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Thoredino, a friend of learning, at Boston, and presented to Harvard college. Ebeling was for thirty years professor of history and of the Greek language in the gymnasium at Hamburg. His industry was extraordinary. Besides the duties of his professorship and the composition of his chief work, he was for above twenty years keeper of the public library of the city, into which he introduced order and judicious arrangement, and composed a catalogue, which was much wanted. He besides contributed largely to mumerous periodicals. He was of a most friendly, cheerful, and social disposition; and we must admire the wonderful patience and equanimity with which he bore for thirty years a hardness of hearing, which gradually increased to almost total deafness, so that a loud voice was scarcely perceptible to him even with the aid of an ear-trumpet.
EBENA'CEAE, a natural order of monopetalous exogens with the following essential character:—Flowers either with separate sexes, or occasionally hermaphrodite. Calyx permanent, with from three to six divisions. Corolla monopetalous, regular, of a thick leathery texture, usually downy on the outside, with the same number of divisions as the calyx. Stamens twice or four times as numerous as the lobes of the corolla, adhering to its tube, and usually in two rows; sometimes adhering in pairs, Styles several. Fruit fleshy, superior, with only one pendulous seed in each cell. Embryo lying in much albumen, with large leafy cotyledons and a long taper radicle. The species consist entirely of bushes or trees, some of which are of large size; their leaves are alternate, with no stipules, and generally leathery and shining. Diospyrus Ebemus, and some others, yield the valuable timber called ebony. The fruit of Diospyrus Kaki is about as large as an apricot, and is dried as a sweetmeat by the Chinese. Most of the plants of this order are tropical; of the few found beyond the tropics, Diospyrus Lotus inhabits Africa and Switzerland, and D. Virginiana, the United States.
A branch of Diospyrus Lotus in fruit; 1, a flower; 2, a corolla, cut open : 3, the calyx and ovary; 4, a section of a ripe fruit, showing the secds.
, EBERSBACH, the largest village in the kingdom of Saxony, is situated in the eastern part of that kingdom, and in the circle of the Land, a subdivision of the province of Lusatia, in 51° 0' N. lat., and 14° 38' E. long. It is the centre of the linen manufacture of Saxony, is divided into Upper and Lower Ebersbach, has two churches, three schools, and about 700 houses, with upwards of 5000 inhabitants. There are more than 2000 looms in activity. It lies about nine miles north-west of Zittau. EBIONITES, a sect of Christian Jews, which existed in Palestine and other parts of the East in the first and second centuries of our aera. Like the Nazarenes, with whom they have been often confounded, they continued to observe the precepts and ceremonies of the Mosaic law; they kept both the Sabbath and the Sunday, made their ablutions, used unleavened bread in the celebration of the eucharist, and moreover, abstained from eating flesh. Still they do not seem to have formed a distinct sect till after the second destruction of Jerusalem by Hadrian, when they became separated from the rest of the church by their dogmas as
well as by their external practices. Origen, Epiphanius, Eusebius, and other early fathers, distinguish two sorts of Ebionites, namely, those who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ, asserting that he was the son of Joseph and Mary, though endowed with a prophetic gift, and those who maintained that he was born of a virgin, but denied his preexistence as God. The Ebionites in general acknowledged only one gospel, namely, the Hebrew one, which goes by the name of St. Matthew, and that one mutilated. They discarded the Acts of the Apostles, and especially the Epistles of St. Paul, whom they considered as an apostate from the old law. They had several apocryphal books; among others, a life of St. Peter. The earlier Ebionites lived a regular life, and many of them observed celibacy, which they held in great esteem. The later Ebionites became much more lax in their morals. The name of Ebionites is said by Eusebius, Origen, and Irenaeus to be derived from a Hebrew word of contempt, meaning “poor low people,’ which the Jews applied to those of their . who had embraced Christianity. Others have derived it from a philosopher of the name of Ebion, whose existence however is doubtful. Epiphanius speaks at length of the Ebionites, but he confounds them with other sects, and his account cannot be trusted. (Mosheim, Institutes of Eccles. History, with notes by Dr. Murdoch; Neander, Kirchengeschichte.) EBOE, is the name given in the West Indies to the blacks imported from the coasts of the Bight of Benin, as distinct from the natives of the Gold Coast and other parts of Africa. “In their complexion they are much yellower than the Gold Coast and Whidah Negroes; but it is a sickly hue, and their eyes appear as if suffused with bile, even while in perfect health. The conformation of the face in a great majority of them very much resembles that of the baboon.” (Edwards' History of the West Indies.) The Eboes are subject to great despondency and depression of spirits, which form a striking contrast to the frank and fearless temper of the Koromantyns, or Gold Coast Negroes. When the slave trade was still in vigour, the distinction between these two races was much attended to by the planters, who treated the Eboes with greater indulgence, in order to prevent their committing suicide, to which they were very prone. The Eboes practised circumcision and worshipped the guana. They were said to be cannibals in their native country. EBONY is well known as a hard black-coloured wood, brought from the hot parts of the world. The Greek name is ébenos (£3swog), from which the Latin ēbenus, and our word ebony have been immediately derived. It is first mentioned by Ezekiel, xxvii. 