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ginings in attributing this appalling music to the aerial revelries of invisible hags or witches. But when, as in the case of the electric fluid, the original cause of sound may be said to exist simultaneously through an extensive tract of an excited atmosphere, a sound perfectly continuous and majestic is produced in the thunderroll, which may frequently be heard again echoed by neighbouring clouds, or awfully prolonged by repeated reflections from an amphitheatre of mountains. A similar effect of rapidly repeated echoes may be perceived in the prolonged tread and ringing sounds which we hear when Wol. in stillness through long galleries, cloisters, and other narrow passages with parallel sides, particularly when the air is confined; but hangings and carpetings, yielding to the impulse of the sonorous waves, or stifling them by a multitude of interior reflections, together with open windows or much furniture, diminish these effects to a great extent. The distribution of sound in public edifices, so that the echoes may be most advantageously brought to strengthen the original sound, is a subject practically deserving of much attention. For some sensible observations on the errors of architects in this respect, we must refer to Sir J. Herschel's treatise on Sound. Certainly the unlucky error of placing the confessional in the cathedral of Girgenti in a focus conjugate to another and unenclosed part of the church, by which Echo was instrumental in informing a husband of the infidelity of his spouse, and the parabolic reflector of a late ingenious clergyman at Cambridge, which had the effect of completely stunning him, however impartially his voice was distributed to his congregation, are not inconveniences of such common occurrence as those contrivances by which a part of an audience in a church or theatre possesses a monopoly, while the remainder witness the ceremony or performance in dumb show. A ludicrous anecdote, mentioned by Lord Bacon, of a Frenchman calling out Satan, and being answered Wa-t'en, led him to assert that the letter S was not echoed, and this assertion, has been copied by several cyclopedists. The fact is, that S being in a great measure a breathing, the distance necessary for the production of a distinct echo is too great to render it audible, owing to its small intensity; but when its echo is taken at a small distance, the effect is to increase the sound, and this very disagreeable prolongation is very perceptible in churches whenever persons in repeating the service make use of this letter. The whispering gallery of St. Paul's is another instance of this error, for a low whisper uttered at one end is conveyed by successive reflections along its curved roof, and being again concentrated at the other end, may be distinctly heard. When the reflecting surfaces, instead of plane, are curved, as in caverns, grottos, rocks, or ruined buildings, the reflected sound will be most intense at the foci, or the points which would be most enlightened by reflection if a luminous body were substituted in the place of the original source of sound. Whatever may be the figure of the echoing surface, the total path traversed by a wave in a given time before and after reflection taken together is constant (and in different times is proportional to the time); therefore a small portion of a plane section of the echoing surface is common also to an ellipse having one focus at the origin of sound, the other in the returning wave, and the axis major equal to the space traversed by sound in a given time. Hence, first, the plane sections of the returning wave are the loci of the second foci of a series of ellipses, having a common focus and equal axes major, and all touching the section of the echoing surface; and, secondly, the figure of an obstacle necessary to produce a given wave will be found by taking the curve which touches a series of ellipses having their second foci in this wave surface and their first focus and axes major as before: this, strictly speaking, should however be confined to surfaces of revolution. E’CIJA, a town of Andalusia, in the intendencia or pro7ince of Sevilla, situated on the river Genil, in a fine plain, on the high road from Sevilla to Cordova, about 55 miles north-east of the former city. Its antient name was Astigis; the Romans afterwards gave it the name of Colonia Augusta Firma. The name of Ecija was given to it by the Moors (Miñano). Ecija has a population of 34,000 inhabitants, many churches and convents, several hospitals, and other i. buildings, and a very fine promenade along the anks of the Genil, adorned with fountains and statues. It

