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or Mid-Lothian, and the capital of Scotland, is situated in 53° 37' 20" N. lat., and 3° 10' 30" W. long., about 392 miles north from London. It stands upon a group of hills separated by deep depressions, and is at once the site and the scene of views of great beauty and grandeur. On the highest of the hills the Old Town is built; the summit of the hill forms a street upwards of a mile long, ascending in nearly a straight line from the palace of Holyrood on the east, about 120 feet above the level of the sea to the Castle, which is elevated upwards of 380 feet above the same level, and is accessible only on the eastern side, all the others being nearly perpendicular. The view from this height is singularly varied and grand ; the spectator is in the midst of an amphitheatre of hills. On the east are the Calton Hill, Salisbury Craigs, and Arthur's Seat, rising 822 feet above the level of the sea; and on the west are the Pentland range, and the woody eminence of Corstorphine. Below, on the north, are the noble mansions of the New Town, the Frith of Forth, with its ports and shipping, and the counties on the opposite coasts to the Highland hills: a landscape forming a beautiful contrast with the rich open country which spreads before us on the south to the hills of Berwickshire and the borders, till at length the eye rests upon the Braid Hills. Edinburgh is supposed to have derived its name from Edwin, a king of Northumberland in the time of the Heptarchy. Simeon of Durham mentions the town of Edwinesburch as existing in the middle of the eighth century; and in the charter of foundation of the abbey of Holyrood, in the year 1128, King David I. calls it his burgh of Edwinesburg, whence we infer it was then a royal burgh. The historians of Edinburgh say that the first parliament held in the city was on the accession of King Alexander II. ; but upwards of half a century previous, we find a ‘concordia," or agreement, entered into between the bishop of St. Andrews and the abbot of Dunfermline, apud Castellum Puellarum (a name long bestowed on Edinburgh Castle), in presence of the king, Prince Henry his son, and their barons (Connell On Tithes, App. No. 1), which we apprehend was no other than an assembly of the great council of the nation. The castle was then perhaps the chief building and place of concourse in the city; and in the reign of King Malcolm IV., Geoffrey de Maleville, of Maleville Castle, in the shire of Edinburgh, was vicecomes de Castrum Puellarum, meaning thereby, no doubt, sheriff of the shire, in like manner as Macbeth, the earliest sheriff in the shire of Perth, was styled sheriff of Scone. The abbey of Holyrood, however, was growing into importance. In 1177 a national council was held there on the arrival of the legate Vivian, to determine the dispute between the English and Scottish clergy; and it is not unlikely that its neighbourhood early became a royal residence. The city appears to have remained open and defenceless till about the middle of the fifteenth century, when, on the representations of the provost and community, King James II. granted the citizens ‘full license and leiff to fosse, bulwark, wall, tour, turate, and other ways to strength the burgh, in quhat maner of wise or degree that beis sene maist spedeful to thaim.” The same king soon afterwards granted a charter to the city confirming to it the privilege of holding therein the antient and in portant court of Four Boroughs, ‘sicut à temporibus retroactis tenebatur.” His successor, grateful for the interest which the citizens had shown in his behalf when he was at variance with his nobles, erected the city into a sheriffdom within itself, and presented to the incorporated trades a banner or standard, which has since been known by the name of the Blue Blanket, and is still preserved. King James IV. patronized the erection of its first printing press; and in the succeeding reign it became the undisputed capital of the kingdom; the seat of the royal palace, of the parliament, and of the superior courts of justice. The accession of King James VI. to the throne of England put a temporary stop to the progress of the town; but at the Union the spirit of improvement revived, and has continued to our own day. Edinburgh is divided into three principal parts: the Old Town, the South Side, or Southern Districts, and the New Town; each of which has its own peculiar features and character. The Old Town is intersected by the street previously mentioned: on each side descend in regular lines a multitude of narrow wynds, closes, and styles, which on the south lead for the most part into the Cowgate, a confined street running along the southern base of the hill,
and one of the earliest additions to the town after the erection of the city-wall in the middle of the fifteenth century. Over this street the South Bridge, and more lately King George the Fourth’s Bridge, are thrown, to connect the Old Town with the South Side or Southern Districts. These districts mostly stand upon a rising ground, which is here closely adjacent to the Old Town ridge, but neither so elevated, so limited in extent, nor so steep in its descent, as that hill. From its western side, however, there runs a hill of a different character, and thence called the High Riggs. It is separated from the Castle-hill by a spacious street called the Grass Market, and on it are built Heliot's Hospital and the neighbouring suburb of Portsburgh. On a line with the South Bridge is the North Bridge, thrown from the summit of the Old Town ridge, at the middle of the High-street, to the rising ground which forms the site of the New Town. This ground partakes much of the character of the Old Town ridge, and terminates like it in a bold rock, namely the Calton Hill; but the aspect of the houses is wholly different: for having been erected according to regular plans