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the time of the Moeris of Herodotus, who lived about 900 ears before that historian's visit to Egypt. The name of aeris however is not found in the Phonetic inscriptions. Remeses II., or the Great, son of Osirei I., ascended the throne about 1350 B.C. and reigned above 40 years. This is supposed to be the Sesostris or Sesoosis of the Greek historians. Manetho places Sesostris much earlier, in the 12th dynasty, but it is thought probable by some that his Sesostris was a mythical personage, one of the early reported Egyptian conquerors, and that the name of Sesostris was afterwards given as a title of honour to other illustrious monarchs. At all events we now know from the monuments of Thebes that Remeses II. was one of the most warlike monarchs of antient Egypt; that his wars extended far, and against many nations. Some of these are represented as of much lighter complexion than the Egyptians, with flowing beards, and dresses evidently Asiatic. It is probable that his campaigns extended to Asia, perhaps against the kings of Assyria. That the old kings of Egypt extended their dominions to the east and north-east, as was done by their Greek and Mohammedan successors, is not only very likely, but it is attested as a fact by the Scripture, 2 Kings xxiv. 7, where, at a later period, when the power of Egypt had begun to decline, we are told that the king of that country ‘ came not again any more out of his land; for the king of Babylon (Nebuchadnezzar) had taken from the river of Egypt unto the river Euphrates all that pertained to the king of Egypt,” which seems to prove that the dominion of Egypt had extended at one time as far as the Euphrates. It has also been remarked that the figures of the prisoners made by Tirhakah, who fought against Sennacherib, previous to Nebuchadnezzar's time (2 Kings xix. 9), are represented in the Egyptian monuments as similar to those captured by the earlier kings of the 18th dynasty. Remeses II. was succeeded by his son Amenophis, according to Manetho (Phtahmen *ion. according to the Phonetic signs), who seems to be the same as the Pheron (Pharaoh 2) of Herodotus and the Sesoosis II. of Diodorus, who, according to both the latter historians, was struck blind, but recovered his sight. With him ended the 18th dynasty. The 19th dynasty, also of Diospolitans, began about 1270 h.c., and reigned till 1170. During this period the war of Troy took place, in the reign of a Remeses, supposed to be the fifth of that name, according to Pliny. Herodotus and Diodorus give King Proteus as contemporary with the war of Troy. Of the 20th and 21st dynasties nothing is known beyond the mere names of some of the kings, according to the Phonetic signs. The Pharaoh whose daughter Solomon married, 1013 b.c., must have been one of the 21st dynasty. It is curious that, from the Exodus till Solomon's time, a period of nearly five centuries, no mention is made in the Scriptures of Egypt, which proves that the storm of war, if such there was, passed off either to the eastward of Palestine, or that the Egyptian conquerors followed the maritime road by Gaza and the Phoenician coast, leaving the high land of Judaea to their right. (Wilkinson, Materia Hieroglyphica, Part ii.) The 22d dynasty, beginning with Sesonchis, according to Manetho, and Sheshonk, according to the Phonetic signs, who began to reign about 978 B.C., and who is the Shishak of the Scripture, at whose court Jeroboam took refuge and married his daughter, and who, after Solomon's death, plundered the temple of Jerusalem in the 5th year of Rehoboam (2 Chronicles, xii.). Shishak is represented as coming to the attack “with 1200 chariots 2nd 60,000 horsemen, and an immense multitude of Lubims (probably Libyans), of Sukkiims, and Ethiopians.” Of O-orkon I., the successor of Sheshonk, we have a date at Thebes commemorating the 11th year of his reign. Zerah, the Ethiopian king or chief, who attacked Asa, king of Judah (2 Chron. xiv.), was Osorkon's contemporary. The 23rd dynasty, called Diospolitan, like the preceding, began about 908 B.C. with Osorkon II. Homer is believed to have flourished about his time, and he speaks of Egypt under its Greek name. The 24th dynasty, which is called Saite, from Sais, a district of Lower Egypt, begins with the Bocchoris of Manetho, the Bakhor or Pehor of the Phonetic signs, about 812 B.C. Diodorus places a long period between his reign and that of Sabacos, the Ethiopian, who however follows Bocchoris next but one in the Phonetic chronology and in that of Manetho Sabacos (Sabakoph, Phonetic) begins the 25th dynasty of Ethiopians, who, about this time, invaded Egypt, or at least Upper Egypt. Tehrak or Tirhakah, one of his successors, attacked Sennacherib,

