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Upon which sum dividends are paid: the later subscriptions were made at rates considerably above par, so that the money actually paid into the Company's treasury on that account has been 7,780,000l. The home government of the Company consists of 1st. The Court of Proprietors. 2nd. The Court of Directors; and 3rd. The Board of Control, the origin and functions of which body will be hereafter explained. The Court of Proprietors elect the directors of the Company, declare the amount of dividend, and make bye-laws, which are binding upon the directors for the management of the Company in all respects which are not especially regulated by act of parliament. The votes of the proprietors are given according to the amount of stock which they possess. The lowest sum which entitles a proprietor to vote is 1000l. of stock; 3000l. stock entitles to two votes; 6000/. to three votes; and 10,000l. to four votes, which is the largest number of votes that can be given by any one proprietor. At the time of the last parliamentary inquiry into the concerns of the Company, it was stated that the number of proprietors entitled to vote was 1976: of this number 54 were entitled each to four votes; 50 had each three; 370 had two votes; and 1502 had single votes. The Court of Directors consists of 24 proprietors elected out of the general body. The qualification for a seat in the direction is the possession of 2000l. stock. Six of the directors go out of office every year; they retire in rotation, so that the term of office for each is four years from the time of election. The directors who vacate their seats may be re-elected, and generally are so, after being out of office for one year. The chairman and deputy chairman are elected from among their own body by the directors, thirteen of whom must be present to form a court. The power of the directors is great: they appoint the governor-general of India and the governors of the several presidencies; but as these appointments are all subject to the approval of the crown, they may be said to rest virtually with the government. The directors have the absolute and uncontrolled power of recalling any of these functionaries. All subordinate appointments are made by the directors, but as a matter of courtesy a certain proportion of this patronage is placed at the disposal of the President of the Board of Control. The Board of Control was established by the act of parliament passed in August, 1784, and which is known as Mr. Pitt's India Bill. This board was originally composed of six privy councillors, nominated by the king; and besides these, the chancellor of the exchequer and the principal secretaries of state are, by virtue of their offices, members of the board. It is no longer necessary to select the members from among privy councillors. In practice the senior member, or president, ordinarily conducts the business, and on rare occasions only calls upon his colleagues for assistance. It is the duty of this board to superintend the territorial or political concerns of the Company; to inspect all letters passing to and from India between the directors and their servants or agents which have any connexion with territorial management or political relations; to alter or amend, or to keep back, the despatches prepared by the directors, and, in urgent cases, to transmit orders to the functionaries in India without the concurrence of the directors. In all cases where the proceedings of the directors have the concurrence of the Board of Control, the court of proprietors has no longer the right of interference. The salaries of the president and other officers of the Board, as well as the general expenses of the establishment, are defrayed by the East India Company. With the powers thus described, the president of the Board of Control has been correctly described as “a secretary of state for the affairs of India, governing by means of the court of directors as its instrument in all matters of a political nature,” which, since the last renewal of the charter in 1833, includes all the functions of the company, the right of trading having by that act been taken away. The act 6 Anne, c. 17, already mentioned, conferred upon the company the exclusive privilege, as regarded English subjects, of trading to all places eastward of the Cape of Good Hope to the Straits of Magalhaens; and these privileges, with some unimportant modifications, which it is not necessary to explain, were confirmed by successive acts of arliament, and continued until 1814. By the act 53 Geo. II., c. 155, passed in 1813, the Company's charter was P. C., No. 562.
