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Staindrop is in Darlington ward, 2473 miles from London, about 7 miles to the right of the Glasgow and Carlisle mailroad, and about 19 miles from Durham. The parish contains 14,990 acres, and had, in 1831, 2395 inhabitants (besides some few who were included in the return from another arish); it comprehends six townships and part of a seventh. F. township of Staindrop contains 1810 acres, and had in 1831 a population of 1478. , Staindrop is an antient town situated in a beautiful vale, and was originally a royal demesne. Many of the houses are well built and chiefly form one wide street ranging east and west. Staindrop Beck runs at the east end of the town. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is near the Beck; it is an antient fabric, consisting of a nave, side aisles, and chancel, with an embattled tower at the west end. The tower opens to the nave and south aisle; it is very plain. The church has some portions of early English character: the chancel has some good stone stalls and a fine monument in the Decorated English style: there is also in the church a rich monument of later date, to the memory of Ralph Nevill, earl of Westmoreland, and his wives. The church was formerly collegiate: the dwelling-place of the collegiate clergy and other beneficiaries was on the north side of the church. The revenues of the college were, at the dissolution, 170l. 4s. 6d. a year gross revenue, or 126'. 5s. 10d., clear. The market, which has been revived after long discontinuance, is on Saturday, for provisions: there is very little or no corn sold. The living is a vicarage united to the neighbouring rectory of Cockfield; their joint yearly value is 354l. with a glebe house; they are in the gift of the duke of Cleveland. There are congregations of Methodists and Independents at Staindrop. There were in the township of Staindrop in 1833 two infant or dame schools, with 40 children; seven day, or boarding and day-schools, with about 180 children, and three Sunday-schools with 230 children. The rest of the parish contained two day-schools (one partly supported by the duke of Bedford), containing nearly 60 children. Close to Staindrop is Raby Castle, the seat of the duke of Cleveland. The castle is on the east side of the park, which is very extensive. The principal part of the building was erected by John Nevill, earl of Westmoreland, in the fourteenth century; one part is even more antient. Many alterations have been made in the castle by subsequent possessors, but they have not materially affected its outward form, the general effect of which, from its extent, grandeur, and preservation, is very imposing. Its situation is fine: it occupies, a rising ground, with a rocky foundation, and is inclosed with an embrasured wall and parapet. In this outer wall there is only one .entrance, a gateway defended by two square towers. Several of the smaller apartments have been hollowed out in the walls, which are of great solidity and strength. This castle was the residence of the powerful family of the Nevills, earls of Westmoreland; but on the rebellion raised by the last of that family against Elizabeth his estates were forfeited. They afterwards came by purchase to Sir Harry Vane, from whom they have descended to the present owner. Many parts of the pleasure-grounds command extensive and beautiful views. Stanhope is in Darlington ward, 262 miles from London, by a road which enters the county at Pierce Bridge, and runs through West Auckland and Wolsingham to Stanhope, and on to Aldstone Moor, in Cumberland. The parish, which comprehends 55,030 acres, is one of the largest in England: it had in 1831 a population of 9541. It is divided into four townships, of which Stanhope quarter township, in which is the town, comprehends an area of 13,010 acres, and had in 1831 233 inhabited houses and a population of 2080, chiefly engaged in the lead mines. The town is on the northern bank of the Wear. The church, dedicated to St. Thomas, is on a rising ground on the north side of the town; it is a plain and antient building. On the west side of the town is an eminence called the Castle Hill, rising to the height of 108 feet perpendicular from the bank of the Wear. The summit is of an oblong figure, thirty paces wide, divided by a ditch into two irregular parts; another ditch defends the acclivity on the north and east; the summit is supposed, from foundations discovered many years since, to have been once surrounded by a wall of ashler work strongly cemented. The tradition is that it was a fortress of remote origin demolished in an incursion of the Scots. At a short distance from the town on the west is a spacious old building called Stanhope Hall,