conceived in a spirit of improvement, the greatest regularity and beauty characterize its buildings, streets, and squares. From the earth and rubbish thrown from the foundation of the New Town buildings, the Earthen Mound was formed as a communication across the morass which lies between the Old and New Town. Among the chief buildings of the city is the Castle, which is the most antient part of the city, and must have been of considerable importance in former times. It is now, however, a place of little strength, and derives its interest chiefly from the associations connected with it and its own formidable appearance. At no great distance from the Castle stands the Parliament House, with the courts of justice. In the first of these the parliament of Scotland met between the time of its erection in 1640 and the Union. The hall now forms the Outer House of the Court of Session, and in its immediate neighbourhood are rooms appropriated to the Inner House and to the courts of Justiciary and Exchequer. The valuable library of the faculty of advocates occupied till lately the ground-floor of the Parliament House. A considerable part still remains there; but adjacent buildings have been elected not only for it, but also for the library of the writers to the signet. The courts of the sheriff and justices of the peace are held in the county hall, an elegant building of recent erection, close by the range of building which contains the library of the writers to the signet. The antient Gothic fabric, formerly the cathedral of St. Giles, is also in this neighbourhood; from between the arches which constitute the imperial crown that rests upon its lofty tower, there is an interesting view of the city and surrounding country. On the opposite side of the street is the Royal Exchange, with the common council-room and other offices of the magistracy; and in the centre of the street, a little way down, is a radiated causeway to mark the site of the old market cross, where proclamations used to be made and offenders punished. At the foot of the High Street stands one of the oldest stone houses in Edinburgh, the house of the great Scottish reformer, John Knox; and on the front wall, to the west, is a figure in alto rilievo pointing to a radiated stone, whereon is sculptured the name of the Deity in Greek, Latin, and English. Below this is the Canongate, at the foot of which are the palace and abbey of Holyrood, whose extensive precincts constitute a sanctuary for insolvent debtors. On the summit of the Calton Hill, which rises in the immediate neighbourhood, and commands a delightful prospect of the Forth and surrounding scenery, some columns of the National Monument have been erected, and stand in solitary grandeur. Near them are the observatory and the monuments to Dugald Stewart and Playfair. On the low ground, towards the west, are the bridewell and gaol; and in the same line, at a point nearly equidistant from the palace and castle, stands the Register House, where the public records of the kingdom are preserved, and what is almost peculiar to this part of the empire, theregister of all deeds conveying or charging territorial property. The city churches are properly 13 in number, among which the most deserving of notice are St. Giles's, St. George's, St. Andrew's, St. Stephen's, and St. Mary's; but to these are to be added St. Cuthbert’s or West Kirk, the Canongate Church, and various chapels belonging to the establishment. The elegant Gothic edifices, St. Paul's, St. Giles's, and St. George's chapels, belonging to the episcopal communion, are also deserving of attention, and the Roman Catholic chapel at the head of Leith Walk. The Roman Catholics have another chapel in the town, and at the head of Bruntisfield Links, a convent of nuns, attached to which is an establishment at Milton House, in the Canongate. Edinburgh has some noble hospitals and charitable institutions. Among these are the Royal Infirmary, erected on a rising ground in the neighbourhood of the college; Heriot's Hospital, already mentioned; Watson's Hospitals, Merchant-Maiden and Trades’-Maiden Hospitals, Orphan Hospital, and Gillespie's Hospital; Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Asylum for the Blind, Magdalen Asylum, and Lunatic Asylum. Most of the banking-houses of Edinburgh are large edifices: such, in particular, are the Bank of Scotland, the Royal Bank, and the Commercial Bank. The public amusements of Edinburgh are limited, and do not, generally speaking, succeed. The habits of the people are domestic; and the professional and literary, not less than the religious character which prevails, does not accord with the occupations of the theatre and assembly-rooms. Printing, shawl-making, and coach-building, are carried on with much success; but the manufactures of Edinburgh are of no great importance. The city however is well situated both for water and fuel, which might be made available for manufactures. They have been of essential consequence to the comfort of the inhabitants; and notwithstanding the variable climate, there are few, if any, diseases to which the residents of Edinburgh can be said to be peculiarly liable. The situation of the place is favourable to health and energy, and the mortality, it is believed, is small in proportion to the population. The city returns two members to parliament. Until a comparatively recent period, Edinburgh was a place of very limited extent. The contiguous country, which has now been made to form a part of the capital, comprehends various places antiently subject to different jurisdictions, and which have as yet continued municipally disunited, except for the purpose of returning members to parliament under the recent Reform Act. Besides various districts subject only to the jurisdiction of the county sherist, the boundaries fixed by the Reform Act include within their limits— 1. The Royalty of Edinburgh. 