dyke of similar kind and in iust the same line intersects the new red sandstone or red marl, and crosses the bed of the Tees near Yarm into Yorkshire. “I have never been able,” says Mr. Winch, to trace any of these basaltic veins into the magnesian limestone, and am almost certain that, together wit other members of the coal formation, they are covered by it.” In Mr. Greenough's Geological Map of England and Wales the Cockfield dyke and that which crosses the Tees are represented as parts of one vast dyke, extending from the upper valley of the Tees near Eglestone, through the millstone grit and limestone shale (or, as it is laid down in Mr. Winch's map, the mountain limestone), the coal measures, the newer conglomerate or magnesian limestone, the red sandstone, the lias, and the inferior oolite, in all sixtyfive miles in an east-south-east direction, to the Yorkshire coast, between Scarborough and Whitby. The coal in contact with the dyke is charred and reduced to cinder; and the sulphur is sublimed from the pyrites near. A belt of trap rocks is marked in Mr. Greenough's map as extending across the coal measures in Bedlingtonshire. Besides the fissures filled with basalt, others of a different nature intersect the coal-field: these, if large, are also called dykes; but, if small, “troubles,” “slips,” or “hitches,’ and by some geologists ‘faults:' by these “faults' the strata are thrown, i.e. raised on one side or depressed on the other, many feet. Other irregularities are observed in the coal measures, such as the depression below their proper level of large wedgeshaped portions of the strata; fissures which divide the strata, but do not alter their level; basin-formed depressions in the floors of the seams, called 'swellies' by the miners, by which the coal is materially thickened, the roof of the seam preserving its regularity §. ‘nips,' where the OL o To
coal nearly disappears, the roof, and the floor of the seam coming almost into contact. Mineral springs are found in various parts of the coal-field, and chalybeate springs occur in every part of it. The coal-field of Durham is bounded on the west by the district occupied by the millstone grit. This district extends westward up the valley of the Tees to Eglestone, and is bounded by a line drawn from thence northward to Bollihope Beck, along that stream to the Wear above Wolsingham, and from thence north-west to the Derwent at Blanchland. The millstone grit extends northward into Northumberland, skirting the west side of the coal-field; and southward into Yorkshire, where it extends between the districts occupied by the newer magnesian or conglomerate limestone and the carboniferous or mountain limestone. The beds of this formation may be estimated at 900 feet thick; and this is probably short of the truth. “The prevailing rock of this series is shale, known by the provincial name of “plate,” with which various, beds of sandstone, differing in hardness and texture, and, according to these differences, distinguished as freestone, hazle, whetstone, grindstone, and millstone, occur: , of the latter only one bed is worked, the thickness of which is about thirty feet. This is one of the uppermost strata on the Derwent, where it crops out, and does not occur farther west.’ (Phillips and Conybeare, Outlines of the Geol. of England and Wales.) The millstone bed is quarried on Muggleswick Fell, and between Wolsingham and Stanhope in Weardale. The grey millstones of Muggleswick are employed for grinding rye. Towards the lower part of this formation two thin beds of limestone occur, alternating with some occasional seams of coal. These coal measures are distinguished by their thus alternating with limestone from those of the principal coal formation. The remainder of the county, west of the district occupied by the millstone grit, is occupied by the carboniferous, or mountain limestone. The limestone beds in this formation repeatedly alternate with beds of siliceous grit and slateclay, to which they bear not so great a proportion as one to three, so that it is not very easy to draw the line of demarcation between the beds of this formation and those of the millstone grit. Mr. Winch, from whose account we have largely borrowed, classes both formations under the common designation of the lead-mine measures. He estimates their joint thickness at from about 2700 ft. to 2750 ft., and the aggregate thickness of the limestone beds at 576 ft. : deducting the thickness of the millstone glit as given above, that of the mountain limestone will be about 1800 ft. or 1850 ft., of which the limestone beds amount to 370 ft.: this includes about 250 ft. of sandstone and slate-clay, lying immediately above the old red sandstone, which is the formation subjacent to the