15, but in the plural, hobnem, where the men of Dedan are described as bringing to Tyre horns of ivory and ebony. The Persian name, abnoos, is that by which it is commonly known all over India; it 1S o: therefore, that the name, like the wood itself. had an Eastern origin. From its hardness, durability, susceptibility of a fine polish, and colour, which has almost become another name for blackness, ebony has always been in high estimation, and in the present day is much used for mosaic work and ornamental inlayings, though cheaper woods dyed black are frequently substituted. Herodotus (iii. 97) mentions ebony as part of the presents brought in considerable quantities to the king of Persia by the people of Ethiopia. Dioscorides describes two kinds, one Ethiopian, which was considered the best, and the other Indian, which was intermixed with whitish stripes and spotted; and hence commentators have disputed whether there were one or two kinds of ebony. But the fact is, that several trees yield this kind of wood, and all belong to the genus Diospyrus. Owing to the known geographical distribution of this genus, the antients must have derived their ebony either from the peninsula of India and the island of Ceylon or by the coasting trade from Madagascar; for no species of Diospyrus has yet been discovered by botanists in the upper parts of Egypt or in Abyssinia, though it is not improbable that some may be found, as the climate is well suited to their existence. The genus Diospyros (from dios and puros, which may be translated celestial food) has been so named from some of its species affording edible fruit. They all form large trees, with alternate, thick, often coriaceous leaves. The flowers are usually single and axillary, the male and female flowers separate or united. Calyx and corolla four-cleft, rarely five-cleft. Stamina often eight, but varying in different species. Germ superior, often eight-celled; cells one-seeded; attachment superior. Styles three or four, rarely five, or one, and variously divided. Berry from one to twelve-seeded, often eight-seeded. Embryo inverse, and furnished with albumen. Male flower frequently with twin anthers. The species are found chiefly in the tropical parts both of Asia and America, as in the Malayan archipelago and peninsula, and in almost every part of India. One species extends southwards to New Holland; one, D. Lotus, to Switzerland, and D. Virginiana into the United States of America. As some are remarkable for the wood which they afford, and others on account of their fruit, it is necessary only to notice a few of each, though the whole require the labours of a monographist. Diospyros Ebenus, the true ebony, and that which is considered to be of the best quality, is a large tree, a native of the Mauritius, Ceylon, and apparently also of Madagascar: for D. lanceolata, Poir., collected by Commerson in that island, is considered the same. The leaves are very smooth, short, petioled, alternate, bifarious, oblong in shape, the buds very hairy ; male flowers sub-racemed, with about twenty anthers, the hermaphrodite solitary, octandrous. arge quantities of the ebony of this species have been sometimes imported into Europe. D. Ebenaster. This is also a tree of considerable magnitude, a native of Ceylon, of which the leaves are coriaceous and smooth on both sides, and the buds smooth. D. reticulata (Tesselaria, Poir.) is another elevated tree, a native of the Mauritius, of which the heart-wood forms ebony. D. melanoxylon, described and figured by Rumph, iii., p. -9, Corom. Plants, 1 to 46, by Dr. Roxburgh, is the ebony tree of the Coromandel coast. It is found on the mountains of that coast as well as of Malabar, and in Ceylon. It grows to be very large, particularly the male tree, of which the wood is also most esteemed. The leaves, which are sub-opposite, oval, oblong, obtuse and villous, are deciduous in the cold season, the new ones appearing with the flowers in April and May ; as in other species, it is only the centre of large trees that is black and valuable, and this varies in quantity according to the age of the tree. The outside wood, which is white and soft, time and insects soon destroy, leaving the black untouched. The ripe fruit is eaten by the natives, though rather astringent, as is also the bark. D. tomentosa and Roylei are other Indian species which yield ebony. Several species of the genus bear fruit, which, though clammy and sub-astringent, is eaten by the natives of the countries where the trees are indigenous. We need name only the most celebrated, as D. Lotus, a native of Africa, and now common in the south of Europe, which bears a small yellow sweetish fruit about the size of a cherry, and which has by some been supposed to be the famous Lotus of the Lotophagi; but this is more likely to have been the jujube, called by botanists Zizyphus