once the manor-house of the Featherstonehaugh family. The market is on Friday: there were two annual fairs, but they are disused. The living is a rectory in the gift of the bishop of Durham, of the yearly value of 4848l., with a glebe-house. There were in the whole parish in 1833 one endowed day-school, with nearly 40 children; one national school, partly endowed, with 60 children; two day-schools, partly supported by endowment and subscriptions, with 136 children; and two other day-schools unendowed, with 115 children; five day and Sunday-schools, with nearly 500 children; and four Sunday-schools with 282 children. Several of the schools had lending libraries attached. Near the town on the north side is a remarkable cavern, said to be a mile long, and to abound with stalactites. Wolsingham is in Darlington ward, 256} miles from London on the road to Stanhope and Aldstone Moor. The parish comprehends an area of 24,780 acres, and had in 1831 439 inhabited houses, and a population of 2239. The town is pleasantly situated on a point of land formed by the confluence of the Wear and the Wescrow, on the north side of the former river. The church, dedicated to St. Mary and St. Stephen, is on the north side of the town, but has nothing remarkable about it: near it are the remains of a considerable building, supposed by some to have been part of a monastery founded by Henry de Pudsey; by others to have been an antient manor-house of the bishops of Durham. The market is on Tuesday, for butcher's meat, butter, potatoes, and corn. The quantity of corn sold is not great, but the prices are commonly as high as any in the county. It is chiefly for the supply of the lead-mine district, which commences between this town and Stanhope. The district is easily recognized by the large parcels of lead lying near the sides of the road, and by the blue unwholesome vapours which proceed from the smelting-houses. The views down the Wear from the hill above Wolsingham are very extensive and much diversified. The living of Wolsingham is a rectory in the gift of the bishop of Durham, of the yearly value of 791 l., with a glebe-house. There were in Wolsingham parish in 1833 one school, partly supported by endowment, with 52 children; another, partly supported by charitable contributions, with 28 children; a third supported by a private benefaction, with 48 children; these were all day-schools, and there were six other day-schools, with 144 children; there were also three Sunday-schools, with 130 children. There is a Baptist congregation in the parish. Wolsingham parish is divided into seven ‘quarters,” or hamlets. Beside the above market-towns, Hutchinson (History of Durham, 4to, Carlisle, 1794, vol. iii. p. 285) speaks of a market being held at the chapelry of St. John, in Weardale. The chapel of St. John is on the south side of the Wear, about seven miles from Stanhope, on the road to Aldstone Moor: it is a handsome building, rebuilt several years ago by Sir Walter Blacket. The benefice, which is a perpetual curacy, worth 186!, a year, is in the gift of the rector of Stanhope, or rather the inhabitants nominate and the rector approves. The market, which is on Saturday, was established for the benefit of the miners, of whom, when Hutchinson wrote, 800 were employed in the neighbourhood, and the number has probably increased since. The valley of the Wear is here deep and narrow; there is a stone bridge of one arch over the river. Beside the market-towns, there are in the county several villages of sufficient importance, historical or commercial, to require notice. hester-le-Street is on the high north road between Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, six miles from Durham, and eight and a half from Newcastle. The parish comprehends an area of 31,260 acres: it is mostly in Chester ward, to which it gives name, but extends into Easington ward: its population in 1831 was 15,478. It is divided into several chapelries or townships, of which the principal, with their areas and population in 1831, are as follows:—Chester-leStreet (chapelry), 2940 acres, 1910 inhabitants; Tanfield (chapelry), including Beamish and Lintz Green (townships), 6760 acres, 2498 inhab.; Birtley (township), 1480 acres, 1520 inhab.; Harraton (township), 2090 acres, 21.71 inhab.; Lamesley (chapelry), 3390 acres, 1910 inhab.; and Great Lumley (township), 1730 acres, 2301 inhab.; the last, with the two smaller townships of Lambton and Little Lumley, is in Easington ward; the others in Chester ward. . The name of Chester-le-Street gives this place a two-fold claim to be considered a Roman station; yet neither the name nor the exact site of the station (which some would remove as much as a mile from Chester) has been determined. The Saxons called Chester, from the name of the brook, Cone, which flows past it, Coneceastre, or Cuneceastre: it became A.D. 882 the seat of the bishopric, which was removed hither from Lindisfarne, and it retained its episcopal rank until 995, when a Danish invasion drove away the bishop and his clergy, who afterwards settled at Durham. The church, after losing its rank as a cathedral, became first rectorial, afterwards collegiate: the manor has been constantly vested in the see of Durham. The revenue of the college at the dissolution was 77.l. 12s. 8d. The present village extends nearly a mile along the north road; another more irregular line of houses runs along the brook at right angles to the main street. The church consists of a nave with side aisles, a chancel, and a tower at the western end, surmounted with a lofty spire rising to the height of 156 feet from the ground. The lower part of the tower is of Early English, with a Perpendicular west door and window of later insertion, and with massy buttresses: the upper part of the tower, which is of later date, is octagonal; it has an embattled parapet and four pinnacles; the spire is also octagonal. The interior of the church and many of the windows have been modernized: there are some remains of painted glass: the north aisle contains the