mountain limestone. The limestone beds are the most characteristic of this formation, and the most important to the miner. The bed called “the great limestone' is from sixty to nearly seventy feet thick, and consists of three strata, divided by indurated clay. It is the uppermost bed in this formation, and crops out at Frosterly, in Weardale, between Wolsingham and Stanhope, where it is quarried in large quantities for agricultural uses and building cement, or for ornamental purposes: it is a brownish-black or dark bluish-grey marble, in which bivalve shells are imbedded. “The scar limestone,’ a lower bed, thirty feet thick, is divided into three strata like the great limestone, which it also resembles both in colour and organic remains. “The Tyne-bottom limestone,’ above twenty feet thick, is also divided into three strata: “Robinson's great limestone' is above eighty feet thick. All the limestones of this formation appear to contain the encrinus, and most of them also bivalve shells: one of them (the cockleshell limestone) contains oyster shells of four or five inches diameter. They seem to agree in every essential character, as well as in their extraneous and native fossils. The beds of sandstone which occur in this formation are thicker than those in the millstone grit: they are thickest towards the bottom of the series. The beds of shale, or, as it is called, ‘plate,’ are very numerous: they are seldom so much as forty feet in thickness, but one bed is sixty feet. Iron pyrites, imbedded in shale, is found in abundance; but owing to the high price of fuel and the great distance from any seaport, cannot be manufactured into green vitriol with any advantage. Clay ironstone is found in Teasdale; but there are no iron works in this county. The carboniferous limestone is the great depository of the
metallic veins of the district which comprehends the great Northumberland and Durham coal-field. Lead mines abound in Weardale and in Teasdale Forest, and there are a few in the valley of the Derwent. Of the fissures which contain the lead ore, such as range from north to south are called ‘cross veins, or sometimes dykes;’ they are generally of great magnitude, but yield very little ore: those fissures which run from south-east to north-west are most productive; they are from three to six feet wide. These cut through the cross veins, which are frequently rendered productive to some distance from the points of intersection. The hade of the veins is variable in direction and in degree: where those in Weardale point east and west, they hade to the south : the strata are elevated on the side to which the veins dip. The same vein is productive in different degrees according to the bed which it traverses: the limestones are the chief depositories of ore, particularly ‘the great limestone,’ which is considered to contain as much as all the other beds put together: next to the limestones, the strata of sandstones called ‘ hazels' are to be ranked in point of productiveness, but the lead-bearing veins appear to be compressed between these hard beds. Galena is the only lead ore procured in abundance from this formation; but white and steel-grained ore are occasionally found: silver is contained in the ore in different proportions, varying from two to forty-two ounces in the fother of 21 cwts.: twelve ounces may be considered as the general average, and if eight can be obtained, the lead is worth refining. Newcastle and Stockton are the ports at which lead is shipped. (Geological Transactions, vol. iv.; Conybeare and Phillips, Outlines of the Geol. of England and Wales.) Agriculture.—The climate of the county of Durham is mild for its northern situation. The sea, which bounds it on the east, moderates the cold in winter; and the surface, being hilly without any considerable mountains, presents many sheltered valleys, the climate of which nearly resembles that of the more southern parts of the island. The soil varies in different parts; its general nature is that of a rather strong loam. In the south-eastern part of the county northward from the mouth of the Tees, is a tract several miles in breadth, stretching along the coast towards Hartlepool, where the stiff loam is rich and productive. Next to this, to the east and north, to within a few miles of Sunderland, is a very poor thin clay, with a very hard and impervious subsoil, on which neither corn nor grass will thrive without great labour and expense. Westward of this lies a strip of excellent loam on a limestone rock, which affords the soundest pastures and the best grass, and is fit for any kind of crop. In the centre of the county there is a moist clay loam, of moderate quality, on an ochre subsoil, which gradually becomes peaty, and joins the western portion of