is the residence of a corregidor and an alcalde mayor. The territory is rich in corn and olives; there are also some manufactories of woollens and linens. Ecija is the birthplace of Luis Velez de Guevara, a Spanish dramatist of the seventeenth century. There are several Roman inscriptions and a few other remains of antiquity. ECKHEL, JOSEPH HILARY, an eminent antiquary and numismatist, was born at Entzersfeld, in Austria, January 13, 1737. His father, who was in the service of Count Sinzendorf, sent him at a very early age to the Jesuits’ College at Vienna, where, in 1751, he was enrolled in their society. He studied philosophy, mathematics, divinity, and the learned languages; but devoted himself chiefly to antiuities and medals. His skill in the latter induced the superiors of the college, a few years afterwards, to give him the place of keeper of their cabinet of medals and coins. In 1772 he went to Italy, where the grand duke of Tuscany, Leopold II, engaged him to arrange his collection; and on his return to Vienna, in 1774, he was appointed director of the Imperial Cabinet of Medals, and professor of antiquities. In 1775 he published his first work upon his favourite study, entitled ‘Numi veteres Anecdoti ex Museis Caesareo Windobonensi, Florentino Magni Ducis Etruriae, Granelliano nunc Caesareo, Vitzaino, Festeticsiano, Savorgnano Veneto, aliisque,’ 4to Vienna. This was followed in 1776 by “Catalogus Musei Caesarei Vindobomensis Numorum Veterum, distributus in partes ii. quarum prior Monetam Urbium, Populorum, Regum, altera Romanorum complectitur,’ 2 tom. folio, accompanied by eight plates of inedited coins. In 1786 he published his ‘Sylloge lma. numorum anecdotorum Thesauri Caesarei,’ 4to.; and his “Descriptio Numorum Antiochiae Syriae, sive Specimen Artis criticae Numariac,’ 4to., likewise printed at Vienna, the same year; and in 1787 produced a small elementary work on coins for the use of schools, in his native language, entitled ‘Kurzgefasste Anfangsgründe zur alten Numismatik,’ 8vo., Vien. This work has more recently been improved and published in France, under the title of ‘Traité Elémentaire de Numismatique Grecque et Romaine, composé d'après celui d’Eckhel,’ par Gerard Jacob, 2 tom. 8vo., Par. 1825. In 1788 Eckhel published a folio volume upon the gems of the Imperial Collection, ‘Choix de Pierres gravées du Cabinet Imperial des Antiques, représentées en x1. Planches;' and in 1792 the first volume of his ‘Doctrina Numorum Veterum,” Vienna, 4to. ; the eighth and last volume of which was published in 1798. A supplement to it, with his portrait prefixed, has since appeared, “Addenda ad Eckhelii Doctrinam Numorum Veterum ex ejusdem Autographo postumo, 4to., Windob., 1826. This work, which embraces the science of numismatics in general, has placed Eckhel at the head of all the writers upon antient coins. He died, May 16th, 1798, at the house of his friend the Baron de Locella. In his younger years Eckhel published three or four small pieces unconnected with numismatics: namely, two Latin odes on the nuptials of Joseph II., in 1765; another in German, in 1768, on the departure of Maria Carolina. archduchess of Austria, from Vienna; and two years afterwards an oration in German on the occasion of the emperor's visit to Italy, “Rede auf die Reise Josephs II. in Italien,’ 8vo., Wien, 1770. An ‘Explication grammaticale des Prophéties d'Haggée,’ by him, appeared in Millin's Magasin Encyclopédique, IIe année, tom. ii., p. 461. (Saxii Onomasticon ; Visconti's account of Eckhel in the Biographie Universelle, tom. xii., 8vo., Par. 1814, p. 463– 467; and the “Notitia Literaria de Vitā et Scriptis J. H. Eckhel, translated from the French of Millin, prefixed to the “Addenda ad Doctrinam Numorum Veterum.')

ECKMUHL or EGGMUHL, a village on the Laber, consisting of about sixteen houses, with a castle, and situated in the Bavarian circle of the Regen, in 48° 47' N. lat., and 12° 3' E. long. It owes its celebrity to the signal victory which the French and Bavarians, under the emperor Napoleon, gained over the Austrians, under the archduke Charles, on the 22nd April, 1809. In testimony of the skill and intrepidity which Marshal Davoust displayed on this occasion, §. conferred the title of prince of Eckmill upon him.

ECLECTICS, the name given to those philosophers who, without adopting any particular system or dogmatizing for themselves, professed to select (ix)\{yew) from other philosophical systems whatever they conceived most conformable to truth, and fitted those detached parts together so as


to form a new whole. The notion of such a union of arring systems seems first to have originated with the

eoplatonists, who endeavoured to settle the dispute between themselves and the Peripatetics by the adoption of such parts of the doctrine of Aristotle as could be made to tally with their modification of the academic philosophy. This union of the Aristotelian and Platonic philosophies was attempted first by Potamo of Alexandria, whose principles were taken up and maintained by Ammonius Saccas. It may be doubted however if the title of Eclectics can be properly given to Potamo or Ammonius, the former of whom was in fact merely a Neoplatonist, and the latter rather jumbled together the different systems of Greek philosophy (with the exception of that of Epicurus) than selected the consistent parts of all of them. The most eminent of the followers of Ammonius were Plotinus, Porphyry, Jamblichus, Proclus, and Clemens Alexandrinus; and the antient Eclecticism became at last little more than an attempt to reconcile Platonism with Christianity. The modern and more genuine school of Eclecticism sprung up in the seventeenth century, when Bacon and Descartes flourished. These philosophers refusing to acknowledge themselves members of any particular sect, or to adopt any principle on the mere authority of their predecessors, formed systems for themselves which .." the doctrines of any other sect without distinction whenever those doctrines were not at variance with what their own investigation had taught them of the nature of things. But modern philosophers have since then formed themselves into new sects, and a new Eclecticism has consequently arisen in our own days, of which the originator was Hegel, and the present supporter Victor Cousin: this newest Eclecticism resembles that of the Alexandrian Platonists in being rather a union of systems than a selection from them, and though it has partisans on the continent, and especially at Berlin, it is not very likely that it will be soon taken up in this country, where persons who read or talk about metaphysics are generally attached to some particular sect of modern philosophy.