renewed for twenty years, but received some important modifications, the trade to the whole of the Company's territories and to India generally being thrown open to British subjects under certain regulations; the trade between the United Kingdom and China was still reserved as a monopoly in the hands of the East India Company. It was also provided by the act of 1813 that the territorial and commercial accounts of the Company should be kept and arranged so as to exhibit the receipts and expenditure of each branch distinctly from those of the other branch. These accounts, made out in forms approved by government, tho directors are obliged to lay before both houses of parliament in the month of May in every year, ‘made up according to the latest advices that shall have been received, and with as much accuracy as the nature of the case will admit.' In imposing this obligation upon the directors, it would almost appear that the legislature must have had in view the course which, twenty years later, on the next occasion of renewing the charter, was actually pursued. The act of 1833, by which the charter was renewed for twenty years, takes away from the Company the right of trading either to its own territories or the dominions of any native power in India or in China, and throws the whole completely open to the enterprise of individual merchants. The progress of the Company's trade at different periods has not been regularly published. The investigations that have been made into its concerns by committees of the houses of parliament, when it has been necessary to renew its charter, have been the means of bringing to light some information upon this subject; but the returns called for on each of these occasions have generally had reference only to the period immediately preceding that in which the inquiry has been made. The committee of secresy which sat in 1773 did indeed call for various statements embracing a considerable period of time; and it is from the report of this committee that the following particulars relating to the trade of the Company, in the forty years between 1732 and 1772, have been obtained. Dividing this term of forty years into decennary periods, the average result in each period was as follows:–
It would appear from this statement that the trade must have been highly advantageous. The average annual profit upon the amount invested, as above shown, amounted, in the first decennary period, to 1 16 per cent. ; in the second period to 90 per cent.; in the third period to 84 per cent.; in the fourth period to 132 per cent. ; and embracing the whole forty years, the gross profit amounted to 1.19% per cent. It must be borne in mind, however, that this was gross profit, and that the expenses of carrying on the trade according to the method employed of establishing factories were necessarily very great. In fact, they were such as to absorb the profits and to bring the Company considerably into debt: a result which it would be more correct to attribute to the political character of the Company than to its necessary commercial expenditure.
When compared with the commercial dealings of even individual merchants in modern times, the trade of the East India Company, as exhibited above, is insignificant. Small as it was, however, it afterwards experienced a con siderable diminution, and in 1780, the entire value of the exports of goods and bullion amounted to only 401, 166l., a large part of which must have consisted of military stores .# supplies required by the various factories and establishments of the Company. The commutation plan of Mr. Pitt, under which the duty on tea was reduced to 12% per cent. ad valorem, and which came into effect in September, 1784, caused a considerable augmentation of the Company's outward investments, in order to procure the quantity of tea needed for use in this kingdom. The sales of tea at the India House, which, in the three years preceding the commutation, averaged 5,721,655 lbs., rose in the three following years to the average of 16,054,603 lbs., at which quantity it. remained nearly stationary for several years. Notwith standing this circumstance, the value of the exports made
Vol. IX.-2 K
by the Company in each of the three years which preceded lie renewal of the charter in 1793 did not exceed one milin. Under the provisions of this new charter, the Company was bound to provide 3000 tons of o every year #. h. accommodation of private traders, and it is deserving of mark that under this apparently unimportant degree of competition the trade of the Company increased rapidly ...i.atly. During the last four years of its existence, ... is oil to is 13-14, the average annual exports of the
Goods. Stores. Total. £ £ £ To the three Presidencies, Bata- via, Prince of Wales's Island, 722,033 397,481 1,119,514 St Helena, and Bencoolen . - -To China - - - - 1,023,065 2,786 1,025,851 Total - - - 1,745,098 400,267 2,145,365
On the occasion of the next renewal of its charter, viz. in 1814, the Company was obliged to make a further cession of its exclusive privileges, and stipulating only for the continuance of its monopoly in the importation of tea into this country, to allow the unrestricted intercourse of British
The commencement and early progress of the political power of the East India Company in India have already been described. [BENGAL.] It would extend this notice to an unreasonable length if we attempted to trace the successive wars and conquests which mark the aanals of the Company; this, indeed, is the less needed because of the notices given in our account of the various provinces and states of India in which that information necessarily finds a place. All that it appears requisite to give under this head will be found in the following chronological table of the acquisitions of the British in India, in which are stated the powers from whom the territory has, from time to time, been acquired.
. Vizier of Oude . The Maharattas - . Rajah of Tanjore
merchants with the whole of its Indian possessions. Under these circumstances the Company found it impossible to enter into competition with private traders, whose business was conducted with greater vigilance and economy than was possible on the part of a great company; its exports of merchandise to India fell off during the ten years from 600,000l. in 1814-15 to 275,000l. in 1823-24, and to 73,000l. in the following year, after which all such exportation of merchandise to India on the part of the Company may be said to have ceased. The shipments to China were still continued, and large quantities of stores were also sent to India for the supply of the army and other public establishments. It will be seen from the following statement of the value of exports from this country from 1814 to 1832 to all places eastward of the Cape of Good Hope, except China, in which the shipments of the Company (which include stores) are distinguished from those of private traders, that while the trade of the Company was thus falling off, that of private merchants was carried to an amount much greater than had existed during the monopoly of the Company.