the county towards Cumberland and Westmoreland, the whole of which last-mentioned part of the county is a poor peat or moor, chiefly covered with heath. From Barnard Castle to Darlington there is a strip bounded by the Tees on the south, which consists of a dry loam intermixed with clay. In this there are some good pastures and productive farms. In the valleys of the Tees, Skerne, Tyne, and their tributary streams, the soil is in general above the average of the district around, and consists of a good friable loam, which is cultivated at a small expense, and under good management is sufficiently profitable to the occupier. A great part of the county lay at one time in open commons and common fields, most of which are now divided and enclosed. The moors and heaths that remain are chiefly in the poor district to the westward, and even there cultivation has spread very generally; and the wastes are profitable, in some degree, by rearing a hardy breed of sheep and cattle. The of state of cultivation throughout the county is above mediocrity; and improvements have been more readily adopted than in some more southern parts of the island. Fallows are found indispensable on the cold wet clays; but wherever turnips can be raised this useful root supersedes the old summer fallow. The fallows are usually dressed with lime, which is no doubt a proper application on cold, clay soils; but the use of it has become so customary (being inserted as a condition in many leases), and is so erroneously considered as a substitute for dung, that it is often applied injudiciously, and with little or no advantage. In many old leases there was a clause to oblige the tenant to lay all his farm-yard manure on the old grass land, which effectually prevented the improvement of the
arable part of the farm.
Lime being thought a sufficient manure for the arable land, the consequence was the gradual deterioration of the latter, without a proportional improvement of the meadows. But a better system has been introduced. The lime is now usually put on when old grass land is broken up or converted; and where arable land has been repeatedly limed, good rich dung is found to be more profitably employed, when ploughed in, than when used as a top-dressing for grass. There is little or no marl found in the county. The rotation usually adopted on the better soils includes two or three years of grass, and begins invariably with turnips, well manured, and drilled according to the Northumberland method. [DRILLING..] The convertible husbandry described in the account of the agriculture of BERwickshire is very generally adopted by the best farmers, and found most profitable in the end. The occupations are not, in general, very large. There are some few extensive farms; but the average size is from 150 to 200 acres of inclosed land. There are many small occupations of 40 and 50 acres, which is as small a farm as can be cultivated with profit, unless the spade husbandry be adopted, which is not yet done to any extent in this county. The implements of husbandry have nothing peculiar in them. The ploughs are chiefly of the improved kind: the old heavy clumsy ploughs are scarcely ever, seen in use. Horses are almost exclusively used for agricultural purposes; and an ox team is a rarity. It is found that oxen are more profitable when fatted at a young age for the butcher, than when used to work on the farm. Threshing-mills are common, and there is not in the northern counties that foolish prejudice of the ignorant labourers, which made many of them rise to destroy threshing-machines in more southern counties, and which still prevents the use of them where they would be highly advantageous, not only to the farmer, but also to the labourer, who would then not so often suffer the pains of rheumatism in his old age, the consequence of the continued exertions of his limbs on the threshing-floor. Corn is sown by the drilling-machine wherever the soil is sufficiently friable, or is made so by good tillage. In heavy soils the broadcast method of sowing still prevails. There are many rich upland meadows and permanent pastures, where cattle and horses are bred to great advantage, and where oxen and sheep are fattened by grazing; but there are very few water-meadows, although there are many situations where they might very easily be established. The quantity of hay on the upland meadows is on an average 1% tons per acre: 2 tons is considered a heavy crop. They have a method of drawing together the cocks of hay, when it is fit to be stacked, which saves the loading on waggons. This is done by means of a wooden frame drawn by two horses. This frame is held in an oblique position, and partly drawn under the cock so as to scrape the surface and force the hay upwards. It