2. The Burgh of Regality of Canongate. 3. The Burgh of Barony of Portsburgh, Easter and Wester. 4. Calton. The existence of Edinburgh as a king's burgh may be traced to the reign of David I., and before the middle of the twelfth century. At a very early period it was one of those burghs royal whose magistrates constituted the Court of Four Burghs; and by a charter dated in 1452 king James II. conferred on it the privilege of being exclusively the seat of that court: the other three burghs were Stirling, Linlithgow, and Lanark. In 1482 the valuable right of sheriffship within the bounds of the burgh was given by James III., and this jurisdiction was confirmed by succeeding monarchs. A general charter of confirmation was granted to Edinburgh by James VI. in 1603; and another charter, known under the name of Novo Damus, was the gift of Charles I. in 1636. These charters specify Leith and Newhaven as belonging to the burgh, and detail the markets, tolls, and customs, which constitute “a part of the common good,” for the protection of which a comprehensive jurisdiction is conferred. Other grants and charters were afterwards obtained at different times from the crown, prior to the Union in 1707; but not any of these created any substantial change in the political or municipal constitution of the burgh. Since the Union, and more particularly within the last fifty years, various acts of parliament have been passed for extending the bounds of the royalty, and for purposes of police. By a charter of George III. in 1794, the provost, who by previous charters was sheriff and coroner, was constituted lord-lieutenant of the county of the city. Previous to the late Scotch Burgh Reform Act, Édinburgh was governed by a close corporation, the members of which constantly re-elected each other; but by that act (3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 76), the right of election to corporate offices was declared to be in all those persons who are entitled to vote for members of parliament. The government of the city of Edinburgh is vested in the magistracy and town council. The magistracy consists of a lord provost, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and four baillies, each of whom is ea officio a member of the council. The council consists of seventeen merchants, six deacons, and two trades' councillors, in all twenty-five; the six deacons are selected from among fourteen who are elected by
carry on trade or manufactures within the bounds.
the citizens; the remaining eight, who are called extra deacons, are not called councillors, but have a vote in the council in all cases where the money in question exceeds ll. 13s. 4d. (201. Scots). For the purposes of the election the city is divided into wards or districts. One-third part of the councillors go out of office every year, but are eligible for re-election. The provost, baillies, treasurer, and other office-bearers, are elected by the councillors. The provost's term of office is three years, and he is eligible for immediate re-election. The other office-bearers go out at the expiration of one year, and cannot be re-elected until each shall have been out of his particular office one year; but this does not prevent their being kept in the council from year to year by their being elected to fill the different offices in succession. None but burgesses or freemen of the burgh are entitled to There are eight incorporated crafts within the burgh, all enjoying exclusive privileges and possessed of funds which are appro: priated to the support of decayed members or the widows of such as are deceased. These crafts are hammermen, tailors, wrights, bakers, shoemakers, weavers, fleshers, and barbers: the number of burgesses has not been ascertained, but is estimated to amount to about 400. The magistrates grant temporary licenses to trade to persons not freemen, and charge for such licenses from 5s. to 10s. per annum. From an early, period the property of the burgh has been administered very improvidently. In 1658 the debt of the city was stated to amount to 54,7611. sterling, and in 1692 had increased to 64,250l. In 1819, when the affairs of Edinburgh were examined by a Committee of the House of Commons, the actual debts of the city were stated to amount to 497, 1014, including 264,258/. incurred on account of the Leith docks; and in 1833 a statement was drawn up under the authority of the magistrates and council which gave the amount of ordinary debts and obligations of the city at 425, 1941, in which amount the engagements on account of the Leith docks are not included.". The revenue of the city, as stated under the same authority, amounted then to 27,524!., and its annual current expenditure to upwards of 33,000l. Under these circumstances, the city was declared insolvent, and an act was passed in August, 1833, conveying its whole properties and revenues to trustees for the general benefit, whereby they were preserved from the legal attacks of individual creditors. Some circumstances connected with the accounts of the city have been published, which have subjected the members of its government to much censure. Among these circumstances, it may be stated that the late Dr. Bell having bequeathed a considerable fund for the purposes of education, a sum of 10,000l. 3 per cent, stock was placed in the hands of the magistrates and council in trust to apply the dividends to the support of a school or schools in Edinburgh on the principles of the Madras system. Being pressed by a clamorous creditor for the payment of his claim, this stock was sold, and the greater part of the proceeds appropriated to prevent a blow-up in the city's allairs, and to enable them to continue the existing system a little longer.’ The population of the city of Edinburgh and the suburbs," which together constitute the capital, were at each census of the present century as follows:—
1801. 1811. 1821 1831.