monuments of the Lumley family: there are fourteen altar tombs with as many stone effigies, mural tablets, &c. The living is a perpetual curacy, worth 3771 per annum. The deanerynouse, so called as being built in place of the former residence of the dean of the collegiate church, is a handsome brick house ; there are no vestiges of the antient buildings. Lumley Castle, in the township of Great Lumley, is on a fine gradual elevation above the Wear. It is a quadrangle of yellow freestone, with an open court or area in the centre, with four uniform towers. It is an antient building, and the east front retains its former magnificence: a noble gatehouse projects from the centre, with overhanging turrets: this front overhangs a ravine through which the Lumley Beck flows; on the west and south the ground slopes gradually down to the Wear. The castle was probably built in the latter part of the fourteenth century. The pictures are chiefly portraits of the antient family of the Lumleys. The village of Great Lumley is a mile and a half from Lumley Castle. It contains an almshouse or hospital for twelve poor women, founded in 1686 by John Duck, alderman of Durham. Lambton Hall, the seat of the earl of Durham, was built in 1797 on the site of the old house of Harraton, the former seat of the Hedworths: the grounds are pleasant, but the building displays many incongruities. Ravensworth Castle, the seat of Lord Ravensworth, is a modern building: its style is varied, being a selection from the castle architecture of different periods, not too remote however to be brought into contact. The park includes a heronry. In a private road near the castle there is a cross with a plain shaft and pedestal. Lamesley and Tanfield chapels are modern buildings. Besides the noblemen's seats already mentioned, the parish contains the residences of several of the gentry. There were in the whole parish in 1833 seven dayschools with 243 children, wholly or in considerable part supported by endowments or other charitable contributions; forty-seven other day-schools with 1325 children; and fourteen Sunday-schools with 1220 children. Three of the endowed schools are Sunday-schools also, and are attended by more children on Sunday than in the week. Two schools have lending libraries attached. There are several congregations of Wesleyan Methodists in the parish. Jarrow, or Yarrow, is between Newcastle and South Shields: the church is 8 miles from Newcastle, and 2% from Shields; but when the tide is out a mile may be saved between Jarrow and Shields by crossing “the Slake,” a recess in the south bank of the Tyne, dry at low water. The parochial chapelry of Jarrow is tolerably extensive, comprehending 8640 acres, and having in 1831 a population of 27,995. It is in Chester ward. It is divided into five chapelries or townships; two of which, the townships of South Shields and Westoe, constitute the parliamentary borough of South Shields. Of the remaining three divisions, Harton township contained in 1831 1000 acres and 217 inhabitants; Jarrow, with Monkton chapelry, 3690 acres and 3598 inhabitants; and Heworth chapelry 2190 acres and 5424 inhabitants. The parish of Jarrow antiently extended across

the Tyne, and comprehended a portion of Northumberland; but all connection with this part has long ceased. Jarrow was very early the seat of a monastic establishment of the Benedictine order. An inscription stone states that the original church was founded A d. 685. The monastery was established A.D. 681, by Benedict, a noble Saxon, who had previously founded the monastery of Monk Wearmouth, and the fabric was completed four years afterwards. Jarrow derives its chief interest from its connection with the Venerable Bede [BEDA), whose birth is fixed by an antient and probable tradition at the hamlet of Monkton, which nearly adjoins Jarrow. In A.D. 870 the monastery was burned by the piratical Northmen, or Danes, but rising from its ruins, was again destroyed in the ravage of the country north of the Tyne by William the Conqueror, A.D. 1070. It again revived, but in A.D. 1083 William, bishop of Durham, removed the monks to Durham, and reduced Jarrow to the condition of a cell to the Benedictine monastery of St. Cuthbert there. Its yearly revenues at the dissolution were valued at 40l. 7s. 8d. gross, 38!. 14s. 4d. clear. The site of the monastery is near the western side of ‘the Slake,” not far from the bank of a small beck which flows into the Tyne. Many ruins of the monastery still remain, but they are so scattered and confused that it is difficult to form a conjecture as to the original appearance and the arrangements of the convent, or even to distinguish them from the remains of a lay mansion that was erected upon its ruins. The church adjoins the centre of the monastic buildings immediately on the north. The tower rises from the centre of the church, between the nave and the chancel. The church was rebuilt, with to.e exception of the tower and part of the church, in 1783. The tower retains some curious Norman features. It has round-headed double lights on every side. A rude oaken seat, which appears to have been hewn out with an axe, is exhibited in the vestry as Bede's chair: the boards which form the back are modern ; the rest is doubtless very antient. Roman inscriptions and pavements have been dug up near Jarrow, and it is conjectured, from the appearance of some of