slides on the mown grass, and is drawn to the stack, which is made to contain ten or twenty tons. It is but slightly thatched when completed: several small stacks used formerly to be laced in various parts of a large piece of grass land, and in winter the eattle were left in the fields, and pulled the hay out of the staeks all around, sheltering themselves near them. This was a great waste of hay, and a very unequal distribution of the minure. A better system prevails now, and the cattle are kept in yards, where the dung is more carefully collected and increased with straw, and where the hay is brought as it is cut out of the stack, by which means none of it is wasted. The best meadows are mown every year, and manured every third or fourth year. Some prefer mowing and feeding alternately, which keeps the land in good heart and the herbage fine. Horses are generally considered as detrimental to the pasture; their manure is too hot, and brings coarse weeds forward. Sheep greatly improve the pastures, and are in consequence preferred. When grass land is ploughed up and converted into arable, the practice of paring and burning the surface is very generally adopted. The first crop after this is generally turnips, which seldom fail when sown with freshburnt ashes. The next crop is wheat or oats; after which, if the soil is very stiff, a clean fallow succeeds: if it is Iighter, another crop of turnips, which brings the land in a proper state for a regular course. This appears to be a most excellent practice, and far superior to the old Devonshire plan of taking as many crops of corn, after burning the sod, as can be made to grow. When the surface is not
burnt, the usual course is to plough the up in autumn, and let it lie all the winter to rot: it is then ploughed again in spring, and sown with oats: the next year it is fallowed, and prepared for the course which is thought to suit the nature of the soil. This county is not remarkable for its gardens or orchards, The soil and climate are not very favourable to fruit-trees, and, except in the gardens of gentlemen of fortune, they are not much attended to. There are some good oak woods, and many new plantations, where the tenure is freehold. Where it is copyhold, under the bishop of Durham, one-third of the timber, above what is required for repairs of buildings, belongs to the bishop, which is an insurmountable obstacle to planting— and where the land is held on lease, renewable every seven years on an uncertain fine, every improvement increases the sum demanded. Many of these lands have been enfranchised by Act of Parliament, with the consent of the bishop; but many still remain on the old tenure. The cattle bred in the county of Durham are in great repute all over England and Scotland, and a great number are annually purchased at the different fairs in this county, and driven northward and southward. The Teeswater or Holderness breed is the finest of the short-horns. The cows are remarkable for the quantity of milk which they give, as well as their aptitude to fatten. The oxen are considered as the most profitable breed for stall-feeding, as they become fit for the butcher at an earlier age than most other breeds. The milkmen near London and other large towns scarcely ever have any but Durham cows, some of which will give twenty-five to thirty quarts of milk per day for several months. When they become dry they increase so fast in flesh and fat, that they are soon very advantageously disposed of. They are of a quiet disposition, and bear to be kept continually tied up in stalls; and they accommodate themselves readily to every kind of food, whether it be grass or hay, roots, grains, or distillers' wash.
This breed came originally from Holland, as is asserted, and
this appears probable: but it has been much improved by a careful selection of bulls to breed with. This may be attributed to a few skilful and zealous breeders. The famous Durham ox at ten years old weighed alive 34 cwt. He was slaughtered at eleven years old, in consequence of an accident by which he dislocated his hip joint; and although wasted by being eight weeks in great pain, his carcase produced 165 stones 12 lbs. net meat (1.4 lbs. to the stone), and above 21 stones of hide and tallow. In June, 1801, when he was five years old, the proprietor refused 2000l. for him, and made a great deal of money by showing him all over the kingdom for six years. (Bailey's Agricultural Pieu of the County of Durham.)
The milk of the Holderness cows, although abundant, is not so rich in cream as that of some of the smaller breeds. But quantity and quality are seldom united, and the dairymen who make butter or cheese prefer cows of different breeds, which give rich milk, but do not get fat so readily.