ECLIPSE (ecleipsis, KMetopic), an astronomical phenomenon, being the disappearance of a heavenly body. This may happen in two distinct ways; either the disappearing body may be lost on account of another body coming between it and its source of light, and thus intercepting the light; or the disappearance of a body may be caused by another body coming between it and the spectator. These two sets of circumstances, though ending in the same species of phenomenon, are yet of a character so different that it will be advisable to consider the two in separate articles. We shall therefore here content ourselves with an enumeration of the various kinds of celipses; leaving further detail, when necessary, to the articles which will be referred to.

Let us suppose a spherical body A B, which is luminous, and another CD, the smaller of the two, which is not luAnimous. Let us consider first the circular sections of these bodies made by the plane of the paper, and let common tangents be drawn to these sections, four in number, namely, AX, BY, AM, and BN. If the bodies be very distant from each other, in comparison with their bulk, then it will be sufficient for practical purposes to consider these common tangents as intersecting at A and B, and C and D, the opposite extremities of two parallel diameters. If the whole figure then revolve round the line joining the centre of the two circles, the spherical bodies will be reproduced, together With the conical envelopes by which it may be seen on what the phases of an eclipse depend.

The whole space generated by the revolution of Y CDX i. in whole or in part, deprived of the light from A B. Within the space CD Z (or the cone generated by its revolution), the loss of light is total: a spectator situated within

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that cone sees no part of A B, and a planet which receives its light from A B cannot, when in that cone, be visible in any part of space. This is even true at the point Z; but anywhere within the cone NZM, more or less of the border of A B is visible, and C D hides a portion of the middle of A. B. If C D be small in comparison with A B, then the effect of C D to a spectator situated far off in NZ M is only the appearance of a small dark spot upon the face of AB. Within the spaces YCZN and MZDX, a part only of the face of A B is hidden from a spectator there situated, and part only of the light of AB is lost. On the lines CY or DX the spectator imagines the two bodies AB and CD to be in contact. The eclipses in which the disappearance takes place by the removal of the light from the body are— 1. The eclipse of the moon. [Moos, Eclipse of..] 2. The disappearance of a portion of Jupiter's surface, occasioned by one of its satellites passing between it and the sun. This is usually called the transit of the satellite's shadow over the disc of Jupiter. [Jupite R.] 3. The eclipses of Jupiter's satellites. [Jupiter.] The eclipses in which the disappearance arises from the absolute interposition of another planet are— 1. The eclipse of the sun [SUN, Eclipse of], meaning the eclipse of the sun by the moon. 2. The eclipse of the sun (that is, of a very small portion of the sun) by Mercury or by Venus, commonly called the transit of Mercury or Venus over the sun's disc. [MERcuRY, TRANsit of ; VENUs, TRANsit of..] 3. The occultation of a fixed star by the moon. [Moon.] 4. The eclipse of a portion of Jupiter by one of its own satellites, or transit of a satellite over the disc. [JupiteR.] 5. The eclipse of a satellite of Jupiter by Jupiter itself, or occultation of a satellite by the planet. [JupiteR.] We have here mentioned such eclipses as are not unfrequent : the only additional phenomenon which we are aware of is the eclipse of a portion of the ring of Saturn by a satellite, or passage of a satellite over the ring, seen by Sir W. Herschel. The satellites of Saturn must suffer eclipses of the first kind by entering the shadows either o the planet or the ring, and of the second kind both from the planet and the ring; but these satellites are only seen with very good telescopes and under very favourable circumstances, so that their eclipses excite little public curiosity. ECLIPTIC. [Equator and Ecliptic.] ECLOGUE. [Bucolics.] ECONOMISTES. _[Political Economy.] ECPHIMOTES (Fitzinger), a genus of Saurians, pos. sessing the teeth and pores of the genus Polychrus, but with small scales on the body only. The tail, which is large, has great scales, which are pointed and carinated. The head is covered with plates. The form is a little short and flattened like that of some of the Agamae, rather than like the slender shape of Polychrus. Example, Ecphimotes tuberculatus (Agama tuberculata, Spix; Tropidorus torquatus, Pr. Max.) Description.— Ash-coloured, sprinkled with whitish blotches: a demi-collar of black on each side of the neck. Locality, Brazil. ECTQPISTES. _[Columbid.E, vol. vii., p. 373.] ECTOPISTI'NAE. [Columbidž, vol. vii. p. 373.] ECUADOR is one of the three republics, which, before 1831, constituted the republic of Colombia, but since that time has become a separate government. It comprehends the antient kingdom of Quito, with the plains extending east of it between the Amazon river on the south, and the Uaupes, the principal branch of the Rio Negro, on the north. ... Its boundaries are not marked by natural objects, but follow mostly imaginary lines. A line beginning at Tabatinga, on the Amazon, and running due north, along the meridian of 70° 12', divides Ecuador from Brazil as far as 1° 10' N. lat., whence the boundary line runs on this parallel to the Rio Negro. The Rio Negro separates Ecuador from the republic of Venezuela, and the Uaupes forms in the whole length of its course the boundary between it and New Granada. Farther west this line extends over the mountain range in which the Rio Magdalena and the Rio Cauca originate, then passes over the northern ridges of the mountain-knot of Los Pastos, and terminates with the lower course of the Rio de los Patias, on the Pacific, The Pacific forms its western boundary. On the south, Ecuador is separated from Peru by a line beginning near Vol. IX. —2 M