the stones, that the church and monastery were partly constructed of the fragments of a Roman building. There are large coal works at Jarrow: a row of houses for the colliers extends nearly a mile to the west of the church. The living is a perpetual curacy of the annual value of 1971. The chapelry of Monkton and Jarrow contained in 1833 nine day-schools, with 289 children; and five Sunday-schools, with 505 children. Heworth is a chapelry in the parochial chapelry of Jarrow: it contains an area of 2190 acres; and had, in 1831, a population of 5424 : it is divided into Upper and Nether or Low Heworth. The chapel at Low Heworth is a modern building, but probably occupies the site of one not less antient than the church at Jarrow. Some very antient coins of the Saxon kingdom of Northumberland were some years since dug up in the chapel-yard. One corner of this chapel-yard contains a monument, a neat plain obelisk, nine feet high, fixed on a stone base, to the memory of ninety-one persons killed in the explosion of Felling colliery, 1812. There is a parish school-house, built by subscription in 1815 ; this school contained in 1833 131 children. There were at the same time eleven other dayschools, with 351 children, and five Sunday-schools, with 556 children. At Heworth Shore on the Tyne are manu factories of Prussian blue and other colours, one for coal tar, and an establishment for preparing alkali for soap boilers; also ship-building yards, a pottery, a glass-house, a lead refinery, wharfs for grindstones, a brown paper mill, an establishment for o: fish oil from the blubber brought by the Greenland ships, &c. Freestone of an open porous character, called from its excellence in enduring a strong heat, firestone, is quarried at High Heworth. Winlaton is a manufacturing village between the Tyne and the Derwent. The township of Winlaton in the parish of Ryton in Chester ward comprehends an area 4540 acres, and had in 1831 a population of 395.1 persons. Sir Ambrose Crowley, an alderman of London, established here about 1690 the extensive iron works which still bear his name. Sir Ambrose seems to have been peculiarly anxious for the well-being of his workmen, establishing regulations for their guidance, appointing a court of arbitrators to settle disputes, establishing schools, providing medical attendance for the sick, and advancino money to them, pensioning the superannuated, and Yo: for the families of the dead. All his charities, however, ceased in 1816. A chapel was built at Winlaton in 1705, as it is said, on the foundation of one destroyed in the rebellion of the northern earls against Elizabeth. The chapel was abandoned by the company carrying on the iron works, and having gone to decay was pulled down in 1816, and a national school-room built in its place, in which the rector of Ryton or his curate voluntarily performs service. There were in 1833 two national schools with 190 children, seven other day-schools with 239 children, and two Sunday-schools with 100 children. Middleton in Teasdale is in Darlington ward: it lies on the north bank of the Tees, on the road from London to Haltwhistle. The whole parish comprehends an area of 38,410 acres, of which the township of Middleton includes 9750 acres. The village is situated among hills, and extends in somewhat an oval form round a spacious green. Almost every house is used for the sale of liquors or of some kind of goods. The inhabitants (who, in 1831, were 1824 for the township, or 3714 for the whole parish) are chiefly engaged in the numerous lead mines near. The church is small, but antient: the living, a rectory in the gift of the crown, is said to be worth 1500l. per annum; it does not appear to have been included in the return laid before parliament of the revenue of the church. Some of our authorities assign to this place a weekly market held on Thursday: it is probably a customary market. The township contained, in 1831, one endowed day-school, with 50 children; two unendowed day-schools, with 45 children; one day and Sunday-school, with 150 day or 180 Sunday scholars, supported by the Lead Company, who oblige their work-people to send their children either to this school or to some other. There is a considerable library attached to this last school, containing a variety of useful works, which are lent gratuitously to those of the scholars or of the workmen who desire to have them. Houghton-le-Spring is in Easington ward, on the road from Durham towards Sunderland, 7 miles from Durham. The whole parish, which is divided into 18 townships or chapelries, contained, by the returns of 1831, 14,560 acres, and 20,524 inhabitants; of which 1220 acres and 3917 inhabitants were in the township of Houghton-le-Spring; 1590 acres and 5887 inhabitants in that of Hetton-le-Hole; 1310 acres and 2539 inhabitants in the chapelry of Painshaw ; and 1460 acres and 2198 inhabitants in the township of Newbottle. S. The village of Houghton is irregular and nearly half a mile long, at the head of a fine vale, sheltered on the north and east by limestone hills. It contains several handsome buildings. Houghton Hall is a heavy mansion, built probably in the reign of Elizabeth or James I., in the later Gothic style. The church is large, in the form of a cross, with a square tower, springing from four arches at the intersection of the transepts and nave. Some portions of the church are in the Early