The horses bred in this county are of a superior description, both for draught and for the saddle. The Cleveland bays are preferred for their vigour and activity. For farming work and drawing loads of coal or lime few horses surpass them. A good horse will draw in a cart nearly a ton of coals from the distance of thirty, and even thirty-five miles, over hilly and rough roads; going and returning in the twenty-four hours, without any considerable rest, and often without being out of harness the whole time: he will do this three times in the week, and do light jobs the other days. Horses can take longer journeys in hilly countries than in flat, without being distressed, as is well known. Hunters of superior power are produced by crossing strong active mares with blood horses which have great bone as well as spirit; or better, by having a breed produced by selected half-bred stallions and mares. A good hunter is a more valuable horse for the breeder than a race-horse, which may prove a prize hereafter, but seldom remunerates the breeder for his risk and trouble.
The young stock are kept in rich and extensive Hos. where they have plenty of food and good was...a..."
- irr oc culiarly adapted
pastures on the limestone rock are pool. to, No rear horses, the sound soil being very advantag Q tue
roper hardness of the hoof. p #. was once a very large breed of ‘. "...out. eastern part of the county, which boo" o, E. : ** au) when killed often weighed from 50 lbs. to 60 lbs. the quarter. But the improved Leicester breed has nearly superseded them, as being more profitable, and fattening at an earlier age. There is a small and hardy species of sheep on the heaths and moors, which is similar to those found in other counties on the same description of land. They cost little to maintain, and produce little, but when fatted at four or five years old, the flesh is rich and delicate. There are some very large fairs held in the county: the following are the chief:Durham fair, on the 21st of March ; a great fair for horsos, which continues a week; one of the principal horsefairs in the north. On the Saturday before the 12th of May, cattle and horses, and hiring servants; Whitsun-eye, cattle, horses, sheep; 15th of September, horses and cattle; Darlington, first Monday in March, a great fair for cattle, horses, sheep; Whitsun Monday, ditto; Monday fortnight after Whit Sunday, cattle, sheep; Barnard Castle, Easter Monday, Whitsun Monday, Maudlin-day (2nd of August), cattle, horses; Bishop Auckland, Thursday before Ascension day; Corpus Christi day, Thursday before 10th of October; South Shields, 24th of June, 1st of September, holiday fair; Sunderland, May 13th, October 11th, ditto; Hartleool, May 14th, November 27th; Stockton, July 18th, M.A. after October 13th: Wolsingham, May 18th, September 21st. There are weekly markets at Durham, Wolsingham, South Shields, Barnard Castle, Stockton, Bishop Auckland, Sunderland, and Staindrop. Divisions, Towns, &c.—The county of Durham is a county palatine, i.e., a county within which some lord had a jurisdiction as fully as the king had in his palace;' but a late Act of Parliament having transferred the palatinate jurisdiction from the bishop of Durham, by whom it was long held, to the crown, the distinction has been for most practical purposes abolished. Like the other three northern counties, Durham is divided, not into hundreds, but into wards: of these wards there are four, as follows:– I. Chester ward, which occupies the northern part of the county: it is bounded on the north by the Tyne and Derwent rivers, on the east by the sea, on the south-east and south by the Wear, the Derness Beck, and a line drawn from the junction of the Hedley and Derness Becks to Shorngate Cross, on Cross Ridge. Above a fourth of the land in this ward is heath. II. Darlington ward, which extends from the boundary of Chester ward to the boundary of the county on the west and south : it is bounded on the east by an irregular line drawn from the junction of the Croxdale #. with the Wear, to the junction of the Skerne and the Tees: a large proportion (four-ninths) of the land in this ward is heath. III. Easington ward, which is bounded on the north by Chester ward, on the west by Darlington ward, on the east by the sea, and on the south by a line drawn from Croxdale Beck eastward to the sea. IV. Stockton ward, which occupies the remaining portion of the county. Islandshire, Norhamshire, and Bedlingtonshire, which are usually termed ‘the north bishopric,’ are included in Chester ward: Craike is included in Stockton ward. Chester and Darlington wards are further subdivided into three divisions each, beside the outlying portions of the county which the former comprehends; Easington and Stockton into two divisions each. The area and population of these divisions are given in the population returns for 1831 as follows:—
The county includes one city, Durham on the Wear; seven borough towns, viz. –Auckland (Bishop), on the Wear, in Darlington ward, pop. 2859: Barnard Castle, on the Tees, in Darlington ward, pop. 4430: Darlington on the Skerne, in Darlington ward, pop. 94.17: Gateshead on the Tyne, in Chester ward, pop. 15177: Hartlepool on the Sea, in Stockton ward, pop. 1330: Stockton, on the Tees, in Stockton ward, pop. 7763; and Sunderland, at the mouth of the Wear, in Easington ward. To these we may add the new parliamentary borough of South Shields on the Tyne, in Chester ward, pop. 18,756. Some of these are described elsewhere. [Auckland, BARNARD Castle, DURHAM (CITY), GATEsh EAD, SHIELDs (South), Stockton, and SUNDERLAND..] Of the remainder, as well as of the four market-towns of Sedgefield, Staindrop, Stanhope, and Wolsingham, an account is here i.