Z10 B.C. Sethos, a priest of Hephæsus, the great temple of Memphis, became king, and ruled at Memphis, contemporary with Tirhakah. After Sethos' death a great confusion or anarchy took place. At last twelve chiefs or monarchs assembled at Memphis, and took the direction of affairs, which they retained for 15 years. After this Psamatik I., or Psammitichus, the son of Nechao or Necos, who had been put to death by Sabacos, became, by the aid of Greek mercenaries, king of all Egypt, about 650 B.C. His son Necos II, the Pharaoh Nechoh of the Scripture (2 Kings xxiii.) marched against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: he defeated and slew Josiah, king of Judah, 610 B.C. He also began the canal that joined the east branch of the Nile with the Red Sea. His successor, Psamatik II., was followed by Psamatik III., supposed by some to be the Apries of Manetho, and the Pharaoh of Hophra of the Scripture, who defeated the Phoenicians, took Sidon, and invaded Cyprus, which was finally subjected by Amasis, who succeeded him on the throne. The reign of Amasis lasted forty-four years, according to a date on the monuments: his successor, Psammenitus, reigned only six months, when Egypt was invaded by Cambyses, 525 B.C., who overran and ravaged the country, and lost the greater part of his army in the neighbouring deserts. The 27th dynasty, includes the Persian Kings from Cambyses to Darius Nothus, during which time Egypt was a province, though a very unruly one, of the Persian monarchy. It was during this period that Herodotus visited Egypt. Though he saw that country in a state of humiliation and depression, yet he was powerfully struck by its buildings, and its highly advanced social state, as well as by the peculiarities of its manners and institutions. Egypt appears to have made upon Herodotus an impression something like that produced by England upon French or other continental travellers in the last century, as being a country unlike any other. But Herodotus derived his information concerning Egyptian history chiefly from the priests of Memphis, and consequently his account is very meagre in all that relates to Thebes and Heliopolis, the two other great centres of Egyptian hierarchy. After several revolts the Egyptians succeeded in placing Amyrtaeus, or Aomahorte, a Saite, on the throne, about 414 B.c. This king alone constitutes the 28th dynasty. He was succeeded by the 29th dynasty, of Mendesians, who defended Egypt against the repeated attacks of the Persians, with the assistance of Greek auxiliaries under Agesilaus and others. At last Nectanebos, being defeated by Ochus, fled into Ethiopia, 340 B.C., and Egypt fell again under the yoke of the Persians. The Persians were succeeded by the Macedonians, who, after the death of Alexander, founded the dynasty of the Ptolemies, or Lagidae, who ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, and restored that country to a considerable degree of prosperity. [ProLEMY.]. At the death of Cleopatra, 30 Bc., Egypt was reduced to a Roman province by Augustus. Having now closed this brief summary of the history of antient Egypt, imperfect and conjectural in part as it unavoidably is, we shall, in a few words, advert to the social condition of the country under its native kings. That condition is now tolerably well known by the attentive ex amination of its remaining monuments and their sculptures and paintings. The researches of the French in the expedition to Egypt, and of Belzoni, Champollion, Rosellini, and others, have put us in possession of a series of sketches evidently drawn from the life, and descriptive of the arts, industry, and habits of the antient Egyptians. To these works and the plates which accompany them we must refer the reader. There is no doubt that this singular nation had attained a high degree of refinement and luxury at a time when the whole western world was still involved 1. barbarism; when the history of Europe, including Greece, had not yet begun; and long before Carthage, Athens, and Rome were thought of This high state of material civilization was attained under a system of institutions and policy which resembles in some respects those of the Hindoos. It was a monarchy based upon an all-powerful hierarchy. The inhabitants were divided into a kind of hereditary castes, the first of which consisted of the priests, who filled the chief offices of the state. They were the depositaries and the expounders of the law and the religion of the country. They monopolized the principal branches of learning : they were judges, physicians, architects. Their sacred books, like their temples, were not open to the vulgar.