Tumbez, on the Bay of Guayaquil, and running in a southsouth-east direction to the Rio Amazon, which it joins a short distance above S. Jaen de Bracamoros. From this point the Rio Amazon constitutes the boundary line between both republics. Ecuador extends from 5° 50' S. lat. to 1° 12' N. lat., and from 69° 40' to 80' 40' W. long. Its surface is vaguely calculated at more than 537,000 square miles, or more than four times and a half the area of the British Islands. About one-fourth of its surface is mountainous. The Andes enter the country between the Bay of Guayaquil and S. Jaen de Bracamoros, and thence run in a northern and north-eastern direction to the northern boundary. This chain forms in the southern and northern extremity two large mountain-knots, that of Loxa, between 5° 30' and and 3° 15' S. lat., and that of Los Pastos, between 21' and 1° 13' N. lat. The first occupies, according to Humboldt, 1 1,650 square miles, and the second 8700. Between these two mountain-knots the Andes form an enormous mass of rocks, covering in width an extent of 70 or 80 miles. Both declivities are rather steep, but especially that towards the eastern plains. On both edges of this mass are lofty ranges running parallel to one another, and crowned by numerous summits, several of which rise above the line of perpetual congelation. The highest ridges of those ranges may be about fifty miles distant from one another; and between them extends a longitudinal valley, which measures from fifteen to twenty miles across, and extends nearly 300 miles in length. At two points transverse ridges unite the two ranges, and thus the great valley is divided into three smaller valleys. The most southern of these valleys, that of Cuença, extends from 3° 15' to 2° 27' S. lat., with a mean elevation above the sea of about 7800 feet. Its waters join the Rio de S. Jago, a tributary of the Amazon. The summits of the ranges which surround it rise only to about 10,000 feet and nowhere attain the snow-line, except the range of Assuay (2° 27' to 2° 30' S. lat.), which separates the valley of Cuença from that of Alausi and Hambato, and rises near the Ladera de Cadlud, on the great road, to 15,520 feet, and consequently approaches the snow-line. To the north of this transverse ridge extends the valley of Alausi and Hambato from 2° 27' to 30' S. lat. Its surface is somewhat higher than that of the preceding valley, and may be about 8000 feet above the sea. Its waters run off to the Marona and Pastaza, two tributaries of the Amazon. On the range east of this valley are the volcanoes of Sangay of Collanes and of Llangate, and on that on the east rises Chimborazo (21,420 feet above the sea), and the Carguairazo. The transverse ridge which separates this valley from that of Quito is called the Alto de Chisinche. It is only about 500 feet above the plains contiguous to it on the northern side, and is of inconsiderable width. . At its western extremity stands the volcano of Cotopaxi, which attains a height of 18,880 feet, and at its eastern the Yliniza, which rises to 17,376 feet. This Alto de Chisinche forms the water-shed between the Pacific and Atlantic seas. The valley of Quito extends from 40' S. lat., to 20' N. lat. to the mountain-knot of Los Pastos. Its mean elevation above the sea is about 9600 feet. Its waters run off by the Rio Pita, which joins the Rio de las Esmeraldas, and thus flows into the Pacific. On the range standing east of this valley are the Antisana, 19,136 feet high, and the Cayambe Urcu, 19,548 feet high. The Cayambe Urcu is on the equator. On the western range are the Pichincha, 15,936 feet high, and the Cotocache, which rises to 16,448 feet. On the mountain-knot de los Pastos are several volcanoes, as those of Cumbal, Chiles, and Pasto. The elevated plains, which are inhabited, on that mountain region are 10,240 feet above the sea, The country between the Andes and the Pacific is filled up with mountains of various elevations, which towards the shores sink down to hills. The shores themselves are high, but not of great elevation, except in a few places, as at Cape S. Lorenzo. The country along the river of Guayaquil forms an exception. Here a plain extends several miles in width, and is so low that part of it is covered by the inundations of the river in the rainy season, and part has been changed into a swamp. The great plain east of the Andes is partly wooded and partly a savana; but in its present state it is of little importance, being only inhabited by the natives. The principal river of Ecuador is the Amazon, which is here called Tunguragua. Where it leaves Peru, and begins