Parishes in the city in using cin.' 20,658 22,578 29,850 40.315 -- the suburbs, including Can- - ----- -
ongate and St. "... } 45,886 59,206 82,385 95,379
, North and South Leith . 15,272 20,363 26,000 25,855
81,816 102,147 138,235 161,909
The population of the Shire of Edinburgh
exhibit the following results:—
city. of county. Total. Houses inhabited . . . . . . . . . 10, 179 9,565 19,744 , building . . . . . . . . . 95 55 50 ... uninhabited . . . . . . . . 582 5.7 1, 109 Families " . . . . . . . . . . 35, 116 12,299 || 47,415 ,, employed chiefly in agriculture . 563 3,976 3, 639
an -- in trade, manufac- - tures, &c. . ; 17, 190 3,864 21,034 , all not comprised in the two preced t 17,363 5,359 22,722.
ing classes . . . . . . ) * * - - *
Males . . . . . . . . . . . . 72,299 27,504 99,803 Females. . . . . . . . . . . . 89,610 99.9′3 || 19,542 Males 20 years of age and upwards . . . . 36,637 13.413 50,082 Female servants . . . . . . . . . . 12,429 3,045 15.47%
Edinburgh contains the supreme courts of justice for 2 N 2 .
Scotland, and is the residence of the principal practitione's of the legal profession; it is also the chief school of medicine and other sciences in Scotland. In the strict sense of the word, only a small part of the population, as already jerved, can be said to be engaged in manufactures; the number of males 20 years of age stated to be so engaged in is31 was 792; a great part of these were employed in making shawls, and the rest in weaving hair-cloth and silk, net-weaving, lace-making, and other small wares. . The trade of Edinburgh is carried on through its port, Leith, under which head it will be described... [LEITH.] The amount of postage collected in Edinburgh during the last
five years was as follows:-
1832 . . 442,759 1833 . . 41,864 1834 . . 41,680 1835 . . 41,959 1836 43,520
The University of Edinburgh consists of the College of King James, founded by James VI. of Scotland, by a charter dated 24th April, 1582. By this charter, which still forms the only constitution of the university; the provost, bailies, and town councillors of Edinburgh, and their successors in office, were invested with the sole power both of electing the professors and of dismissing them. In virtue of this authorization, indeed, the town council, or
corporation of the burgh, has ever since assumed nearly the
entire direction and control of the university-electing the professors, founding new chairs, managing the funds, and even regulating the class fees and the discipline of the institution. The Senatus Academicus, or body of professors, if such a body has any legal existence (for no senate or other academical court or council is constituted by the charter), is understood not to have the right of interfering in any of these matters, although it may sometimes have passed regulations of discipline which the town council has not thought proper to disturb. Indeed the supremacy of the town council, even in regard to making regulations as to the course of study for degrees, when it was a few years ago resisted by the professors, was affirmed in the most ample terms by a judgment of the Court of Session. Some years ago the clergy of the city put forward their claim to a voice in the election of professors, on the ground of a direction in the charter that the right of appointment given to the town council should be exercised cum avisamento ministrorum. The claim was keenly agitated in pamphlets and in the church courts, and some steps were taken to enforce it; but on application being made to the Court of Session in the case of a particular election, the court refused to grant an interdict, and the question was dropped. The only interference with their sole right of control that has been submitted to by the town council are the following. In modern times, about eight or nine new professorships have been founded by the crown, of which it has retained the patronage; but against the exercise of this power a protest is regularly taken by the town council that it shall not hurt or prejudge their rights. In the case of a few other chairs there has always been an interference with the nomination of the professor on the part of certain public bodies. For the most part this has been grounded on the contribution by the said bodies of part of the professor's salary; but in one instance at least no such reason for the practice can, we believe, be alleged, in that, namely, of the professorship of Humanity, or Latin, which is besides one of the oldest chairs. The professor of Humanity is thus elected according to the late Report of the Commissioners appointed by the crown for inquiring into the state of the Universities and Colleges of Scotland: “The Lords of Session name two delegates, the town council name one, the Faculty of Advocates one, and the Society of Writers to the Signet one. They meet together and appoint the professor. They then lay their minute of election before the town council, who issue a commission, in their own name, proceeding on the narrative of the election of the delegates, and binding the professor to obey laws and regulations, the same as if he were o solely by themselves.” (p. 117). Many visitations of the university have also taken place under the authority of the crown, of parliament, and even of the general assembly; but what legal force may belong to any regulations that may have been laid down by the visitors does not clearly appear. In this non-recognition of any authority, or at least of any independent and supreme authority, as belonging to either the entire body of the pro