They had a language or at least a writing peculiar to themselves. The king himself, if not of their caste, was adopted into it, was initiated into its mysteries, and became bound by its regulations. The priests were exempt from all duties, and a large portion of land was set apart for their maintenance; and we read in Genesis, that when Pharaoh in a season of famine bought, by the advice of Joseph, all the land of the Egyptians on condition of feeding them out of his stores, only the land of the priests bought he not, for the priests had a portion (of corn) assigned them of Pharaoh, and did eat their portion which Pharaoh gave them, wherefore they sold not their lands." (xlvii. 22.) And again when Joseph, after the scarcity was over, made it a law of the land that the king should have for ever after a fifth part of the produce of the soil, restoring the rest to the owners, he excepted only ‘the land of the priests,' which became not Pharaoh’s.’ (ib. 26.) The testimony of the Scripture is here perfectly in accordance with that of Herodotus and other historians. The priests were subject to certain strict regulations: they abstained from certain meats, and at times from wine, made their regular ablutions, had but one wife, while polygamy was allowed to the other castes, and they wore a peculiar dress according to their rank. The soldiers formed the second caste, for Egypt had a standing army from a very remote period, divided into regimonts or battalions, each having its standard with a peculiar emblem raised on a pike and carried by an officer. Their arms were the bow, sword, battle-axe, shield, knife or dagger. spear, club, and sling. Their besieging engines were the battering-ram, the testudo, and the scaling ladder. They had a military music, consisting of a kind of drum, cymbals, pipe, trumpet, and other instruments. The military caste was held in high repute and enjoyed great privileges. Each soldier was allowed a certain measure of land, exempt from every charge, which he either cultivated himself when not on active service, or let to husbandmen or farmers. Those who did the duty of royal guards had besides an ample allowance of rations. They were inured to the fatigues of war by gymnastic exercies, such as wrestling, cudgelling, racing, sporting, and other games, of which the representations still exist on their monuments. . The husbandmen formed another class, which was next in rank, as agriculture was highly esteemed among the Egyptians. They made use of the plough and other implements. They had various breeds of large cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and a quantity of poultry reared chiefly by artificial means, the eggs being hatched in ovens, as it is the practice of the country in this day. The peasants appear to have been divided into hundreds, each with a peculiar banner, which they followed when presenting themselves before the magistrafe for the census, which was taken at stated periods, when they were obliged to give an account of their conduct; and if found delinquent, were punished with the stick. The next class was that of the artificers and tradesmen, who lived in the towns. The progress made by the Egyptians in the mechanical arts is evident from their monuments, paintings, and sculptures; in which the various handicrafts are represented. The mines of gold, copper, iron, and lead, which are in the mountains between the Nile and the Red Sca, were worked at a very remote date under the early Pharaohs. There is a passage in the work of Agatharchides on the Red Sea which describes their manner of working the gold mines and smelting the metal, and the suf. ferings of the people who were compelled to do that labour. (British Museum, Egyptian Antiquities, vol. ii. ch. 9.) The Egyptians were acquainted also with the art of gilding. The art of fabricating glass was early known among them. Beads of glass, generally coloured blue, are found on many mummies, as well as other ornaments of a coarse kind of the same material. A kind of antient porcelain, sometimes covered with enamel and varnish is found in great quantities in Egypt. Their pottery was often of the most clepant forms. The taste displayed by the Egyptians in several of their articles of furniture is not surpassed by our most refined manufactures of modern times. In the great French work and in the recent one of Rosellini we have specimens of many articles of furniture, especially chairs and couches, which are singularly beautiful in their forms Linen cloth, plain or embroidered, white or dyed, was an article of Egyptian manufacture highly in repute among foreign nations. (Ezekiel xxvii. 7.) The art of making leather was also known to them. The last class or caste included pastors or herdsmen,