to form the boundary-line between the two republics, commence the series of cataracts and rapids with which it issues from the Andes. Near S. Jaen de Bracamoros is the Pongo de Rentema, where the river, according to Humboldt, is only 1232 feet above the level of the sea. Lowe down at the mouth of the Rio de Santiago, and between Santiago de las Montanes and Borja, is the rapid or Pongo of Manseriche, where the river is narrowed to about 150 feet, and for about seven or eight miles rushes down with incredible velocity. Below this Pongo the Amazon becomes navigable, and continues so to its mouth. [AMAzoN.] Within the boundary of Ecuador, the Amazon receives the Marona, Pastaza, Tigre and Napo, which descend from the eastern declivities of the Andes. The Putumayo and the Yapura, which descend from the same range and in the same direction, fall into the Amazon within Brazil. The rivers which descend from the western side of the Andes have a comparatively short course. The most remarkable are the Rio de los Patias, Rio de las Esmeraldas, and the river of Guayaquil; but only the latter, so far as we can learn, is navigated by large vessels to the town of Guayaquil, and by river-boats about seventy or eighty miles higher. The temperature must, of course, differ considerably in the elevated valleys which are surrounded by the high peaks of the Andes, and in the low countries on both sides of the range. In the valley of Quito the seasons are scarcely perceptible. The mean temperature of the day, all the year is round, is between 60° and 67°, and that of the night between 48° and 52° of Fahrenheit. The winds blow continually, but never with great violence. They generally come from the north or south, but occasionally shift to other quarters, without apparently depending in any degree on the seasons. During the whole morning, till one or two o'clock, the weather is generally delightful, and the sky serene and clear; but after this hour vapours begin to rise, and the whole sky is gradually covered with black clouds, which bring on dreadful tempests of thunder and lightning, followed by torrents of rain. At sunset the weather generally clears up, and the nights are as serene as the mornings. The rains sometimes continue all night, and occasionally, though rarely, three or four days in succession. At other times a few fine days, without rain, follow one another. The interval between September and May is called the winter, and the remainder of the year the summer. The winter is only distinguished by a somewhat greater quantity of rain, and the summer by a greater number of fine days. These valleys are also subject to frequent earthquakes, of which those of 1698 and 1797 were particularly destructive. In the last earthquake 40,000 inhabitants are stated to have perished in the valleys; and, it is said, that the climate of Quito has become much colder than it was formerly. At Guayaquil and on the other valleys along the coast the mean temperature of the year varies between 78° and 82°. From December to April the heat rises to 95° and no more. In this season an unvarying calm prevails, and the rain continues day and night with short interruptions; it is accompanied with frequent and dreadful tempests of thunder and lightning. In the remainder of the year the heat is moderated by the south-western and west-southwestern winds, which blow with considerable force from noon to five or six in the morning of the following day. The sky is always serene and bright, gentle showers being rarely known to fall. This season is stated to be very healthy. The great plain extending along the Rio Amazon and its numerous tributaries has a hot climate. The mean tem perature probably does not fall short of between 75° and 85°, and the heat sometimes rises to 95° and more. But every day at two o'clock a wind begins to blow with great force, and continues to sun-set. It always proceeds from the east, and is considered as the continuation of the trade. winds. Near the base of the Andes it frequently blows with the violence of a storm. In this region rain falls nearly every day, generally after noon, when the wind commences. Agriculture varies with the elevation of the cultivated land above the level of the sea. Near the snow-line, which in this part of the Andes occurs at the height of 15,750 feet, the vegetation of the Páramos (flat tracts on the summit of the range, from 1 1,000 to 14,000 feet above the sea) is extremely scanty, consisting only of two or three species of plants. Districts situated at an elevation of 10,000 feet are covered with grass, which affords good sheep-walks; such are the plains in the mountain-knot of Pastos. The culture of European cerealia and fruits prevails between 10,000 and 4000 feet, especially in the great valley of the Andes, where excellent wheat is raised, with barley and Indian corn. Lucern is also extensively grown as fodder for beasts of burden. In those parts of the country which do not exceed in elevation 4000 feet above the sea the vegetables cultivated for food are chiefly sweet potatoes, mandiocca, yams and bananas, with rice, Indian corn, and some leguminous plants. The most common fruit-trees are cherimoyers, pine-apples, papayas, and anonas. There are also extensive plantations of sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, and cocoa. Among the forest-trees is that which gives the cinchona bark. This tree is most frequent on the heights of the mountain-knot of Loxa, where it grows on the eastern declivities at an elevation of 6000 or 8000 feet above the level of the sea. Sheep and cattle are reared in great numbers, the former especially in the valleys of the Andes, and on the higher declivities of the mountains. Horses, asses, and mules, are sufficiently numerous to be articles of export. In some districts, especially in the valleys along the coast, a considerable quantity of wax is collected; and still higher up are some spots where the cochineal insect is reared. Along the o a murex is found which juice is used in dyeing purple. Ecuador is less rich in the precious metals than the other countries of South America which comprehend a portion of the Andes. There are several mines of gold and silver, and a few are still worked; but the annual produce is not considerable. Lead and quicksilver occur in some places, and in others sulphur is prepared in considerable quantity. Salt is obtained from sea-water along the coast. The population of Ecuador is composed of the descendants of Spaniards and of the aborigines. The proportion of both races is not stated, but it would appear that the aborigines constitute at least three-fourths of the population. Those Indians who inhabit the elevated valleys belong to the race of the Peruvians, and speak the Quichua language. They are mostly agriculturists, and cultivate their lands with much care. They apply themselves also to manufactures, and make coarse stuffs of wool and cotton. The Indians who inhabit the eastern plain are much lower in civilization. They cultivate only small pieces of ground, and apply themselves almost exclusively to fishing and hunting. The Jesuits had made considerable progress in bringing them over to Christianity and civilization; but as their successors did not pursue this . with equal zeal or success, the missiones decreased gradually in extent and population. The political events which have taken place since the year 1812 have driven the monks out of the country, all the missiones are in ruins, and the Indians have returned to the forests, and lost all marks of civilization. The whole population was thought to amount in 1827 to 492,000, with the exception of the Indian bravos of the plain. Three-fourths of the population are in the elevated valleys of the Andes. When it formed a part of the republic of Colombia, Ecuador was divided into three departments. We cannot learn whether a new division of the territory has been made since its separation, and we shall therefore notice that which existed before. 1. The department of Ecuador or Quito extends along the coast from the mouth of the Rio de Patias to Cape Pasado, and comprehends the two valleys of Quito and of Hambato and Alausi; to which is added a portion of the eastern plains along the upper courses of the rivers Yapura, Putumaya, Napo, Tigre, and Pastaza. In the elevated valleys in several places are the ruins of antient palaces of the Incas, and in many districts there are traces of the great road which in the time of the Incas led from Quito to the southern extremity of the valley of Titicaca (from the equator to 20° S. lat.). Its principal wealth consists in its extensive cornfields, and its numerous herds of sheep, cattle, asses, and mules: it has also a few mines of silver and gold. It is divided into three provinces, named from three mountains, Imbabura, the northern, Pichincha, the central, and Chimborazo, the southern province. The capital of the republic, the department, and the central province, is Quito. [Quito.] North of this place lies S. Miguel de Ibarra, or briefly Ibarra, a well-built town, with about 12,000 inhabitants, and manufactures of wool and cotton: it is the capital of the province Imbabura. Not far from it is Otavalo, which likewise has manufactures of wool and cotton, and 20,000 inhabitants. On the coast are the harbours of Esmeraldas,