Darlington is in a rich fertile country on the banks of the Skerne, 241 miles from London, and about 18 from Durham. The parish contains 7630 acres: it had, in 1831, 1347 inhabited houses and a population of 94.17. The parish is subdivided into four townships, of which that of Darlington with Oxenhall, or Oxneyfield (3470 acres, 1192 inhabited houses and 8574 inhabitants) contains the town. Darlington is situated on the eastern slope of a hill, at the foot of which the river flows, and consists of a square market-place, of which the church forms the eastern side, and several streets, or as they are designated ‘gates,’ branching from it. A bridge of three arches over the Skerne, near the church, communicates with the Yarm and Stockton roads. The church, dedicated to St. Cuthbert, is a cross church with a central tower, surmounted by a light spire. It is very antient, except the east end of the chancel and the spire, which are modern : the interior also is so blocked up with modern screens and galleries that the shape of the church is very imperfectly seen. The general character of the architecture is early English, some portions so early as to appear almost of Norman character: the west end, where is the principal entrance, and the ends of the north and south transepts, are fine compositions; the doors are plain but good. In the chancel are three stone stalls of a date considerably later than the walls of the chancel. The church was formerly collegiate; the principal clergyman was called dean. The college was dissolved in 1550, and the whole of the revenues vested in the crown, except a small stipend reserved for the officiating minister: the church lands, subject to some crown rents, are now vested in the duke of Cleveland, who is patron of the benefice, a perpetual curacy worth 274l. per annum. A former manor-house of the bishop of Durham is yet standing: after having been much neglected during the last century it was purchased of the see and converted into a parish work-house. The old toll-booth was removed and the present town-hall erected a few years ago. (Surtees's Hist. Of Durham. London, 1823.) There are places of worship for Catholics, Methodists, and Protestant Dissenters.
he trade of Darlington is considerable: for a long period
the principal manufactures were of camblets and other woollens: fifty years ago moreens and other like stuffs were made: the woollen manufacture was superseded in a great degree by that of linens, as huckabacks, diapers, sheetings, and checks; but this branch of industry has also experienced a declension, and the chief occupation of the inhabitants now is combing wool and making woollen yarn (which is applicable for imitation India shawls, Brussels carpets, &c.), spinning, flax, grinding optical glasses, and founding iron. The market is on Monday for corn and provisions of all kinds; there is a great market for cattle every fortnight. The population .#the town has increased considerably within the present century: in 1801 there were only 4670 inhabitants. The Darlington and Stockton railway has been already noticed. , Darlington is a municipal borough by prescription: its privileges are at least as old as the 12th century: it is governed by a bailiff, who is appointed by the bishop: the limits of the borough comprehend only a part of the town.