English, and some in the Decorated style: the east and west windows have fine Decorated tracery. The church contains the monument of Bernard Gilpin, some time rector of Houghton, “the Apostle of the North,’ and one of the most pious of the English church reformers: it is an altar tomb with pannelled sides, and a good specimen of the mixture of Gothic and Italian forms. The living is a rectory, in the gift of the bishop of Durham, of the yearly value of 2157l., with a glebe-house. On the north-east side of the churchyard, on a rising ground, is the grammar school founded by the exertions of Bernard Gilpin with the aid of some friends; and in the churchyard to the south of the school-house an almshouse for six poor people. Houghton had, in 1833, one boarding-school with 45 boys; nine day-schools, one a charity school with 38 girls; another a national school with 300 boys; the seven other day-schools had nearly 200 children; and three Sunday-schools with 656 children. The grammar school is not distinguished in the Parliamentary Returns from other schools. Hetton-le-Hole is a mile or two south of Houghton-leSpring. . The increase of the population between 1821 and 1831, when it rose from under 1000 to nearly 6000, was owing to the extension of the collieries, which in 1831 gave employment to nearly 1800 men and boys, of whom above 1000 were upwards of twenty years old. There were at Hetton, in 1833, one day and Sunday-school with 68 day scholars and nearly 330 Sunday scholars; fourteen other day-schools with mearly 700 children, and two Sundayschools with above 300 children. Painshaw or Penshaw lies at some distance north of

Houghton, on the banks of the Wear, at the western foot of a conical hill, Painshaw Hill: it is almost entirely occupied by persons connected with the collieries and stone uarries, the opening of which latter occasioned a consi}. increase of population from 1821 to 1831. There is a chapel of ease, a plain convenient building, the minister of which is appointed by the rector of Houghton. Newbottle is between Houghton and Painshaw. It is on a high exposed situation. A little to the north below the brow of the hill is Philadelphia Row, a group of houses entirely occupied by the colliers of the neighbouring pits. There is a considerable pottery at Newbottle. The population rather decreased from 1821 to 1831, from the decline or the collieries in the township. Monk Wearmouth and Bishop Wearmouth are included in the parliamentary borough of Sunderland ; and, the or out chapelry of Tweedmouth in Islandshire, which comprehends an area of 4520 acres, and had in 1831 a population of 4971 persons, may be considered as a suburb or Berwick-upon-Tweed in the parliamentary limits of which it is included. [BERwick-upon-Tweed, SUNDERLAND..] Divisions for Civil and Ecclesiastical purposes. . The county of Durham is in the diocese of Durham and in the ecclesiastical province of York. It constitutes an archdeaconry, which is subdivided into the deaneries of Ches ter-le-Street, Darlington, Easington, and Stockton. . Of the outlying portions of the county, Islandshire, Norhamshire, and Bedlingtonshire are in the archdeaconry of Northumberland, except the parochial chapelry of Ancroft in Islandshire, which is in the archdeaconry of Durham. Craike is in the peculiar jurisdiction of the bishop of Durham. The number of parishes, as we gather from the population returns compared with the “Clerical Guide,' is 60; of which 33 are rectories, 21 vicarages, and 6 perpetual curacies. The richer benefices are among the wealthiest in any part of England. Besides the 60 parishes, there are 15 parochial chapelries; and by the subdivision of these or the parishes, 24 district chapelries have been formed. Some of the parishes and parochial chapelries are of great extent. Stanhope parish comprehends 55,030 acres or 86 square miles: Auckland, St. Andrew 45,470 acres or 71 square miles; Lanchester 41,890 acres or 65 square miles; M. in Teasdale 38,410 acres or 60 square miles; Chester-le-Street 31,260 acres or 49 square miles; Wolsingham 24,780 acres or 39 square miles; Gainstord 24,370 acres or 38 square miles; Brancepeth 21,850 acres or 34 square miles; besides eleven others, ranging from 10,000 to 20,000 acres, or from 15% to 31 square miles, and several which approach 10,000 acres. Durham is included in the northern circuit. The assizes and the quarter-sessions are held at Durham, where stands the county gaol and the house of correction. Before the Reform Act there were four members returned to parliament from this county, two for the county itself and two for the city of Durham. By the Reform and Boundary Acts the county was formed into two divisions, each returning two members. The northern division includes Chester and Easington, wards; the principal place of election is Durham, and the polling stations are Durham, Sunderland, Lanchester, Wickham (or Whickham), Chester-le-Street, and South Shields. The southern division comprehends Darlington and Stockton wards; the principal place of election is Darlington, and the polling stations are Darlington, Stockton, Bishop Auckland, Stanhope, Middleton in Teasdale, Barnard Castle, and Sedgefield. By the Reform Act two members were given to Sunderland, including part of the parishes of Monk Wearmouth and Bishop Wearmouth ; and one member each to Gateshead (including part of the chapelry of Heworth in the parochial chapelry of Jarrow) and South Shields, including the townships of South Shields and Westoe in the parochial chapelry of Jarrow. History and Antiquities. At the time of the Roman invasion the main part of the county of Durham was included in the territory of the Brigantes (Bptyavric Ptolemy), a powerful tribe who occupied the northern part of the island from the Mersey to the Tyne; the outlying portions, Islandshire, Norhamshire, and Bedlingtonshire, were included in the territory of the Ottadini (Oraënvoi Ptolemy), whose country extended from the Tyne to the Forth. The Brigantes were subdued by Cerealis and Agricola, and the Ottadini by Agricola; but no incidents have been recorded of their subjugation which are peculiarly connected with this county