By the East *; Privato total Value India Company. Traders. of Exports. 1814 . 4's 26,558 . £1,048,132 . £1,874,690 1815 , 996,248 - 1,569,513 . 2,565,761 1816 . 633,546 1,955,909 . 2,589,455 1817 . 638,382 2,750,333 . 3,388,715 1818 . 553,385 . 3,018,779 . 3,572, 164 1819 . 760,508 . 1,586,575 . 2,347,083 1820 . 971,096 . 2,066,815 . 3,037,911 1821 .. 887,619 . 2,656,776 . 3,544,395 1822 606,089 . 2,838,354 . 3,444,443 1823 . 458,550 . 2,957,705 . 3,416,255 1824 . 654,783 . 2,841,795 . 3,496,578 1825 . 598,553 2,574,660 - 3,173,213 1826 990,964 - 2,480,588 3,471,552 1827 . 805,610 - 3,830,580 4,636, 190 1828 . 488,601 .. 3,979,072 4,467,673 1829 . 434,586 . 3,665,678 . 4, 100,264 1830 - 195,394 - 3,891,917 . 4,087,311 1831 , 146,480 - 3,488,571 . 3,635,051 1832 . 149, 193 - 3,601,093 3,750,286
The impossibility, as thus shown, of the Company's enter. ing into competition with private merchants had a powerful influence with o: when it was last called upon to legislate upon the affairs of India, and in the charter of 1833 not only was the monopoly of the China trade abolished, but the Company was restricted from carrying on any commercial operations whatever upon its own account, and was confined altogether to the territorial and political management of the vast empire which it has brought beneath its sway.
Having thus, as briefly as possible, traced the progress of the Company from its foundation to the close of its commercial existence, it remains to describe it in its far more important capacity as the possessor of an empire almost linexampled in extent, and containing a population of one hundred millions of subjects. .
Country, &c. . - - 1820 Lands in Southern Concan .
. The Nizam - . Rajah of Johore
1822 Districts in Bejapore and Ahmednuggar 1825 Malacca . - - - - . King of Holland
1824 Singapore . - - - 1826 Asano, Aracau Toxi, &c. . . - . King of Ava o: sovo. ro. so } Rajah of Berar It has always been felt to be highly anomalous that an association of individuals, the subjects of a sovereign state, should wage wars, make conquests, and hold possession of territory in foreign countries, independent of the government to which they owe allegiance. At a very early period of the Company's territorial acquisitions, this feeling was acted upon by parliament. By the act 7 Geo. III., c. 57 (1767), it was provided, that the Company should be allowed to retain possession of the lands it had acquired in India for two years, in consideration of an annual payment to the country of 400,000l. This term was extended by the 9 Geo. III, c. 24, to February, 1774. The sums paid to the public under these acts amounted to 2,169,398/. The last of these payments, which should have been made in 1773, was not received until 1775, and could not then have been paid but for the receipt of 1,400,000l. which was lent to the Company by * This loan was afterwards discharged, and the possession of its territory was from year to year continued to the Company until 1781, and was then further continued for a period to terminate upon three years' notice to be given after 1st March, 1791. nder this act the Company paid to the public 400,000l. in satisfaction of all claims then due. In 1793 the same privileges were extended until 1814, the Company engaging to pay to the public the sum of 500,000l. annually, unless prevented by war expenditure; but owing to the contests in which it was engaged throughout that period, two payments of 250,000l. each, made in 1793 and 1794, were all that the public received under this agreement. The act of 1813, by which the charter was renewed for twenty years from 1814, continued the Company in the possession of its territory, without stipulating for any immediate payment to the public; it provided that the accounts of the Company, both in England and in India, should be so kept as to exhibit the territorial and political, distinct from the commercial, branch of its concerns, the territorial revenue being appropriated strictly to the expenses of government and the repayment of i. territorial debt, while the commercial receipts and profits were alone applicable to commercial objects, and to the payment of dividends to the proprictors. he 59th section of the act provided that when the territorial debt should be reduced to 13,000,000l.,