Lotus. Diospyros Kaki is celebrated in China and Japan: specimens introduced into the Botanic Garden of Calcutta were found to be identical with others from Nepal. The fruit is described by Dr. Roxburgh as being tolerably pleasant. It is esteemed in China, where it attains the size of an orange, and is frequently sent to Europe in a dried state, and called the date-plum of China, and also keg-fig of Japan. D. discolor of the Philippine Islands also bears a fruit which is esteemed, and called Mabolo. D., Virginiana, the Persimmon tree, is indigenous in North America, especially in the middle and southern of the United States, where it attains a height of sixty feet, but it does not flourish beyond the 42° of N. latitude. The fruit while green is excessively astringent, but when ripe, and especially after it has been touched by the frost, it is sweet and palatable. The fleshy part separated from the seeds is made into cakes, which are dried and preserved. A kind of cider has also been made from this fruit, and a spirituous liquor distilled from its fermented infusion. D. glutinosa also affords a fruit which, though edible, is far from palatable, but more valuable as an article of commerce. The tree is middle sized, a native of the moist valleys amongst the mountains of the Circars, and all along the foot of the Himalaya to 30° N. latitude. Sir Wiiliam Jones first mentioned what is well known throughout Bengal, that the astringent viscid mucus of the fruit is used for paying the bottoms of boats. The unripe fruit contains a large proportion of tannin, and its infusion is employed to steep fishing-nets in to make them more durable. o IBE'RUS, a river of Spain, which rises near
Reinosa in Old Castile, at the foot of the Asturian mountains, flows in an east-south-east direction, and crosses the north part of Old Castile. Afterwards, on reaching the frontiers of Biscay, it inclines more to the south-east, and marks the boundary between Biscay and Navarra on its left and Castile on its right bank, passes by Miranda and Logroño, then enters Navarra, and divides the districts of Tudela and Cascante from the rest of that province. It then enters Aragon, which it divides into two nearly equal parts, one to the north-east and the other to the south-west of its course, flows by Zaragoza and Mequinenza, and below the latter town enters Catalonia, when it assumes a southSouth-east direction, and passes by Tortosa, below which it enters the sea by two branches, the southernmost of which forms the port of Alfaques. [CATALONIA.] The whole course of the Ebro, with its numerous windings, is rather more than 400 miles. The valley of the Ebro, lying between the great Pyrenean chain and the highlands of Castile, forms a natural division between the northern provinces of Spain and the rest of the peninsula, and the course of the Ebro has therefore been often assumed as a military line in the wars of that country. Previous to the second Punic war, it formed the line of demarcation between the dominions of Carthage and those of Rome. It afterwards formed the boundary between the dominions of Charlemagne and his successors and those of the Moors. The French in their Spanish wars have repeatedly purposed to make the Ebro the boundary between France and Spain. The Ebro begins to be navigable for boats at Tudela in Navarra, but the navigation is often impeded by rapids and shoals. To avoid these, the imperial canal has been constructed, which begins at Fontelles near Tudela, and running yarallel to and south of the river, rejoins it six miles below Zaragoza. It was intended to carry it as far as Tortosa. [ARAgoN.] The Ebro receives numerous affluents from the Pyrenean chain, the principal of which are as follows. The Aragon, which rises in the mountains of Navarra and enters the Ebro near Milagro. The Gallego, from the mountains of Jaca in Aragon, enters the Ebro nearly opposite Zaragoza. The Segre, swelled by its numerous afluents, the Chinca, the Noguera Pallaresa, Noguera Ribagorza, and others, draining a vast tract of country both in Aragon and Catalonia, enters the Ebro below Mequinenza on the borders of the two rovinces. On its right bank the Ebro receives, above aragoza, the Jalon, joined by the Jiloca, coming from the central highlands between Aragon and Castile. The Guadalupe, which comes from the mountains of Teruel in S. Aragon, enters the Ebro above Mequinenza. EBULLITION. [Boiling of Fluids.] EBURNA. [ENToMostomATA] ECBATANA ('Ex3árava), the antient capital of Media, founded by Deioces (Herod. i. 98). The genuine orthography of the word appears to be Agbātana (Ayşärava: see Steph. Byzant. v. 'A73árava), as it is now written in the text of Herodotus, and, as we are informed by Stephanus, it was written by Ctesias. It appears in the “Itinerary' of Isidore of Charax under the form of Apobātana. There was a city of the same name in Syria, of uncertain position (Herod. iii. 64), where Cambyses died. [CAMBYsks.] Ecbatana was situated, according to the testimony of antient writers, in a plain at the foot of a lofty mountain called Orontes. Herodotus, who had probably seen the place, describes it as built on a conical kind of hill, and consisting of seven circular inclosures or walls, one within another, each wall being higher than that which surrounded it, and the innermost wall, which surrounded the o: of course the highest of all. Ecbatana being a high and mountainous country, was a favourite residence of