fessors and students, or even to the Senatus Academicus, or council of the professors only, the University of Edinburgh differs from all the other Scottish colleges. “The Senatus Academicus,’ says the Report of the Commissioners, “acknowledge no authority but their own for instituting new faculties, and for fixing the privileges and immunities belonging to them.” But what privileges they can confer, or ever have conferred, is not stated. The Senatus does not appear to have ever been recognised by the town council as anything more than a mere meeting of the professors. Until of late years it is not recollected that there ever had been a vote in it (Report, p. 115), and it would still probably be impossible to quote any resolution it has passed which has been operative in any quarter except where it was voluntarily acquiesced in. One of the consequences of this non-incorporation of the university in any form has been, that it is without certain public officers which are found in all the other universities. There is no mention in the charter of a Chancellor; and although in early times the name was occasionally taken by the provost of the city, this must be regarded as having been quite an unauthorized assumption, and the office does not now exist at all, and has not existed for a long period. The case with regard to the office of Rector is nearly the same. “This important office,’ say the Commissioners, ‘has be: n much less efficient in Edinburgh than in the other universities. * * * The existence of the office itself has often been, apparently at least, suspended.' They afterwards state that it was held by several persons, though with frequent intervals, during the greater part of a century from the foundation of the university; but from the beginning of the eighteenth century, they conclude, “till within these few i. the office was never heard of in the university, much less known as an office attended with the performance of any duties. It is accordingly explicitly asserted, that no chancellor or vice-chancellor, rector, or dean of faculty, exercises any authority or jurisdiction over the principal, professors, or students in the University of Edinburgh.”—(pp. 114, 115.) The charter of king James in fact merely gave power to the town council to build houses for professors of certain departments of science and learning, and to engage persons to act as such. Proceeding upon this authority, the provost and magistrates of Edinburgh on the 14th September, 1583, entered into a contract with Mr. Robert Pollock, one of the professors or regents of the university of St. Andrews, to exercise the same office of regent in the new seminary. He was engaged at first only for a year, and at a salary of no more than 407. Scots, that is, between 37, and 4!. Sterling, in addition to the fees to be paid by the students. In 1584 the king executed a new deed in relation to the university, conferring certain property for its support on the magis. trates and council. The following year the council constituted Pollock Principal master of the college. At this time, or soon after, there are said to have been four other regents engaged in teaching. A second charter, ratifying what had been already done, was granted by the king in 1612; and in 1621 an act of the Scottish parliament was passed, confirming certain grants of property which had been made to the town of Edinburgh for the support of the institution. The preamble states, i. the college, which is described as ‘for profession of Theology, Philosophy, and Humanity,' had greatly flourished during the thirty-five years it had been in existence. It was by this charter that the name of King James's College was conferred upon it. The system of teaching originally pursued was i. Sanne as at the other Scotch universities. The Principal was regarded as Professor of Divinity, and his prelections were confined to that department. But each of the other four regents carried his students, during the four years they remained under his care, over the entire curriculum of literature and philosophy. In 1620 a second Professor of Theology was appointed, and then the Principal ceased to teach that science, though down to the year 1765 he used to deliver one discourse in each session. Since the cessation of this practice, in the time of Dr. Robertson the historian, the office has been a mere sinecure. A commission of visitation, appointed by parliament in 1690, directed that each professor should for the future be confined to one particular department; but this important alteration was not carried into effect till about the year 1708. The old practice was con. tinued in Mareschal College, Aberdeen, down to the vear 1753, and in King's College until 1800. Minute details on the subject of the property belonging
to the university are given in the Report of the Commis-
chiefly theological, which had been bequeathed in 1580 to
A few observations, however, must be added in explana- it has not yet been decided to which class they should, be
tion of some parts of this statement.