poulterers, fishermen, and servants. shepherds appear to have been held in peculiar contempt among them. Besides servants, they had a number of slaves, both black and white. Fish was an article of common food, except to the priests. Wine of native growth was used by the rich, and a kind of beer was the drink of the poor. An account of the different grains, plants, and trees, the produce of antient Egypt, and also of its native animals, is given in Wilkinson's Topography of Thebes, ch. v., on the manners and customs | the antient Egyptians. The above-mentioned five castes as specified by i. i. 74, were subdivided into ranks according to the various callings and trades, and this has occasioned some variety in their enumeration. Herodotus reckons seven castos, Plato six, others have not reckoned the despised shepherds as a caste, and others have counted the military as one caste with the husbandmen, as being drafted from the body of the latter. Like the Hindoo, every Egyptian was required to follow his father's profession and to remain in his caste. That such institutions were incompatible with our modern notions of independence and freedom is evident enough; but freedom is a word differently understood in different ages and countries, and the Egyptians, trained up as they were from infancy to reverence laws which they deemed immutable, might have enjoyed as great a degree of happiness as most nations in the old world. But the degradation of the lowest caste, and the waste of human strength and human life in the working of their mines and the building of their pyramids and other colossal structures, and the frequency and nature of the summary punishments inflicted, as mentioned by Diodorus and confirmed by their monuments, seem to imply that the mass of the people, and the lower classes especially, found their superiors of the sacerdotal caste to be hard task-masters. The progress of the Egyptians in the exact sciences has been taken for granted without sufficient evidence. Of their astronomy we know but little, but it appears to have been confounded with mythology and astrology, and made subservient to religious polity. [DENDERAH, Zodiac of..] Their year was of 365 days: for their method of correcting it see SoTH1Ac PERiod. Diodorus says that they foretold connets; but he also says that they foretold future events, leaving us in doubt whether they were successful in either or both cases. We cannot here enter into the vast and intricate ground of Egyptian mythology, and must refer the reader to the special works on that subject by Champollion, Wilkinson, and others. Their mythology appears to have been originally symbolical, but afterwards degenerated, at least for the vulgar, into gross idolatry. That they had some practical knowledge of geometry, which indeed must have been requisite for the construction of their buildings, &c. is generally admitted. Yet they appear not to have known until a comparatively later period that the level of the Red Sea was much higher than that of the Mediterranean or of the Nile. Their boats were rude and clumsy, and chiefly constructed for river navigation. They were for a long time averse to maritime expeditions from superstitious prejudice, probably instilled by their priests in order to keep them secluded from the rest of the world, and the Phoenicians were then the sea-carriers of Egypt. It was chiefly after the restoration effected by Psamaticus I., and their conse*: intercourse with the Greeks, that their rigidity in this and other respects relaxed: they had their ships of war both on the Mediterranean and Red Sea, and under Apries Egypt had sufficient naval power and skill to cope with the fleets of Tyre. His predecessor Necos II. is said by Herodotus to have dispatched some Phoenician vessels by the Red Sea to circumnavigate Libya (Africa), and to return to Egypt by the Pillars of Hercules, which they effected. The truth, or at least the extent of this expedition has been much questioned. [AFRICA.] There is a curious story in Plato's ‘Critias,” of Sonchis, an Egyptian priest, having told Solon of the Atlantic isles, which he . were larger than Asia and Africa united, which seems to imply something like a knowledge of the existence of the Western Continent. The money of the Egyptians was in rings of silver and gold, similar to those still used in Sennaar, and its value was ascertained by weight, and its purity by fire. Gold was brought to Egypt from different tributary countries of Ethiopia and Asia, besides what they drew from their own mines. The revenue of Egypt, derived from the taxes alone, amounted, even during |. negligent administration of Ptolemy Auletes, to 12,500 talents, between three