Atacames, and Carondelet, but they are not visited by

foreign vessels. South of Quito is Tacunga, with 3000 inhabitants, which, between 1698 and 1797, was four times destroyed by earthquakes. Riobamba was entirely destroyed in 1797. The new town, which was built four or five miles farther south, contains 15,000 inhabitants, and is the capital of the province of Chimborazo. In its neighbourhood, at Tesoan, great quantities of brimstone are made. Hambato, northeast of Mount Chimborazo, with 9000 inhabitants, and Guaranda, south of the same mountain, have some commerce, owing to their situation on the road between Guayaquil and Quito. The missiones in the eastern plain have almost disappeared. 2. The department of Guayaquil comprehends the coast between Cape Pasado and a short distance from the houn. dary-line of Peru, and extends inland to the upper declivity of the Andes. Its commercial wealth consists in its troPical productions, especially in cocoa, of which there are $xtensive plantations. It is divided into two provinces, Manabi, the northern, and Guayaquil, the southern. The capital is Guayaquil. [GUAYAquil...] On the banks of the Rio de Guayaquil are Babayhoyo and Caracol, which are situated at the points where the river ceases to be navigable at different seasons, and consequently on that account are used as commercial depôts. Puerto Vejo, a small place, is the capital of the province of Manabi: its harbour is at Manta. Another harbour is at Punta de S. Elena, where much salt is made. The island of Puna, in the Bay of Guayaquil, has an area of more than 200 square miles. At the arrival of the Spaniards it had a population of 20,000 individuals, who are now reduced to a few fishermen. To this department belong the Galapagos Islands. [GalaPAGos.] 3. The department of Assuay derives its name from the mino which divides the valley of Alausi from that of Cuença. It comprehends the last-named valley, the mountain-knot of Loxa, and a few miles of sea-coast along the Gulf of Guayaquil, contiguous to the boundary of Peru, with by far the greatest part of the eastern plains. In a few places ruins of antient temples and palaces occur. Cinchona-bark forms its principal article of exportation. This department contains many herds of sheep and cattle, and the valley of Cuença produces grain in abundance. A few mines are found, but most of them are, we believe, not worked at present. This department is divided into three provinces, 8. which comprehends its valley and the sea-coast; Loxa, extending over the mountain-region of that name; and S. Jaen de Bracamoros, in which the valley of the Amazon and the eastern plains are included. The capital is Cuença, 8640 feet above the sea, a large but meanly-built town, with 20,000, or, according to others, 30,000 inhabitants. It has a university; and some institutions for education have been recently established. At Azogues are mines of quicksilver. Loxa, in a valley 6768 feet above the sea, has some fine churches, and 10,000 inhabitants. It trades extensively in cinchona-bark. Zaruma, on the western declivity of the Andes, has a population of 6000, and mines of gold and silver in its neighbourhood. The port of Tumbez, in the Bay of Guayaquil, is the place where Pizarro made his descent on the Peruvian coast: in its neighbourhood are some mines. Jaen de Bracamoros has 4000 inhabitants. Borja is a small place, where the Pongo de Manseriche terminates. The missiones, in the eastern plains, which formerly were numerous and extensive, are now reduced to a very low state. The manufactures in cotton and wool are considerable in Quito as well as in Ibarra and Otavalo. The fabric is course, but strong and durable, and was formerly in great request in New Granada, and in several sea-ports; but its use has lately somewhat diminished on the shores of the Pacific. Lace of a good kind is also made in Quito ; but there is no other important branch of industry. All the maritime commerce of Ecuador is concentrated in that of Guayaquil [GUAYAquil], from which town there is a road to Quito, running first along the banks of the Rio de Guayaquil to Caracol, and then for some miles through a low and level country. It then begins to ascend the western declivity of the Andes, and between Caluma and Guaranda the ascent is extremely steep. From Guaranda a runs over the plain to Hambato, and thence to Quito. The great road which connects New Granada and Peru runs through the high valleys of * It leads 2