the territorial profits should be o first to the repayment of any public funds that might have been created in this country for the use of the &o, and that they should be then paid into the public exchequer to accumulate until the deposits should amount to 12,000,000l., which sum should be retained for securing the capital stock of the Company, and providing an annuity to the proprietors equal to the rate of dividend, 10% per cent. per annum, which they then received. In the event of the accumulations going beyond 12,000,000l., one-sixth only of the surplus was to go to the Company, and five-sixths to be the property of the public. By these provisions, the right of parliament to assume possession of the Company's territories and of the revenues derived from them is clearly established. Throughout the whole of the territories held in absolute sovereignty by the East India Company, it exercises the right of ownership in the soil, not by retaining actual possession in its own old. but by levying assessments, which have usually been so calculated as to yield the greatest amount of present rental that could be collected from the cultivators, very frequently ‘all that could be raised without diminishing the number of the inhabitants or desolating the country.” Before the sway of the English in India, the lands were held by a class of men who cultivated the soil with their own hands, whose right of perpetual occupancy was never questioned, but who were subject to the demands of their several governments, demands unlimited as to the right of the sovereign, but limited in fact by custom, which was stronger than the sovereign power. Different systems, as regarded the mode of collecting the rent on the part of the government, existed in different parts of the country. In some places the rent, or rather the amount of the tax, was collected in one sum from each village, which kept up an establishment of officers, whose functions consisted in first proportioning according to the means of each, and in then levying the sum assessed among the cultivators. In other cases, government officers were appointed who received charge of several districts, and who were paid for their services by a per-centage upon the amount collected. These officers were known as Talookdars, or more commonly as Zamindars, and this system has from them acquired its name of the Zamindary system. It was usual formerly for the government to allow to the zamindar one-tenth of the amount of the collections, and to require the remaining nine-tenths to be paid into its treasury. In 1793, however, the Marquess Cornwallis, being then Governor General of India, formed the resolution of fixing the assessment, and placing the zamindars in the situation of proprietors, engaging not to raise at any time the amount of the assessments against them. This arrangement, known as the permanent settlement, has been established through a great part of the presidencies of Bengal and Madras, including also certain polygars in the south, and hill chiefs in the Northern Circars. It was hoped that by this means the zamindars would have been induced to improve their estates, since the whole increased revenue resulting from such improvements would have been permanently theirs. Unfortunately the power thus confided to the landholder has been used principally as the means of oppressing the actual cultivators, the ryots, and in order to repair this evil, the Company has of late years become the purchaser of all estates thus held which have been brought to sale, and making its bargain direct with the ryots, the actual cultivators of the soil, with the view of abolishing the system of employing middle-men: this plan is known under the name of the ryotwary system. The executive government of the Company's territories is administered at each of the presidencies by a governor and three councillors. The governor of Bengal is also the governor-general of India, and has a control over the governors of the other presidencies, and if he sees fit to proceed to either of those presidencies, he there assumes the chief authority. The governors and their councils have each in their district the power of making and enforcing laws, subject in some cases to the concurrence of the supreme court of judicature, and in all cases to the approval of the court of directors and the board of control. Two concurrent systems of judicature exist in India, viz.: the Company's courts and the king's or supreme courts. In the Company’s courts there is a mixture of European and native judges. The jurisdiction of the king's courts extends over Europeans generally throughout India, and affects the native inhabitants only in and within a certain distance around