The main part of the county remained in the possession of the Romans until they finally withdrew from the island, being defended by the wall of Hadrian or Severus, which extended from sea to sea across Northumberland and Cumberland; the outlying portions being beyond the wall, were occupied by the Romans or not, as circumstances, or the character of the emperor, or the commander in the island, dictated. The notices of the district by the antientÉ. phers are scanty. We gather from the Itinerary of Richard of Cirencester that the Tees was known to the Romans as the Tisa, the Tyne as the Tina, and the Tweed (which borders Norhamshire) as the Tueda; and from Ptolemy, that the Wear (Horsley will have the Tyne) was known as the Vedra. The Romans had several stations within the county. Windomora and Vinovium, mentioned in the first Iter of Antoninus are fixed by antiquarians at Ebchester on the Derwent, and Binchester, near Bishop Auckland. In Jeffreys' large map of Durham the Epiacum of Richard (which is placed by most at Lanchester) is fixed at Ebchester, with which both the name and the distance from Vinovium in Richard's Itinerary seem best to agree: in the same map the Longovicum of the Notitia is fixed at Lanchester, where Horsley proposes to place the Glanoventa of Antoninus. Ad Tisam, mentioned by Richard, is fixed at Pierce Bridge on the Tees. Gateshead was considered by Camden to be the Gabrosentum of the Notitia, which others place at Drumburgh near Carlisle; and Brememum had been fixed at Monk Wearmouth; but this position is not to be reconciled with Ptolemy's mention of it. Perhaps there are few parts of the island of which the Roman topography is more obscure. Roman antiquities have been found at Chester-le-Street (coins), from whence Roman roads may be traced leading northward towards Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and southward to Binchester near Auckland; at Coniscliff or Conscliffe, near Pierce Bridge (an altar); Old Durham, near Durham city (coins); at Lanchester (inscriptions, coins, and other antiquities); at Pierce Bridge (coins, the traces of an aqueduct, foundations of houses, and other marks of a station); at South Shields (an inscription indicating that a Roman town or station was fixed here in the time of Marcus Aurelius); at Stanhope (an altar); at Thornton, near Darlington (an urn with coins, chiefly of Constantine and his sons); at Monk Wearmouth (coins); at Whitborn Lizard (coins). Reynolds’ Iter Britanniarum, Cambridge, 1799. In the establishment of the Saxon Octarchy, Durham was probably included in the kingdom of Deira, the southernmost of the two which are frequently comprehended under the general name of Northumberland. hen Oswald, who united the two kingdoms under one sceptre, wished to introduce or rather revive Christianity, Aidan, a monk of Iona or elsewhere in Scotland, who had come as a missionary (A.D. 634), fixed his residence at Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, and established a monastery and a bishopric there. The seat of the Northumbrian bishopric was afterwards (A. p. 664) removed to York; but when, in 678, Northumberland was divided into two dioceses, Lindisfarne recovered its episcopal rank; and its diocese was permanently severed from that of York. Shortly after this time the see of Hexham was created, the diocese being severed from that of Lindisfarne. As the ravages of the Danes, towards the close of the ninth century, rendered Lindisfarne an insecure abode, the bishop and clergy forsook it (about A.D. 875), and, after they had onj about for seven years, the seat of the bishopric was fixed at Chester-le-Street, where the foundations of a cathedral were begun. In the reign of Ethelred II. the ravages of the Danes were renewed, and the bishop and clergy leaving Chester-le-Street (A.D. 995), as deeming it insecure, removed first to Ripon, in Yorkshire, and afterwards to Dunhelm, now Durham, where the see has been fixed ever since. Lindisfarne, deserted by the bishop, was afterwards bestowed upon the Benedictine monastery of Durham, to which it became a cell. Its yearly revenues at the dissolution were valued at 60l. 5s. gross, or 48l. 18s. 11d. clear. The ruins of the conventual church still remain: the north and south walls, and great part of the west wall, are still standing: the east wall has fallen in. It has been a very magnificent building, in the Norman style. The length of the body of the church is one hundred and thirty-eight feet, the breadth eighteen, and with the two aisles thirty-six; but it may be doubted whether there ever was a transept. The stones P.C., No. 558.