The township of Darlington had, in 1833, one infantschool with 50 or 60 children; a well-endowed grammarschool, founded by Queen Elizabeth, containing 53 boys and !? girls; a Lancasterian school of 148 boys with a lendin library attached; two national schools with 266 boys an 240 girls, and a lending library attached; three day-schools, partly or wholly supported by charitable contributions, with 100 girls and 7 boys; eighteen other day-schools with 257 boys and 317 girls; five boarding and day-schools with 160
to 190 children of both sexes; a boarding-school for the sons of Catholic parents, with 43 scholars; and three Sundayschools, one supported by Independents, with 70 boys and 50 girls, and two supported by Wesleyan Methodists for 282 boys and 305 girls. There are two sets of almshouses. etween Darlington and the Tees are four round pools, popularly called “Hell-kettles,” the three largest, which are near together, are nearly 120 feet in diameter and in depth 194, 17 and 14 feet respectively: the fourth, which is some way from the others, is only 28 feet in diameter and 5 or 6 deep. In all of them the water stands to the brim, and is quite cold, but impregnated with sulphur, curdling with milk, and refusing to mix with soap. Leland mentions these pits, and says that it was conjectured that there was a subterraneous communication between them and the Tees; but as they are not affected by the floods or other variations of that river, the conjecture is now discredited. -. Hartlepool is built on a small peninsula jutting out into the sea, a few miles from the Tees' mouth: the peninsula is partly formed by a pool, dry at low water, into which flows a small beck; this pool is called the Slake. In forming drains in it, human bones, trees, the wood of which was very erfect, stags' antlers, and teeth supposed to be deers' teeth, ave been found. Hartlepool is in §. ward, 253 miles from London through Stockton. The parish comprehends an area of 840 acres, and had, in 1831, 275 inhabited houses and a population of 1330. The peninsula forms one of the most marked features of the eastern coast; the town, now much decayed, is on its south-western side near the entrance of the Slake. There appears to have been a monastery early founded here, of which St. Hilda was abbess: it is mentioned by Bede. It took its name from the island which Bede calls heontu or hednicea, Hart's Water or Pool. Henry of Huntingdon calls it Insula Cervi, “Hart's Isle.' This monastery was destroyed in the invasion of the Northmen, or Danes. The Normans, when they came into possession of the place, called it Hart-le-pol, the pool or slake of Hart, whence the modern designation. It appears to have been early a harbour of some consequence, for in 1171 Hugh, earl of Bar, son or nephew to Hugh Pudsey, then bishop of Durham, brought his fleet with an armament of Flemings (forty knights with their retinues and five hundred foot soldiers), intended to assist William of Scotland in his invasion of England, into the bay of St. Hilda. In the thirteenth century, the territory of Hartlepool seems to have been in the family of De Brus of Annandale, the Bruces of Scottish history. King John, by charter A.D. 1200, erected it into a borough, and granted to Robert de Brus a weekly market and a yearly fair. In the course of the
salted for exportation. Hartlepool is a place of some resort for sea-bathing. - * The church, dedicated to St. Hilda, is on an elevated site at the south-east end of the town. It is a large and curious building, chiefly in the early English style: the south door has some late Norman enrichments. The chancel has been shortened, and various modern alterations made. . The tower on the west end is tolerably lofty, with an embattled parapet and crocketed pinnacles: it is supported by very large and bold flying buttresses. The benefice is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar of Hart (Hart is the mother church of Hartlepool), of the yearly value of 1431. There was formerly a monastery of Franciscan or Grey friars. What is now called the Friary is an old house built after the dissolution by those to whom the site was granted; but some traces of older masonry are visible in the fragments of walls which surround the friary. There are meeting-houses for Wesleyan Methodists and Ranters. The corporation is governed by a charter granted by Elizabeth. It is not enumerated in the schedules of the Municipal Reform Act. There were, in 1833, two endowed day schools and three unendowed, containing in all about 230 children; and three Sunday-schools, with 380 or 390 children. One Sundayschool has a lending library attached. The shore of the peninsula is marked by rocks or cliffs which do not exceed 40 feet in height, and by several caverns or excavations. One cavern may be explored for nearly 50 yards: there is a tradition that it communicated with the church. There