The herdsmen and and four millions sterling. Diodorus reckoned its population at seven millions, and Josephus at seven millions and a half, exclusive of that of Alexandria, which cxceeded 300,000. For further particulars on the commerce, resources and policy of antient Egypt, see Heeren's Researches. Champollion le Jeune in his “Egypte sous les Pharaons,’ has endeavoured to retrace the national names and localities of the antient Egyptian towns, many of which had disappeared long before Strabo's time, or their names had been disfigured by the Greek writers. Egypt was, according to Champollion, divided already under the Pharaohs into 36 nomes or governments, 10 in the Thebais or Upper Egypt, 16, in Middle Egypt, and 10 in Lower Egypt, commonly called the Delta. Each nome was subdivided into districts or toparchies. This was exclusive of the Oases, the dependencies on the side of Nubia, &c. With regard to the principal existing monuments of antient Egypt we refer the reader to the respective heads, such as DENDERAH, EDFU, PyRAMIDs, THEBEs, &c., and for the general character of Egyptian architecture to the following article. Modern History. Passing over the ages during which Egypt was a province of the Roman Empire (see Hamilton's AEgyptiaca, on the State of Egypt under the Romans, and map of Egypt with the names of the Roman period, by Raoul Rochette), we begin the modern history of Egypt at the Mohammedan conquest. Under the Caliphate of Omar, successor of Abu Bekr, Amer Ebn el As invaded Egypt, A.D. 63S, and took Pelusium and Babylon of Egypt, a strong Roman station, which sustained seven months' siege. John Mecaukes, governor of Memphis for the Byzantine emperor, treacherously surrendered his trust, and the Copts agreed to pay tribute or a capitation tax to the Caliph, with the exception of old men, women, and monks. The hatred, not j, political but religious, which the Copts bore to the Greeks, facilitated the success of the Moslems. The first mosque on Egyptian ground rose with the new town of Fostat on the site of Roman Babylon. Alexandria made a long and obstinate defence; it fell at last, and was plundered. The Saracen General asked the Caliph what was to be done with the library, and Omar ordered it to be burnt. But the libraries of the Ptolemies had perished before—the Bruchion was destroyed during the siege of Julius Caesar, and that of the Serapion was dispersed by Theophilus the Patriarch, A.D. 390; the library destroyed by Omar's order was therefore a more recent collection. [ALExANDRIAN LIBRARY.] The whole of Egypt as far as Syene was soon reduced to a province of the Caliphate, the capital of which was Fostat. In A.D. 868, Ahmed cbn e' Tooloon, governor of Egypt for the Abbaside Caliphs, usurped the sovereignty of the country and founded the dynasty of the Tooloonides, which lasted till 906, when the Caliphs retook Egypt. But in 912 Abayd Allah el Mahdee after usurping the government of Eastern Africa, invaded Egypt, which he retained till 934, when he was defeated by the forces of the Caliph. In 936 El Akhshed Mohammed ebn Tughg, a Turkish chief in the service of the Caliph, o the government of Egypt, and began a new dynasty which lasted till 970, when the Fatmieh or Fatemides, the successors of Mahdee, who had continued to rule in Africa, took possession of Egypt. El Moez, who styled himself Caliph, built Misr el Kahirah, where he fixed his residence, leaving Yousef Ebn Zeiri his viceroy in Africa. "From that time till 1171, the Fatemite Çaliphs reigned over #. independent of and rivals to the Abbaside Caliphs of Bagdad. This was the period of the wars of the early Crusades, in which the Fatemides acted a conspicuous part. , Egypt retained much of its importance and splendour under their dynasty. (See Etat Arabe de l'Egypte, by Sylvester de Sacy, joined to his translation of Abdallatif.) The Kurd Salah e deen Yoosef Ebn Eyoob succeeded to the Fatemides, in 1171, and founded the dynasty of the Eyoobites, which lasted till 1250, when El Moez, a Turkoman memlook or slave, after murdering Touran Shah, usurped the throne, and founded the dynasty of the Baharite Sultans, who took possession of Syria also. Baybers, a memlook also, assassinated his master in 1261 or 62, made himself Sultan of Egypt, retook Syria from the Tatars, took Damascus, and put an end to the Caliphate of Asia, and extended his conquests as far as and over part of Armenia. His descendants reigned till 1382, maintained possession of Syria as far as the Euphrates, and encouraged agriculture and the arts. Their dynasty is known by the name of Baharite Memlook Me