appear red with fire, and on the south side of the chancel are honeycombed by the weather. Upon the invasion of England by William the Conqueror, Egelwin, bishop of Durham, took the oath of allegiance at York to William, who had advanced into the north to crush the threatened resistance of the earls Morcar and Edwin. Robert Comyn, a Norman noble, to whom William had committed the charge of the entire subjugation of the north, having entered the city of Durham with his troops (seven hundred men), in 1069 or 1070, was overpowered by the population of the surrounding country, and cut off with all his men: the cathedral narrowly escaped destruction in this tumult. William, enraged at the disaster, advanced in person with his army, and laid waste the country with the most savage ferocity. For sixty miles between York and Durham he did not leave a house standing, reducing the whole district by fire and sword to a horrible desert, smoking with blood and in ashes. He did not spare even the churches and monasteries. The ecclesiastics fled from Durham at his approach, and retired to Lindisfarne. A dreadful famine ensued, and a mortality not equalled in the annals of the country; the inhabitants were reduced to eat the flesh of horses, dogs, and cats, and at last even human carcases. The lands lay untilled for nine years, infested by robbers and beasts of prey; and the poor remnant of the inhabitants spared from the sword died in the fields, overwhelmed with want and misery. The treasures of the church, except those which the bishop carried away in his flight, were plundered either by the Normans or by Gospatric, who had purchased of Willion the earldom of Northumberland. The ravages of the conquerors were carried forward from the Wear to the Tyne, and the monastery of Jarrow was burned. Soon after William withdrew, the Scots, under their king Malcolm, invaded the north of England, routed the men of Teasdale, who opposed them near Eglestone, and burned Wearmouth monastery and Hartlepool. Egelwin, bishop of Durham, was one of those who endeavoured to organize in the Isle of Ely an opposition to William ; but being taken prisoner, was cast into prison, where he died from famine or a broken heart. He was succeeded in the see A.D. 1072 by Walcher, a native of Lorraine, who seems to have been the first bishop that possessed the palatine jurisdiction so long exercised by his successors. Walcher, or those who acted under him, having provoked the indignation of the people by their oppressive conduct, the bishop was surrounded by a tumultuous assembly at Gateshead, and taking refuge in the church, the building was fired, and the bishop attempting to escape, was put to death in 1080. The insurgents got possession of the city of Durham; but having in vain attempted to make themselves masters of the castle, were obliged to disperse in order to avoid punishment. To revenge this popular outbreak, the country was again laid waste by an army under Odo, bishop of Bayeux, half-brother of William. The next but one in succession to Walcher was Ralph Flambard, in who e episcopate the diocese suffered diminution by the erection of the see of Carlisle; and the diocese of Hexham, which on the failure of its own bishops had been annexed to Durham, was taken from that diocese and annexed to York. For some years following 1140 the diocese was thrown into disorder by the usurpation of the see by one Cumin, a priest, a native of Scotland, who attempted to hold it in opposition to the regularly-appointed bishop. After a desultory warfare Cumin submitted. In the year 1312 the Scots invaded the county of Durham, burned the suburbs of Durham, and plundered Hartlepool. They again invaded the county after the battle of Bannockburn, and for a third and fourth time in 1316 and 1317. Famine and pestilence followed the ravages of war, and the country became more desolate than at any time since the great Norman devastation. Marauders infested the country; and Lewis Beaumont, bishop elect (A.D. 1317 or 1318), was carried off by a party as he was proceeding to Durham to be installed. In the beginning of the reign of Edward III, the Scots invaded the country, and took possession of the mountainous tract of Weardale; but the approach of the king with an army prevented them from penetrating into the more level districts of the eastern coast. In the year 1312 there is reason to think that they again invaded the country; and in 1346, under the conduct of their king David, they crossed the Tyne and the Derwent, and encamped about Vol. IX. —? F

three miles from the city of Durham. Edward was, in
France; but the northern nobles and prelates collected a
werful army, and the battle of Nevill's Cross terminated
in the defeat of the Scots and the captivity of David.