are the remains of a breast-work on the town moor and of some batteries along the shore. There are two chalybeate springs near the town. When De Brus declared his pretensions to the Scottish crown, his English possessions were forfeited, and the borough of Hartlepool was granted to the Clifford family, by which it was long held. It was plundered by the Scots in 1312, and again taken by them in 1315, a year after the battle of Bannockburn: on the latter occasion the inhabitants saved part of their property on board some vessels then in the harbour. Hartlepool furnished five ships and 145 seamen to the fleet of Edward III. before Calais. In the northern rebellion under the earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, in the time of Elizabeth, Hartlepool was taken by the rebels. The Scottish army, which came to the aid of the parliamentarians in the civil war of Charles I., took Hartlepool in 1644: it was retained by them till 1647, when they evacuated it, and it was occupied by a garrison of parliamentarians. Mr. Romaine, a well-known theological writer, was born at Hartlepool. Sedgefield is in Stockton ward, on the road from Stockton
thirteenth century the walls were erected, and a small haven of" to Durham, 251 miles from London, 9 from Durham, and nearly twelve acres formed. The walls inclosed and defended 9 from Stockton. The parish contains 17,480 acres: it is
the town and haven on every side, except where the abrupt
cliffs on the eastern side of the peninsula rendered defence
needless: fifty years ago, these walls exhibited an almost perfect and interesting specimen of the defences of former times: a considerable part of them still remains. The old haven is now quite disused: the present harbour is formed by a pier run out on the south side of the town: it is the only safe harbour between Sunderland and Bridlington, easily accessible in every wind to light vessels or to laden vessels under 100 tons, which ride secure from the storms most frequent and destructive on the eastern coast, and in moderate weather can sail out with all winds. The town rises from the edge of the old haven towards the town moor, which occupies a considerable part of the peninsula, and on which the burgesses have right of common. . It consists of one principal and several smaller streets. Its general appearance, when the corporation commissioners visited it, was mean, and little trade was carried on; but they state in their report, “Wet docks are now forming under the provisions of a local act, and railways are proposed to be made from the coal-fields in the neighbourhood of the town. The formation of docks will probably make this port a considerable one. The estimate of the cost of the works commenced is 220,000l. Within the last ten months 120 new houses have been built, and others are constantly being erected. Ground for building sells at from 10s. to ll, per square yard.' From the demand for building-land the town moor is estimated to be worth 20,000l. "There is a town-hall, a mean building, erected about the middle of the last century. The market is on Saturday. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in fishing many tons of fish are
divided into seven townships. The township of Sedgefield, which comprehends the town with the hamlets of Layton, Sands, and Hardwick, has an area of 6220 acres: it had, in 1831, 309 inhabited houses, and a population of 1429; of which about half was agricultural. The population of the whole parish was 2178. Sedgefield is a small neat town, with the appearance rather of a handsome village, and stands on an eminence commanding an extensive prospect over the vale of Tees and the Yorkshire hills beyond. The church, dedicated to St. Edmund, is one of the handsomest in this part of the county: the date and style of the architecture are different in different parts: there are some curious early English piers with enriched capitals, and some Decorated windows. The tower is in the Perpendicular style, turreted, and with four pinnacles. The chancel is divided from the nave by a rich screen of old oak with three stalls on each side: the chancel is wainscoted with old oak, and stalled with seven seats on each side. The font is a handsome octagon of black marble. The church yard is spacious and shaded with trees. The living is a rectory worth 18021. per annum, with a glebe house, on the lawn in front of which are some fine evergreen oaks. The bishop of Durham is patron of the living. There is a range of almshouses near the church, founded in 1702 by Mr Thomas Cooper, for five poor men and as many poor wo"; The market is on Friday. There were in the township. of Sedgefield, in 1833, one boarding and day-school, and seven
- - - - t 270 childay-schools, one endowed, containing in all abo" The rest dren; and two Sunday-schools, with 150 oil. red), with of the parish contained two day-schools (one * 36 children,