from Almaguer in New Granada over the Páramo de Puruguay (9408 feet above the sea) to Pasto (85.78 feet), and hence over the Páramo de Boliche (ll,504 feet), and the Aito de Pucara (10,400 feet) to Ibarra (7368 feet) and Quito (9536). In the Alto de Chisinche it attains an elevation of about 10,000 feet. Hence it traverses Hambato (8864 feet), Riobamba Nueva (9472 feet), and Alausi (7984 feet), and attains on the Páramo de Assuay 15,536 feet. In passing this range many lives are annually lost. From Cuença (8640 feet) it runs over the Alto de Pulla (10,000 feet) to Loxa (6768 feet) and hence to Ayavaca (8992 feet) in Peru. From the latter place it proceeds to Truxillo and Lima. Formerly European commodities were imported into Ecuador by this road from New Granada, but since the opening of the trade nearly the whole country receives them from Guayaquil. Ecuador was discovered by Francis Pizarro in 1526, and came into the hands of the Spaniards at the downfal of the empire of the Incas. The Spaniards remained in the possession of the country up to the year 1812, when the country declared against them. Quito was then a part of the vice-royalty of New Granada, and it participated fully in the frequent vicissitudes of the war, which ended in 1823 with the complete expulsion of the Spaniards. By the convention of Cucuta in 1821, New Granada and Venezuela united and formed one republic under the name of Colombia, but this union lasted only till 1831, when these countries again separated. Ecuador, or the antient kingdom of Quito, was then also separated from New Granada, and since that time has existed as an independent state. While it was united to New Granada and Venezuela the whole republic was under a central government. We do not know whether such a government has been preserved in the new republic of Ecuador, or if it at present consists of a number of smaller states united by a i. government. (Condamine, Ulloa, Humboldt, Caldas in Mollien's Travels.) EDDA. The northern mythology, which in regard to wild imagination and sublime conceptions surpasses that of Greece or Rome, is chiefly contained in two collections called “The Eddas,” which have been handed down flom time immemorial by the scalds, or antient minstrels, of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Iceland. The word Edda signifies Mother of Poetry. In the beginning these mythological records were communicated from mouth to mouth, and afterwards written down with the sacred characters of the north, the Runic characters, an alphabet which the Scandinavians are said to have obtained from the seafaring Phoenicians. The Scandinavians initiated in the mysteries of their religion the Saxons, who were forced by Charlemagne to exchange it for Christianity. After the conquest of the Saxons by Charlemagne, the worshippers of the religion of Odin withdrew to Iceland, where the sacred books of the Scandinavians were preserved, from which Samund Sigfudson, a clergyman, and Are Frode, the hiso collected, between the years 1056 and 1133, the older d. This important work was concealed and forgotten for nearly 400 years. . However, in the year 1643 a fine copy of these poems was found by Bishop Svensen, and published in 3 vols. 4to., containing the original text, a Latin translation, and a dictionary of the northern mythology. The contents of the poems are prophecies, elevated conversations, and magic songs. The new Edda, composed or arranged two hundred years later, is a systematic poetical compendium of the former, and is divided into three books; one dogmatical or doctrinal, the second narrative, and the third critical. The Icelandic text of this second Edda was translated in the year 1640, by Resenius, and hence it is called the Resenian Edda. Some modern critics have endeavoured to question the authenticity of these books, but their objections have been completely refuted by P. C. Müller, Von der Hagen, and the brothers Grimm. The distinguishing characteristic of the mythology of the Eddas, as compared with that of Greece and Rome, is its systematic or rather epic unity. The mythology of the Greeks and Romans splits into numerous branches, and loses itself in the ocean of real events. That of the Edda, on the contrary, presents in the very beginning the germs of one all-destroying catastrophe, of a creation which by necessity involves the final destruction of the universe. The cosmology itself is truly original. According to the Fdda, there was once no heaven above nor earth below, but