the several presidencies: it is in these courts alone that trial by jury is established. Every regulation made by the local governments affecting the rights of individuals must be registered by the king's court in order to give it validity. The constitution, in other respects, of the East India Company is shown by the following brief analysis of the princi. pal clauses of the act 3 and 4 William IV., c. 85, which received the royal assent, 28th August, 1833, and under which its concerns are at present administered:— Sec. 1–The government of the British territories in India is continued in the hands of the Company until April, 1854. The real and personal property of the Company to be held in trust for the crown, for the service of India. 2.—The privileges and powers granted in 1813, and all other enactments concerning the Company not repugnant to this new act, are to continue in force until April, 1854. 3–From 22nd April, 1834, the China and tea trade of the Company to cease. 4.—The Company to close its commercial concerns and to sell all its property not required for purposes of overnment. 9.—The debts and liabilities of the Company are charged on the revenues of India. 43–The governor-general in council is empowered to legislate for India and for all persons, whether British or native, foreigners or others. 44–If the laws thus made by the governor-general are disallowed by the authorities in England, they shall be annulled by the governor-general. 81.-Any natural-born subject of England may proceed by sea to any part or place within the limit of the Company’s charter having a custom-house establishment, and may reside thereat, or pass through to other parts of the Company's territories to reside thereat. 86–Lands within the Company's territories may be purchased and held by any persons where they are resident. 87.-No native nor any natural-born subject of his majesty resident in India, shall, by reason of his reliion, place of birth, descent, or colour, be disabled om holding any office or employment under the overnment of the Company. 88. avery to be immediately mitigated, and abolished as soon as possible. The alterations in the constitution and administration of the Company effected by this act of 1833 are calculated to exercise a very important influence upon the future condition of the inhabitants of India. So long as the Company was allowed to combine commercial pursuits with its political character, its power might always have been, and very * was exercised in a manner ruinous to private traders. The extensive scale upon which its purchases were made raised prices in the country of production, and tended to lower them in Europe, and as it was never known in what articles the investments of the Company were to be made, their competitors were always forced to act under apprehension of interference, that set all their calculations at defiance. Now that the trade has been allowed to take a more natural course, we may confidently expect that the usual good result will attend upon the employment of individual skill and enterprise, that greater regularity of prices will be experienced, and that production will be stimulated until the prices of India produce are brought within the compass of a larger number of European consumers than at present. The advantages to England of this state of things must be great. To use the emphatic words of Dr. Wallich, the superintendent of the Company's botanic gardens at Calcutta, “The Company's territories in India are productive of every article which can conduce to the happiness of man; and it only requires skill and ingenuity, and encouragement, both to the natives and to Europeans in India, to select everything that can possibly be desired.' On the other hand, the luxuries and conveniences of European production, which are suited to the tastes of the natives of India, are equally varied and numerous, and present experience warrants the belief that under a regular course of trade, the circle of our customers for these productions wil be continually enlarged. The progress here described must be greatly accelerated by the provisions contained in the 81st and $6th sections of the act, which authorisesk". settlein 2. K. 2
ment of Europeans in India and the purchase of lands by them. Previously to the passing of this act, the Company possessed the right of arbitrary deportation against Europeans without trial or reason assigned, and British-born subjects were not only restricted from purchasing lands, but were prohibited from even renting them. Under the 87th section, if fairly carried into execution, a greater inducement than had hitherto been offered, is held out to the natives of India to qualify themselves for advancement in the social scale; a circumstance from which the best moral effects upon their characters are expected to result.
The revenue of the Indian government is not confined to its collections from the land, but consists likewise of customs—duties, stamp-duties, subsidies, and tribute from certain native states, some local taxes, and the profits arising from the monopolies of salt and opium. The following is an abstract of the revenues and charges of the Indian government during each of the three years 1831-32 to 1833-34, the latest for which the accounts have yet been presented to parliament.