the Persian kings during summer, when the heat at Susa was almost insupportable. Hamadan, which is on or near the site of Ecbatana, is near the parallel of 35° N. lat. and in 48° E. long, in a low plain at the foot of Mount Elwund. Elwund belongs to that mountain-chain which forms the last step in the ascent from the lowlands of Irak Arabi to the high table-land of Iran. [Asia, p. 470.] ‘ During eight months in the year the climate of łion is delightful; but in winter the cold is excessive, and fuel with difficulty procured. The plain is intersected by innumerable little streams, covered with gardens and villages, and the vegetation is the most luxurious I ever beheld.' (Kinneir's Persia, p. 126.) Kinneir says that the summit of Elwund is tipped with continual snow, and seldom obscured by clouds. Hamadan has a large manufacture of leather, and also a considerable trade, owing to its position on the high road from Bagdad to Tehran and Ispahan. According to Kinneir, it has about 10,000 inhabitants. [Asia, pp. 469, 470.] The site of Ecbatana has been a matter of dispute; but the dispute has arisen solely because those who have discussed the question either did not know the evidence on which the question must be decided, or did not understand it. The route of commerce between the low country in the neighbourhood of the antient Seleuceia and the modern Bagdad and the high table-land of Iran, is determined by the physical character of the country, and has continued the same from the earliest recorded history of those countries to the present day. The places marked in the “Itinerary’ of Isidore as lying between Seleuceia and Ecbatana are the places indicated by modern travellers as lying on the route between Bagdad and Hamadan. This question is fully discussed in the 4th No. of the ‘Journal of Education.’ For further references as to the history of Ecbatana, in addition to those given in the ‘Journal of Education,” the reader may consult Bühr’s ‘Ctesias," p. 88 ; the note on Q. Curtius, v. c. 8, ed. Pitiscus, 1708; and Wesseling's note on Herod. i. 98. ECCLESIASTES, or THE PREACHER, a canonical book of the Old Testament, placed after the Proverbs and before the Song of Solomon. The English title is adopted from that in the Greek Septuagint ('Exx\mataar.)c, Ecclesiastes), which is a translation of the Hebrew title in mp, Choheleth, that is, one who calls together or calls out to an assembly—a public declaimer. A review of the various learned interpretations of this term is given in Mr. Holden's work on Ecclesiastes, p. 31. Widely different opinions have been expressed by many biblical critics concerning the author, date, and design of this portion of the Bible. The Rev. G. Holden, in the preface to his learned ‘Attempt to illustrate the Book of Ecclesiastes,’ 8vo. 1822, observes that, “In common with most other students, he has felt much perplexed by the many difficulties of this book; that of all the Hebrew Scriptures none present greater obstacles to the expositor; for besides the obscuritics possessed in common with the others, it has some peculiar to itself; that, with respect to the nature of the author's argument, style, and design, the opinions of critics and commentators have diverged to incredible distances; and their labours serve rather to perplex than to assist the inquirer.' The general supposition that Ecclesiastes was written by Solomon is apparently warranted by the passages i., 1, 12, 16; ii., 4-9, which designate the author as the son of David, king of Israel, and the greatest possessor of wealth and wisdom in Jerusalem. However, it is not only doubted by some commentators, as Semler (Apparatus in Wet. Test., p. 203), that Solomon is the author, but by many other critics and divines of the greatest learning and reputation it is declared to be a production of the age of or subsequent to the Babylonish captivity (600 b.c.), that is, 400 ão after Solomon, who reigned 1000 B.C.: Zirkel and others date it as late as 130 B.C. (Grotius, Prolegum. in Ecclesiastem : Hermann von der Hardt, De Libro Koheleth ; Van der Palm, Diss. de Libro Ecclesiastes ; Doederlein, Scholia in Ecclesiastem ; Professor Dathe, Nota in Ecclesiastem : Zirkel, Untersuchungen in Ecclesiastes; and especially Jahn, Introduct. ad P. Test.; and Eichhorn, Einleitung in das Alte Test, vol. iii.) The writers of the Talmud and Rabbi Kimchi attribute this book, as well as Proverbs and the Song, to King Hezekiah or the prophet Isaiah. Dr. Adam Clarke (Preface to Ecclesiastes, in his ed. of the Bible) asserts that the traditionary notion entertained by the Jews and many Christian divines, as Jerome, Huet, Michaelis, &c., that Ecclesiastes was written by Solomon in his old age, after recovering from idolatry and sensuality, is an assumption which never has been nor can be proved to be true; for since it was ‘when Solomon was old, that his heart was turned away after other gods by his 700 wives and 300 concubines' (i Kings, ii. 3 and 4), and as he died about the age of sixty, the supposition of a final period of philosophical and pious contrition is not o by probability. “The language,’ says the same divine, ‘puzzles me not a little; Chaldaisms, Syriasms, and Chaldee words are frequent, and the style is that of the authors who lived at or after the captivity; Bishop Lowth remarks that the style is peculiar; the diction low, exceedingly obscure, loose, unconnected,
...tions, has reduced the whole to consistency.