leks or Sultans. They did not assume the title of Caliphs, but allowed the descendants of the Abbasides to retain that name, and to live in Egypt under their subjection, as a sort of state prisoners. In 1382 Dowlet el Memeleek el Borg&h, a Circassian slave, took possession of the throne and founded the dynasty of the Borgééh, or Circassian Memlooks, which lasted till 1517, when Selim I., the Ottoman sultan, advanced into Egypt, defeated the Memlooks at the battle of Heliopolis, and caused Toman Bey, the last of their kings, to be hanged at Cairo. Selim abolished the dynasty, but not the aristocracy of the Memlooks; he even made conditions with the Memlooks by a regular treaty, in which he acknowledged Egypt as a republic, governed by twentyfour beys tributary to him and his successors, who appointed a pacha, or governor, to reside at Cairo. This pacha, however, was to make no alterations in the system of government without the consent of the beys, who might even suspend him from his functions if he acted arbitrarily, until the pleasure of the Porte should be known. The beys were to elect from among themselves a sheik of Bclad to be their head, who was looked upon by the Porte as the chief of the republic. In time of war the republic was to send 12,000 men to join the Ottoman armies. In other respects the republic, that is to say, the Memlook aristocracy, was to enjoy absolute power over the inhabitants of Egypt, levy taxes, keep a military force, raise money, and exercise all the rights of sovereignty. This treaty was signed in the year 887 of the Hegira, A.D. 1517. (Savary, Lettres sur .#. vol. ii.) Under this form of government Egypt remained nominally subject to the Porte, against whose authority the Memlooks often openly revolted, till the French invasion of 1798, when Bonaparte, under the pretence of delivering Egypt from the yoke of the Memlooks, took possession of the country. The English Sent an o in 1801 to aid the Porte, which drove away the French, and restored the pacha appointed by the sultan. The Memlooks and the pacha, however, could not agree; scenes of bloodshed and treachery took place, and at last the present pacha, Mehemet, or rather Mohhammed Ali, contrived to collect most of the beys with their principal officers within the citadel of Cairo, under pretence of an entertainment, where he had them all massacred in March, 1811. A few escaped into Upper Egypt, from whence they were driven into Nubia, and being also driven from thence in 1821, the few who survived took refuge in Dar-fur. [DoNGoLA.] Thus ended the Memlook power, which had ruled over Egypt for more than four centuries. Savary gives an account of the institutions of that singular body, which were still in full force in his time. Their destruction, although perfidiousl contrived, has been undoubtedly a benefit to Egypt, for their government was as tyrannical and oppressive as their moral character was depraved. It was a government of slaves who had become masters, for the body of Memlooks was perpetually recruited from young slaves brought chiefly from Georgia and Circassia. Every bey was a tyrant in his own district. There was not even union among them, as they were frequently at war with each other. Personal bravery or animal courage was their only virtue, if it deserves that name. Egypt suffered more under the Memlooks than during any other period of its history. Present State of Egypt—This country is commonly divided by geographers into three regions, 'o. Balhari, or Maritime, or Lower Egypt; Vostani, or Middle Egypt; and Said, or Upper Egypt. But the administrative division of the country is by provinces, or prefectships, of which there are fifteen in Lower Egypt, and ten in Middle and Upper Egypt together. The provinces are–1. Masr, or Cairo, with the town of that name, the capital of