assigned.' The professorships of Universal History and of
The professorships are considered as divided into the four | Agriculture are particularly mentioned, as in this predica
faculties, or classes, of arts, law, medicine, and theology; ‘ although, according to the Report, “as to some of them
ment. None of these faculties, it is added, “can be traced to any deed, act, regulation, or constitution of a faculty.'
The Principal is considered as er-officio convener of the faculty of theology. The others have each a dean or convener chosen by the faculty. There is considerable discordance among the statements given in different parts of the Report as to the dates at which the chairs were founded. The four professorships set down as being founded in 1708 were evidently the four regentships, which, along with the principalship, constituted the original establishment of the college, but the holders of which, as already mentioned, were not confined to the teaching each of a particular department till the date here given. The writer of the Report (p. 117) perplexes himself unnecessarily by overlooking this fact. A professorship of Law, it is said in one place (p. 117) was appointed so early as 1588. The present law-school of Edinburgh, however, must be considered as not older than the commencement of the last century, and the medical school as dating from the close of the century preceding. It was not, indeed, till a considerably later period that the latter began to acquire celebrity. In the few cases in which the right of appointing the professors is shared by the town council with other parties, the mode of the interference of the latter is not uniform. The professors of Scotch Law, of Civil Law, and of Civil History are elected by the council from a leet (as it is called) of two names in each case, submitted by the Faculty of Advocates; a form which, in effect, gives the appointment to the latter body. In the appointments to the chairs of Humanity, Agriculture, and Conveyancing, delegates from the different bodies meet and vote. he professor of Botany holds two commissions, one from the crown as Regius Professor of Botany and Keeper of the Garden, and another from the town-council, as Professor of Medicine and Botany. The class of Clinical Medicine is taught in rotation by certain of the medical professors, according to an arrangement among themselves. The sums mentioned in the column of salaries include the grants from the crown and the allowances made to some of the professors for house-rent, as well as what are properly called their salaries. The salary and class fees added together give the entire average emoluments of the professorship. The calculations however are, for the most part, made on returns for the five years preceding 1826, and might possibly require to be considerably modified in order to be applicable to the present time. The professors of Divinity and Ecclesiastical History received no fees at the date of the Commissioners' Report; but they are now, we believe, paid two guineas by each student, which would give them about the sums assigned to them in the table. The salary of the professor of Public Law, who teaches no class, is in part made up of a pension of 200l. a year from the crown, which the present professor holds so long as he retains the office. The fees at the different classes vary from two to four guineas. The total number of students was, in 1811, 1644; in 1821, 2224; and in 1825, 2236. For 50 years preceding 1826 the total number of graduates in arts was only 168. During the same period 100 degrees of D.D. were conferred; and 56 of LL.D. The number of medical degrees was 18 in 1776; 32 in 1786; 31 in 1796; 37 in 1806; 76 in 1816; and 118 in 1826. Yet it is stated that the number of medical students was 764 in 1806, and only 896 in 1826. There is only one regular university session, or term, in the year, beginning on the last Wednesday of October, and ending the last day of April. Some of the classes, however, are not taught for the whole of this time. Of late years a few of the classes, principally of the medical faculty, have also been taught during a summer session, beginning with the 1st of May, and ending with the 31st of July. Each class meets only for an hour at a time; but some of them meet twice in i. day-; and some of the professors have two or three classes. No academical dress is worn by the students; no attendance upon divine service is enforced ; and scarcely any discipline can be said to be exercised beyond the walls of the class-room. The students are examined in several of the classes; but there is no public examination of any kind in the university. Schools—The oldest of the Edinburgh schools is the High School, originally instituted in 1519, and re-erected, upon having fallen into decay, in 1577; it now consists of a rector and four other Greek and Latin masters, a teacher of writing, a teacher of arithmetic and mathematics, and a teacher of