and resembling conversation. (Praelect. 24.) The greatest difficulty in expounding this book consists in ascertaining the proper principle of interpretation; for many passages understood literally seem to sanction a belief in the nonexistence of a divine Providence (ii. 11, “All things, time and chance, happen alike to the righteous and the wicked’); in annihilation or materialism (iii. 19, “A man hath no pre-eminence over a beast; both die alike ; and the dead (ix. 5) have no knowledge and no reward'); splenetic repining is apparently sanctioned (iv. 3, ‘It is more fortunate not to be born than to be either living or dead’); so voluptuousness (ii. 24, viii. 15, &c., “Man hath no better thing than to eat, to drink, and be merry'); which is contradicted, (vii. 3,) where sorrow is said to be better than laughter. To clear the author from the imputation of teaching erroneous and contradictory doctrines, and promoting sensuality and despair, it has been suggested that the treatise is a series of counter pro
sitions, or objections and replies. With this view Mr }. has composed an elaborate paraphrase of the ori. ginal text, and by qualifying and judiciously modifying the expressions and interweaving many ingenious explana; The general opinion of the commentators, that the design of the book is to inquire about the supreme good", and to show that it consists in religious wisdom, is adopted by Mr. Holden, with the idea also of its consisting of two divisions: the first, to verse 10 of chap. vi. being occupied in setting forth the vanity of all the labours and enjoyments of human life, the second in eulogizing religious wisdom and describing its nature and effects. The learned Desvoeux, in his Philo
sophical and Critical Essay on Ecclesiastes,’ 4to. 1760.
having collected and discussed many fanciful opinions of other expositors with regard to the design of this hook suggests and maintains it to be “to prove the immortality of the soul and a future state of restitution.' Dr. Graves adopted this opinion; but Mr. Holden rejects and refutes it, remarking that “the doctrine of a future state is left in great darkness and obscurity, not only in Ecclesiastes, but in all the Hebrew Scriptures, in no passage of which it is announced as a necessary article of faith.' Various fanciful conjectures have been offered in commenting on the figu. rative language of the last chapter, descriptive of old age (See Holden, p. 161.) In addition to the works already mentioned, the following may be found useful for refer. ence:—Greenaway's translation of Ecclesiastes; Hodg son's translation: Bishop Reynolds's ‘Comment on Ec. clesiastes;’ Dr. Wardlaw’s ‘Lectures on Ecclesiastes." Fol numerous others, see Watt’s ‘Bibliotheca Brit.” ECCLESIA'STICUS, or THE WISDOM OF JESUS. THE SON OF SIRAC, an apocryphal book of the Old Testament. It is stated to have been originally written in Syro-Chaldaic, by Jesus, the son of Sirac, a learned Jew, who travelled in pursuit of knowledge 130 years B.c. It was translated into Greek for the use of the Jews of Alex. andria, by the grandson of the author, or rather compiler. for it is evidently a collection of fragments, written at dif.
ferent times and on various occasions, consisting of medi-.
tations and proverbs relating to religion, morals, and the general conduct of human life. But though it is manifest that no methodical plan or arrangement was observed in the composition, the commentators remark that the whole will admit of division into three parts. The first extends to the end of chap. 43, and is occupied in the commendation of wisdom and the statement of moral precepts. The second celebrates the virtues of the patriarchs and prophets of the Jews, and extends to the ...] of chapter 49. The third part is comprised in the 50th and concluding chapter, and consists of a prayer or hymn, exhorting mankind to the pursuit of wisdom. These meditations display much acuteness of thought, with propriety of diction, and occasionally poetical eloquence. They closely resemble the numerous other oriental proverbs, and especially the collection attributed to Solomon. In the western Christian church this book was highly esteemed: the council of Carthage made it canonical, as the fifth book of Solomon, and the council of Trent confirmed the decision. It was also introduced by the early Protestant reformers into the liturgy of the church of England. Addison, in the 68th number of the Spectator, observes, that were this collection issued under the name of Con
* See, on the question of the summum bonum, Aristotle's ‘Nicomac. Ethics:" Plato's “Philebus;’. Cicero, De Finibus;" Stobaeus, ‘Eclog. Ethic.; St. Augustin, ‘Civitas Dei; Harris 'On Happiness.”