only a bottomless deep, and a world of mist in which flowed the fountain that strives to devour every thing. Twelve rivers issue from this fountain. When they had flowed so far from their source that the liquid which they contained had become hardened, they ceased to flow, and froze into ice; and one layer of ice accumulating over the other, the great deep was thus filled up. Southward from the World of Mist was the World of Light. . From the former proceeded every thing dark and cold ; from the latter whatever is warm and light The one was the principle of wrath and death; the other, the principle of love and life; a warm wind blowing from the latter upon the ice melted it. The melted drops became animated by the power of him who had sent the wind, and from them sprung Ymir the giant, and the holy Ash Ydrahill, or the tree of life, which spreads its roots through all the deep, and its branches over the universe. Under Ymir's left arm grew a little man and woman, and from them proceeded the ice giants, the heroes, and the gods. This cosmogony is the offspring of a northern view of nature. It is natural that ice should appear to the Scandinavians as dead imatter, or as the bad principle, and heat and light, on the contrary, as the creative powers, or good principle. The contrast of these two principles under different symbols, of good and bad genii, heroes, and gods, the alternate ascendancy of the one over the other until the fiery snake consumes universal nature with all-destroying flames, forms the cyclus of the great tragedy—among the incidents of which, the death of Baldur, the beau ideal of Scandinavian heroism, the Achilles of the north, forms one of the most hearttouching episodes. The existence of one supreme rulin principle, and the acknowledgment of a spiritual immorta soul in man, are also traceable in different symbols of the Edda. In both Eddas we find also the first rudiments of the great German national epic poem, "Der Niebelungen Lied.' Those who wish for further information on this subject may consult Edda Saemunda hins Froeda, and Creuzer's Symbolik. EDDOES, the name by which the esculent Caladium is known by the blacks of the Gold Coast. The leaves are boiled and eaten as cabbages with us, but their acridity renders them unsuitable for a European palate. EDDY is a circular motion of the water, either in rivers or in the sea. It exists more frequently in rivers between the proper current and the counter current. The edges of one current brushing against another give to a small portion of water a circular motion. But an eddy is also produced when the current, running with some violence against a rock or elevated shore, is driven back and meets in the bed of the river or on the opposite shore another obstacle to its course. In this case the eddy generally occupies the greatest part of the bed of the river, and is frequently called a whirlpool. Eddies occur in the sea likewise, where two currents run parallel, but in different directions, as between the Equatorial and North African current. Whirlpools also occur frequently among rocky islands near a coast. [WHIRLPool...] EDDYSTONE or EDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE is constructed on the sloping side of a rock which bears from Plymouth south by west, and from the Ram Head south half a point east. It is distant from the anchoring in the Sound four leagues, and from Ram Head about three leagues and a half, which latter is the nearest shore to the lighthouse. The Isle of Maystone bears from the lighthouse about north-east by north, and is also four leagues distant. All the rocks near the house are on the east side, stretching to the north and south, and they are all covered at high water; but on the west side any ship may sail close by the house in twelve or thirteen fathoms water, and there are no hidden rocks. Towards the east by north, about a quarter of a mile from the house, there is a rock which never appears but at low spring tides. (Winstanley's Lighthouse, book i., cap. 11; Smeaton's Narrative.) The present edifice is a circular tower of stone sweeping up with a gentle curve from the base, and gradually diminishing to the top, somewhat similar to the swelling of the trunk of a tree. The upper extremity is finished with a kind of cornice, and is surmounted with a lantern, having a gallery round it with an iron balustrade. The tower is furnished with a door and windows, and a staircase and ladders for ascending to the lantern, through the apartments for those who keep watch. Mr. Smeaton undertook the arduous task of constructing the present lighthouse in

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