French. The Edinburgh Academy, also principally for in . struction in the classics, was founded in 1824, and consists of a rector and four other classical masters, with teachers of English, French, mathematics, and writing, Among the other educational establishments are the Hill-street Institution, opened in 1832, and furnished with teachers of the classics, English, elocution, writing, geography, history, natural history, mathematics, arithmetic, French, German, Italian, and drawing ; the Circus Place school, having a rector and five other masters; the Southern Academy, instituted in 1829; the Ladies’ Institution for the Southern districts, founded in 1833; the Scottish Institution for the Education of Ladies, founded in 1834; the School of Arts or Mechanics’ Institute; Dr. Bell's School, attended by about 400 children ; the schools of the Lancasterian School Society, in which there are about 600 boys and girls; and the well-known school, called the Sessional School, so ably conducted by Sheriff Wood. EDINGTONITE, a rare crystalline mineral, which occurs in the cavities of Thomsonite, near Dumbarton; the crystals are small and distinct, greyish white, translucent, and have a square prism as their primary form. Cleavage parallel to the lateral planes; fracture uneven ; hardness 4-0,45; sp. gr. 2:7; lustre vitreous. According to Turner, it contains silica 35'09; alumina 27-69; lime 1 2-68; water 13:32; and probably 10 to 11 per cent. of some alkali. EDMUND I., king of the Anglo-Saxons, was the son of King Edward the Elder, by his third wife Edgiva. He appears to have been born in 923, or about two years before his father's death. He succeeded his half-brother Athelstane, 27th October, 941. Immediately after his accession the Danish people of Northumbria rose in revolt under the same Anlaf (as the name is commonly given, but it should probably be Aulaf) or Olave, who had been defeated by Athelstane some years before in the great battle of Brunanburgh, and forced to flee to Ireland. After the war had lasted about a year, an accommodation was brought about by the Archbishops Odo and Wolstan, by which it was arranged that all the territory to the north of Watling-street should be given up to Olave. These terms prove that Edmund had by no means the best of the con test. Fortunately for him, however, the Danish earl died the next year; and Edmund, by a prompt and vigorous use of the opportunity, was successful in recovering all that he had lost. In 945 he also succeeded in reducing the hitherto independent state of Cumbria (including the modies, Cumberland and Westmoreland), which, after cruelly putting out the eyes of the two sons of the king, Dunmail, he made over to Malcolm I. of Scotland, to be held by him as the vassal of the English crown. The reign of Edmund, who was distinguished not only for his personal courage, but by his taste for elegance and splendour, on which account he received the surname of the Magnificent, was terminated 26th May, 946, by a death-blow which he received from an outlaw of the name of Liof, who had the audacity to present himself at the royal table, as the king was celebrating the feast of St. Augustine at Pucklekirk, in Gloucestershire : Edmund, on his refusal to leave the room, rose himself to assist in expelling him, when the ruflian, with a dagger which he had concealed under his clothes, stabbed him to the heart. King Edmund I. left, by his wife Elfgiva, two sons, Edwy and Edgar, who eventually both sat on the throne; but as they were mere children at the time of their father's decease, they were set aside for the present, and his immediate successor was his brother Edred. EDMUND II., king of the Anglo-Saxons, surnamed Ironside, either from his great strength, or the armour which he wore, was the son of king Ethelred II., and was born A. D. 989. According to the account that has commonly been received, his mother was Elgiva, or Ethelgiva, the daughter of earl Thored, or Toreth, who was Ethelred's first wife. Other authorities, however, assert that the mother of Edmund, and also of several of his brothers, was a foreign lady, who was only Ethelred's concubine. On the whole, the point of his legitimacy must be considered doubtful. Among modern historians, Lingard has set him down as the eldest son of Etheldred by his first wife, without intimating that any other account has been given; Turner describes him in one place as illegitimately born, in another, as the son of Ethelred by an earl's daughter whom he had married. (Hist. Ang. Saa., ii., 314 and 323, 3rd edit.) Edmund appears, in the history of the latter years of his