| 1831-32. 1832–33. 1833–34. REVENUES. e ae £ Bengal . - - - 9,474,084 9,487,778 8,844,241 Madras . - - - - 3,332, 155 2,969,956 3,235,233 Bombay - - - 1,401,916 1,497,308 1,600,691 Total revenues of India . 14, 198, 155 || 13,955,042 | 13,680, 165 Ch.ARGES. Rengal . - - - - 7,535, 170 7,687,228 7,018,449 Madras . - - - - 3,239,261 3, 174,347 3,258,995 Bo:ubay - - - - 2,060,498 2,034, 710 1,968,045 Charges on account of St. IIoleua 94, 152 95,553 91,641 Charges disbursed in England 1,476,655 1,227,536 1,293,637 Total charges of India - 14,405,736 14,219,374 13,630,767 Deficiency - 207,581 264,332 Surplus . - - - - 49,398 Annual Debts Amount of Interest. Public debts bearing Interest. £ ze Hengal . - - - - 31,508,574 1,609,844 Madras . - - - - 3,351,271 112,857 Bombay - - - - 603,638 31,844 35,463,483 | 1,754,545
The great extent of its territories, and the nature of the tenure by which they are held, oblige the Company to keep on foot a large standing army, which is necessarily accompanied by great expense. The most recent detailed account that i. been given upon this subject has reference to the year 1830, in which year the total number of the military force employed at the three presidencies and subordinate settlements in India amounted to 224,444 men, and its expense to 9,474,481. The different descriptions of force and the expense attending each were then as follows —
Total. Expense. Engineers—Officers, European and Natives, and Rank and File 1084 is 83,873 Artillery–European—Horse 2560 199,141 Foot 7.469 252,343 Native—Horse 1062 74,239 Foot 6294 100,740 Cavalry—European—King's . 2577 172,588 Native—Company's—Regular 12,248 718,853 Irregular 4714 179,393 Infantry—European—King's . 17,731 628,612 Company's - 3634 122,400 Native—Regular 124,391 3,103,355 Irregular 24,306 270,712 Invalids - - 10,588 Pioneers 3487 74,511 Hospital - - - - lso Expense of Medical Department 132,858 Staff . - - - 1033 488,490 Commissariat . 614,327 Other Military charges. 2,258,046 Total Force 224,444 Total Expense . - £9,474,481
EAST INDIES. The portion of the globe to which the name of India, or the East Indies, is given, is usually understood to comprehend the peninsula of Hindostan lying to the east of the river Indus, and thence eastward as far as the boundary of the Chinese empire, by which empire, and by Tartary, India is also bounded on the north. The East Indies include also the islands of the Indian Ocean which lie between Hindostan and Australia as far morth as the Philippine Islands, and as far east as Papua, but without including either the Philippines or Papua. EASTER, Anglo-Saxon Eastre, a moveable feast, held in commemoration of the Resurrection; being the most important and most antient in observance, it governs the whole of the other moveable feasts throughout the year. In the Greek and Latin churches it is called IIaoxa, Pascha, originally derived from a Hebrew word signifying a passage, which was the name given to the great feast of the Passover, held by the Jews on the same day with that on which our Saviour held his paschal feast. The etymologies of the word Easter have been various. Bede says, it was derived from a goddess called Eostre, to whom the people used at this season to celebrate festivals; but the most obvious is the Anglo-Saxon yst, a storm, the time of Easter being subject to the continual recurrence of tempestuous weather. That the observation of Easter is as antient as the time of the Apostles seems undoubted. In the second century, however, a controversy arose as to the exact time of its celebration. The Eastern churches kept it on the 14th day of the first Jewish month; the Western churches on the night which preceded the anniversary of our Saviour's resurrection. The inconvenience of the former was, that this festival was commonly held upon other days of the week than the first, or Sunday, which was undoubtedly the proper day. The disputants retained their respective customs fill towards the middle of the fourth century, when the rule for the ce. lebration of Easter was fixed by the Council of Nice, A.D. 325. It was ordered to be held on the Sunday which falls next after the first full moon following the 21st of March, or vernal equinox. Brand, in his Popular Antiquities, has given a long enumeration of the sports and observances at Easter in former times, including a few superstitions. The mutual presentation of coloured eggs at this season from friends continues both in the East and in Russia. (See Dr. E. D. Clarke's Travels, vol. i., 4to., Cambr., 1810, p. 59.) Lifting, originally designed to represent our Saviour's resurrection, is also still practised on Easter Monday and Tuesday in England, in Lancashire and some other counties; on which days, as well as at Whitsuntide, the Londoners repair to the celebration of their popular gaieties at Greenwich fair. Tansey puddings and cakes were antiently eaten in England at Easter. (Broughton's Dict. Qf all Religions, fol., London, 1756, p. 395; Brady's Clavis Calendaria, 8vo. London, 1812, vol. i., p. 269; Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. i., p. 137-155.) EASTER, Method of Finding. The importance of this uestion, in aiding historical ore. is confined to that efinition of Easter Sunday which was finally adopted by the western church. It is as follows: the Sunday following the full moon which follows the 21st of March; if a full moon fall on the 21st of March, therefore, the next full moon is the paschal moon; and if the paschal moon fall on a Sunday, the next Sunday is Easter Sunday. By common consent, it is not the real sun or the rea
moon which is employed in finding Easter, but the fictitious sun and moon of astronomers, which move uniformly with the average motion of the real bodies. It must therefore never surprise any one to find the Easter of any year not agreeing with the above definition, since such a case might (and sometimes must) arise. Say, for instance, that the real opposition of the sun and moon took place at, a minute before twelve o'clock at night, March 2i, and that of the average sun and moon two minutes after the above. The consequence would be that, counting by the real bodies, the full moon in question would not be the paschal full moon, while that of '. average bodies would be so. But the following rules will determine the Easter day of chronologists in .# year of the Christian aora, which is all that is required — First, ascertain the dominical letter, taking the second where there are two. [Dominical LETTER). Next, ascertain the golden number (year of the Metonic cycle) as follows: adi one to the date of the year and divide by 19, the remainder (or if there be no remainder, 19 itself) is the golden number. The following table must then be used, in the manner to be immediately explained:–
Having the golden number, and the dominical letter, find out the golden number in the second or third column, according as old style or new style is meant; and look down the first column until the neart occurrence of the dominical letter comes. Easter day is opposite. Thus the golden number being 13 and the dominical letter F, Easter day is March 31 in the old style, April 7 in the new style. Example 1. – What was Easter day A.D. 1688 (old style)? The dominical letters are AG. Take the second, G. 1688 l 19) 1689(88 rem. 17 the golden number.