fucius, or one of the sages of Greece, it would be regarded as one of the most brilliant moral treatises ever published. The opinion which attributes it to Solomon is falsified by several allusions to the captivity, showing that some parts at least were written under the monarchs of Babylon c. 47, &c.), 400 years subsequent to the reign of Solomon. The Greek fathers frequently cite the book of Ecclesiasticus as " 'Inaoi Sopia, the Wisdom of Jesus: IIavágroc Xopia, the Excellent Wisdom; and Aéroc, the Rational Discourse: The Latin fathers named it Ecclesiasticus, or the Book of the Church, from its being then appointed to be read in churches. A Syriac and an Arabic version are extant. The Latin version, which is supposed to be of the first century, contains numerous words adopted from the Greek, but differs much from the present Greek text. (Eccles:asticus, or the Book of the Church, by Juke Howard, F.R.S., 1827; Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, Wisdom of Solomon, or Ecclesiasticus, 1755; Sonntag, Comment. de Jesu Siracida, Ecclesiastico, 4to, 1792; Bretschneider, de lib. Jesu Siracidae (prolegom. pp. 10-32), dates the o compilation 180 b.c.; Horne's Introduct. to the ible, vol. iv.) ECCREMOCARPUS SCABER, a climbing Chilian half-shrubby plant belonging to the natural order Bignoniaceae, inhabiting thickets and hedges in its native country, and on: among the branches of bushes and small trees. It has an angular cinnamon-brown stem, with ale-green succulent branches; opposite pinnated tri: }. leaves, with obliquely cordate serrated leaflets, and a terminal tendril; horizontal racemes of tubular orangescarlet obliquely ventricose flowers, the limb of whose corolla is narrow and five-lobed; and remarkable oval compressed pods covered all over with short tubercles, and opening into two thin convex valves, within which is placed a number of thin winged netted seeds. . It is a handsome halfshrubby plant, which will live in the open air in the milder parts of É. By some it is called Calampelis scabra. ECHARū, LAWRENCE. It is unknown when this author was born; but his translation of the “Amphitryo' of Plautus was published in 1694. He was educated at
countries under the Carlovingian dynasty. In Holland they are called schepens. The scabini were the assessors to the counts or missi dominici, appointed by the monarch to administer a province or district; and they were chosen among the local inhabitants. Afterwards, when charters were given to the communes, the municipal magistrates elected by the burgesses assumed also the name of scabini or échevins. (Ducange, Glossarium.)
ECHIDNA (Cuvier), Tachyglossus (Illiger), a genus of Monotremes, Monotremata (Geoffroy), the third tribe of the order Edentata (Cuvier's sixth order of Mammifers) none of which have any incisor teeth in either jaw.
The peculiar structure of the group, consisting of Echidna and Ornithorhynchus, will be treated of under the title MonotREMEs.
Skull of Echidna.
Muzzle elongated, slender, terminated by a small mouth furnished with an extensible tongue, similar to that of the Ant-eaters and Pangolins. No teeth, but the palate armed with many rows of small spines directed backwards. Feet short, very robust, and formed for digging, each armed with five long claws. Tail very short. Body covered with spines like that of the hedge-hog. Stomach ample and nearly globular; calcum moderate. Leur verge se termine par quatre tubercules.