Durham does not appear to have been the scene of any
remarkable event in . war of the Roses. The Yorkists,
under the Marquis of Montacute, marched aeross it to
attack the Lancastrians before the battle of Hexham. In
the invasion of England by James IV. of Scotland, who
favoured the cause of Perkin Warbeck, Norham Castle was
besieged by the king; but when reduced to the last extre-
mity, was relieved by the approach of the earl of Surrey
with an army.
At the time of the Reformation the see of Durham was
held by Cuthbert Tunstall, a man honourably distinguished
in that persecuting age by his mildness and forbearance.
He was . and deprived of his bishopric under
Edward VI, the ample endowments of the see forming
probably a greater inducement to his persecutor (Dudley,
earl of Northumberland) than his steady adherence to the
Catholic discipline. He was restored under Mary, but
finally deprived after the accession of Elizabeth. The in-
habitants of the northern counties were much attached to
the antient church, and afforded full exercise to the laborious
zeal of Bernard Gilpin and other Reformers. The religious
establishments were not however richly endowed, with the
exception of the priory at Durham. Kypen and Sherburn
hospitals, which were among the wealthiest, * each con-
siderably less than 200l. a year gross revenue. In the re-
bellion of the earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland
in support of the Catholic faith, they found little difficulty
in raising a tumultuous force, with which they entered
Durham, tore and trampled under foot the English Bibles
and prayer-books, and celebrated mass in the cathedral;
and while a detachment occupied Hartlepool, the main body
marched southward into Yorkshire. n the advance of
the royal army under the earl of Sussex the insurgents
retreated to Raby, and after losing some time in besieging
Barnard Castle, which they starved into a surrender, they
were obliged to disperse, the two earls escaping into Scot-
land. Northumberland was afterwards delivered up to the
English and beheaded; Westmoreland escaped over sea,
and entered into the service of the king of Spain. In the
latter part of Elizabeth's reign the northern counties
were much afflicted by a pestilence which broke out every
year in some part or other. In 1597 the city of Durham
suffered very severely, -
In 1633 Charles I. visited the county, and was en-

1639, on occasion of his progress northward to oppose
the Scots, he received similar hospitality. When the Scots
invaded England, in 1640, they crossed the Tyne into
, this county, Lord Conway, who commanded the king's
troops, retreating first to Durham and afterwards to North-
allerton, in Yorkshire. By a convention which followed,
the county was for some time heavily taxed for the pay-
ment of the Scottish army. When the civil war broke out
in 1642, the earl of Newcastle formed the four northern
counties into an association for the king's service. This
county was not the scene of any remarkable incident in
that war. The Scotch army entered England in 1644,
in order to support the Parliamentarians. They were
opposed by the Royalists; but though several skirmishes
were fought in the country, no serious encounter took place,
and the marquis of Newcastle being obliged to march
into Yorkshire to sustain the royal cause there, Durham
came into the hands of the Parliamentarians.
During the Commonwealth the see was dissolved; but
upon the restoration of Charles II. it was re-established,
and bestowed on Bishop Cosins, who distinguished himself
by the munificent use he made of his large revenues. The
local history of the county since the Restoration is not
marked by any interesting features.


Population.—Durham is one of the principal counties in which coal is raised: it does not rank very high as an agricultural county, being the thirty-ninth on the list in that respect. Of 59,045 males twenty years of age and upwards living, in Durham in 1831, there were 11,329 engaged in agricultural pursuits, 2,547 in manufactures or in making manufacturing machinery, and 19,473 labourers employed in labour not agricultural. Of those engaged in manufactures, 550, were employed in stuff and carpetmaking at Barnard Castle and in the city of Durham; about 500 were employed in the making of glass, especially glass bottles, at Gateshead, South Shields, Bishop's Wearmouth, Heworth, and Southwick; 350 in weaving linen and flax-dressing at Stockton and other places; 150 in iron works at Bedlington and at Bishop's Auckland; 150 in making engines, moulds, and patterns, chiefly at Birtley and Sunderland; 70 in woollen manufacture at Shildon and Walsingham; the remainder were employed in the manufacture of earthenware, sailcloth, &c., at various places.

The following exhibits a summary of the population, taken at the last census, 1831, showing the number of the in

tertained by the bishop at his castle of Durham: again in -

habitants and their occupations in eachward of the county:—

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