Opposite to 17, under O.S., comes, April 9 A, and the next G which occurs is opposite to April 15, which was therefore Easter day.
Example 2.—When will Easter day fall, A.D. 1841 °
The dominical letter is C.
1841 1 19) 1842(96 rem. 18 the golden number.
Opposite to 18, under N.S., is April 6 E, and the next § is opposite to April 11, which is therefore Easter day.
The following table gives Easter day for every year from 1800 to 1999. Thus in 1873 Easter day is April 13 (a. 13); in 1973 it is April 22 (a. 22).
EASTER ISLAND, an island in the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean, more than 2000 miles distant from the coast of South America, is situated between 75° 5' and 75° 12' S. lat., and between 109° and 110° W. long. It is about thirty or forty miles in circuit, with a stony and hilly surface, and an iron-bound shore. The hills appear to rise to the height of 1200 feet, according to Beechey. At the southernmost extremity of the island is an extinct volcano. Lava seems to form the principal component of the hills, which rise gradually and are covered with grass. The island has no safe anchorage, no wood for fuel, no fresh water, and, no domestic animals, except a few fowls. The inhabitants live on yams, potatoes, and sugar-cane. In physiognomy, language, and manners, they resemble the inhabitants of the other groups of islands o: farther west. But it is remarkable, that on this island are found a number of colossal statues, some of which are fifteen or even eighteen feet high; they stand on platforms, which have been made with a considerable degree of art. Some conjecture that these monuments have been erected by a nation more numerous than its present inhabitants. Cook estimated the population at 600 or 700; but La Perouse thought that it amounted to 2000, and Beechey to 1230. (Cook, La Perouse, and Beechey.)
EBEL, JOHN GOTTFRIED, an esteemed writer on statistics and geology, born at Francfort on the Oder, October 6, 1764; died at Zürich, 1830. After completing his studies and taking his degree as doctor of medicine, he went to France, and became intimately acquainted with the Abbé Sieyes. In 1801 he went to Switzerland, and resided chiefly at Zürich. He travelled through Switzerland in all directions, and published some very valuable works on the natural history and statistics of the country. The most popular is his ‘Guide to Travellers in Switzerland.’ In his description of the mountaineers of Switzerland, he draws an interesting picture of the inhabitants of Appenzel and Glarus. His work on the geology of the Å. s touches also on the structure of the $o in general, and contains valuable information on the geognostical relations of the Alps.
EBELING, CHRISTOPHER DANIEL, born 174), at Garmissen in Hildesheim; died in 1817. He studied theology at Göttingen, and acquired great knowledge of the oriental languages, especially the Arabic, and was thoroughly ..". not only with the classical literature of Greece and Rome, but also with that of modern Europe, particularly England. He published numerous translations, &c., but his chief work is his ‘Geography and History of the United States of North America, 7 vols. 8vo., which was justly considered as a masterpiece, not only in Europe, but still more in America itself. He was chosen a member of almost all the learned societies of the country, and the Congress voted him public thanks for his services. That part of his library which related to America, consisting of 3900 volumes, was purchased after his death by M. Israel