Of this curious genus, zoologists are agreed that only one species has been yet discovered, though two have been recorded; viz. Echidna Hystric and Echidna setosa, the so-called two species being the same animal in the clothing of different seasons, or of different periods of age. This species is the Myrmecophaga aculeata and Porcupine Ant-eater of Shaw, Ornithorhynchus aculeatus of Home,
Cambridge, and having taken orders, was presented to a | Echidna Hystria and Echidna setosa of G. Cuvier, Echidna living in Lincolnshire. In 1712 he became archdeacon of Australiensis of Lesson, Hedge-hog of the colonists at
Stowe and prebendary of Lincoln. His historical, works have long ceased to be read; but his translation of Terence is still frequently purchased by indolent schoolboys, who could not well buy a more unprofitable book. The characters of the elegant and refined Terence are made to utter all the vulgarisms and scurrilities of the eighteenth century: thus we have such expressions as ‘the devil a person,’ ‘damnable roguery,’ ‘fools' paradise,' constantly before us. Sir Charles Sedley has left a version of Terence's • Eunuch somewhat in the same style; but he has had the good sense merely to take the plot of the classic, and repre: sent the characters as modern Englishmen; whereas Echard thas committed the palpable absurdity of putting his ribaldry in the mouths of Athenian citizens: and to crown all, has written a most self-complacent preface, wherein he acknowledges he could not have followed his author more closely without destroying his design “ of giving, an easy comic style.' We should not have been so pointed in our remarks on this worthless book had we not been fully aware, that while classical studies form so considerable a branch of education, it is of the utmost importance that the young student should not acquire those incongruous and absurd notions which he cannot fail to imbibe from such works as Echard’s ‘Terence.” E'CHEWIN, the name given under the old French monarchy to the municipal magistrates of various cities and towns. At Paris there were four échevins and a prévôt des marchands, whose jurisdiction extended over the town and adjacent territory; in the other towns there was a maire and two or more &chevins. In the south of France the same officers were called by other names, such as consuls in Languedoc and ... capitouls at Toulouse, jurats at Bordeaux. The last name, that of jurats, is retained in some of the English municipalities. They tried minor suits, laid the local duties or octroi upon imports, had the inspection of the commercial revenues and expenditure, as well as the superintendence of the streets, roads, and markets, the repairs of public buildings, &c. The name &chevins seems to have been derived from scabini, a Latin word of the middle ages, which was used in Italy under the Longobards, and in France, Flanders, and other P. C., No. 563
Sidney. Size, about that of the common hedge-hog. Spines dirty-white for the greatest part of their length, and black at their extremity. Hair of a chestnut colour, soft and silky, in such abundance, at a certain season, as to half cover the spines, whilst, at another, the hair entirely disappears. Food.—Ants, which the animal captures with its extensile tongue. Habits.--The habits of the Echidna in a state of nature are but little known. It digs for itself burrows, wherein it remains during the dry season, coming out of the earth only during the rains. It is supposed to be capable of supporting a iong abstinence, and H. intervals of suspended animation (engourdissemens), which continue for eighty hours at a time, and recur frequently when the animal is kept in confinement. For protection, the animal is said to be able to roll itself up like a common hedge-hog. But, if we know little of the natural habits of the Echidna, we are indebted to Lieutenant Breton, Corr. Memb. Zool. Soc., for an account of its manners in captivity, and for some suggestions which we hope will be attended to if this article should meet the eye of any one who may have it in his power to put them in practice. If they are carefully followed, we may yet see this most interesting quadruped in the gardens of the Zoological Society in the egent's Park. Lieut. Breton had an Echidna which lived with him for some time in New Holland, and survived a part of the voyage to England. The animal was captured by him on the Blue Mountains: it is now very uncommon in the colony of New South Wales. It burrows readily, but he does not know to what depth. Its strength he considers as exceeding, in proportion to its size, that of any other quadruped in existence. revious to embarkation, Lieutenant Breton fed his Echidna on ant eggs (pupae) and milk, and when on, board its diet consisted of egg chopped small, with liver and meat. It drank much water. Its mode of eating was very curious, the tongue being used at some times in the manner of that of the chameleon, and at others in that in which a mower Vol. IX.-2 L
uses his scythe, the tongue being curved laterally, and the food, as it were, swept into the mouth: there seemed to be an adhesive substance on the tongue, by which the food was drawn in. The animal died suddenly off Cape Horn while the vessel was amidst the ice; perhaps in consequence of the cold, but not improbably on account of the eggs with which it was fed being extremely bad. Lieutenant Breton concurs with MM. Quoy and Gaimard in thinking that there would be little difficulty in bringing the Echidna to Europe, and the following plan is suggested by him for effecting its importation. Previously to embarkation the animal should be gradually weaned from its natural food (ants). This may be done by giving it occasionally ants and ant-eggs, but more generally milk, with eggs chopped very small, or egg alone. It should be kept on shipboard in a deep box, with strong bars over the top, and a door. The box or cage must be deep, because the animal constantly tries its utmost to escape; and, as it possesses very great strength, it is liable to injure itself in its exertions to force its way through the bars. Its excrements are so extremely fetid, that it cannot be kept altogether in a cabin, unless the cage be frequently cleaned. While this is being done, the Echidna may be allowed its liberty, but must be narrowly watched, or it will certainly go overboard. It is absolutely necessary that the eggs on which it is fed during the voyage should be as fresh as possible: they can be preserved in lime water. If milk is not to be procured, water must be supplied daily; and egg and liver, or fresh meat, cut small, should be given at least every alternate day. When the weather will permit, it should be fed once a day. Half an egg, boiled hard, and the liver of a fowl or other bird, will suffice for a meal. The animal should be kept warm, and should be well supplied with clean straw. It will be as well to nail two or three pieces of wood (battens) across the floor of the cage, to prevent the animal from slipping about when the ship is unsteady. (Zool. Proc., 1834, Part 2.) Localities.—Blue Mountains, &c., the environs of Port Jackson, and Van Diemen's Land.
ECHI’NADES. [Achelous.] ECHINASTRAEA.. [MADREPHYLLIGEA.] ECHI’NIDAE, a family of radiated animals, comprehending those marine animals popularly known by the name of sea-eggs, or sea-urchins (oursins of the French). De Blainville makes the Echinidea, the second order of the class Echinodermata, and he thus defines the order. Body oval or circular, regular, sustained by a solid shell, which is calcareous and composed of polygonal plates, disposed in radiated order in twenty rows, which are either equal, or alternately and regularly unequal. The shell supports upon proportionable mamillary projections stiff spines which are extremely variable in form, and is pierced by series of pores, forming by their assemblage a kind of ambulacra. It radiates more or less regularly from the summit to the base and gives exit to tentaculiform cirrhi. Mouth armed or unarmed, pierced in a notch of the shell invariably on the lower side. Vent always distinct, but offering many variations in its position. Generative Orifices four or five in number, the dorsal summit.
disposed onal" of the ambulacra.
Anatomy, Reproduction, &c.—Not completely known, notwithstanding the labours of Réaumur, Klein, Cuvier, Lamarck, De Blainville, Gray, Delle Chiaje, Tiedemann, and lor. Sharpey, to whose works we must refer the reader. We shall only here observe that the whole of the Echinidae are probably hermaphrodites, and that consequently reproduction is carried on without the aid of a second individual: but this is uncertain. On the European coasts the Echinidae are observed with their ovaries in a turgescent state in the spring, and we may thence conclude that the time of ovipositing is the summer; the places of deposit are most probably the fissures or cavities of rocks and aggregations of fucus, and the deposit itself is made in one mass. Nothing certain appears to be known as to the o of the eggs, the duration of that development, or of the length of the life of the animal. Geographical Distribution.—In almost all seas, but more especially in those of warm climates, on rocky or sandy coasts, often free, sometimes sunk in the sand. The species are very numerous. Habits.--All the Echinidae are locomotive, though their locomotion, which is effected principally by means of their contractile tubular feet, and in a degree by their spines, is rather laborious. Some of the species, which repose on rocks, have a power of eroding the stone so as to make a nidus for themselves, which is generally not deep. Food.—Animal probably and molecular in #. edentulous species. Those whose mouth is armed with teeth are supposed to live on marine plants. Cavolini, at least, says as much of the sea-eggs (oursins), properly so called. Utility to Man.—When the ovaries of some of the species are fully developed (Echinus edulis, for instance), they are collected as an article of food.
. . There are few animal remains, with the exception of the shells of the testaceous mollusks, which are better preserved than those of the Echinidae. They occur in a fossil state in almost incredible numbers, and are to be traced through all the formations, from the epoch of the transition series to the present time. Dr. Buckland remarks that he found, many years ago, fossil Echinidans in the carboniferous limestone of Ireland, near Donegal, and that they are rare in the transition formation, become more frequent in the muschel-kalk and lias, and abound throughout the oolitic and cretaceous formations”. Their abundance may be, in some degree, accounted for by the habits of a great proportion of them, which lead them to bury themselves in the sand, &c., so that their preservation must for the most part be complete. The nature also of the shell and its structure are other causes of fossil durability, for it is almost spathose in parts, while the animal is yet alive. The peculiar fracture presented by the shell and spines is relied on by De Blainville as indicating the place of the Echinidae in the natural series to be with the Encrinites, and not with those Zoophytaria which are near the Pennatulae, as some zoologists have thought.
Breyn, Klein, Linnaeus, Leske, Lamarck, Cuvier, Gray, Desmarest, Goldfuss, Von Buch, Agassiz, are the principal zoologists who have undertaken the classification of the Echinidae. De Blainville observes that the relative position of the mouth and the vent, and above all, of the ambulacra, are the principal points on which most of these writers have rested; and as he considers that this mode of viewing the subject has led to approximations not very natural, he proposes a system based on the following grounds:— 1st. On the general form of the body of the animal, which, at first subradiated, becomes, by little and little, completely radiated in all the parts which constitute it. 2nd. Upon the position of the mouth, which, nearly terminal and transverse, or bilabiated, in the first species, becomes completely central and circular in the last. 3rd. On the arming of this mouth, which, completely null in a great proportion of the Echinidae, is, on the contrary, very powerful in the rest. 4th. Finally, on the position of the vent, on the number of ovaries and their orifices, on the nature of the spines and the tubercles which support them, as well as on the disposi