the whole country, and the town of Boolak, the port of Cairo on the Nile, ði Cairo, or Fostat, and Suez, on the Red Sea; 2. Kelioub, north of Cairo, with the towns of Kelioub, Mataryeh, near the ruins of Heliopolis; Artrib, Choubra, where #. pacha has a fine country residence, and Abouzabel, where is the new College of medicine and surgery, with 300 pupils, and a large hospital attached to it; 3. Belbeys, east of Kelioub, on the borders of the Desert; 4. Chibeh, north of Belbeys, with the towns or villages of Chibell, and Tell Bastah, and Heydeh; 5. Mit Ghamer, north of Kelioub and near the Damietta branch of the Nile; 6. Mansourah, north of Mit Ghamer, likewise on the east bank of the Damietta branch, with the town of Mansourah, and the village of Tmay el Emdid, which has a monolith of granité; 7. Damietta, with the towns of Damietta and

Menzaleh, and the forts of El_Arish and Tynch, on the borders of the Syrian Desert; 8. Mehallet el Kebir, with the town of that name, within the actual Delta, on the left bank of the Damietta branch, and the small towns of Semennout and Abousir ; 9. Tantah, south of Mehallet, with the town of Tantah, situated near the middle of the Delta, one of the principal towns of Lower Egypt, remarkable for its fine mosque, and the fair which takes place three times a year, and is much frequented by pilgrims who come to visit the tomb of Seyd Ahmed el Bedaouy, a celebrated Moham; medan saint ; 10. Melig, south of Tantah with the towns of Melig and Chibn el Koum; 11. Menouf, south of Melig, and within the angle formed by the bifurcation of the Nile; 12. Negilch, with the town of that name, on the left or west bank of the Rosetta branch, and the towns of Terraneh and Wardan; 13. Fouah, north-west of Mehallet, with the town of Rashid, or Rosetta, and the towns of Fouah and Deiroot; 14. Damanhour, on the left bank of the Rosetta branch, north of Negileh, with the towns of Damanhour and Rahmanyeh; 15. Alexandria, with the city of that name. On entering the valley of the Nile from the Delta side we find, 1. Jizeh, on the left or west bank of the river, op. posite Cairo, a small town, head of the prefectship of that name, near the great pyramids, and not far from the ruins of Memphis, upon which are built three modern villages, Bedreshin, Mit Rahymeh, and Meinf: 2. Benisouef, south of Jizeh, on the same side of the Nile, a considerable and industrious town, in one of the most fertile districts of the valley of the Nile, with the towns of Abou Girgeh and Samallout further south; 3. On the opposite or east bank of the Nile is Attyh, a town and prefectship ; 4. West of Benisouef is the district of Faïoum, with the town of Medinet el Faioum; 5. South of Benisouef, but extending on both banks of the Nile, is the district of Minyell, with the towns of Minyeh, Melaoui, and Eshmounein on the left, and those of Shevk Abadeh and El Bershel on the right bank; 6. Mansalout, south of Minyeh, with the town of that name on the left bank, and several villages on both banks of the Nile; 7. Siout, with the town of that name, the capital of Upper Egypt, and the residence of a governor. It is situated on the left bank, is a great slave-market, and the entrepôt of the caravan trade with Darf-fur and Sennaar, with a spacious bazaar, and 12,000 inhabitants—Richardson says 20,000; 8. Girgeh, south of Siout, with the towns of Girgeh, 7000 inhabitants, on the left, and Ekhmym, 10,000, on the right bank of the Nile; 9. Kenéh, with the town of that name, on the right bank, which has 5000 inhabitants, and carrics on a considerable intercourse with Cosseir and the opposite coast of Arabia, and is known for its manufactory of porous earthen vessels used for keeping water cool. Kous, near the ruins of Coptos, Denderah, on the left bank, and the ruins of Thebes and of Abydus are in the prefectship of Kenéh; 10. Esneh, the most southern province of Egypt, with the town of that name, on the left bank, with about 4000 inhabitants, manufactories of cottons and shawls, and pottery; it is a great market for camels, and the emporium of the Abyssinian trade. The other towns are Edfu, Assouan or Syene, Koum Ombou, with a fine temple, and Selseleh, with its quarries. For the principal towns of Egypt see the respective heads ALEXANDRIA, CAIRo, DAMIETTA, Rosetta, &c. The population of the smaller towns is very difficult to be ascertained, as there is no census or register kept. The whole of the cultivable land of Egypt, in the valley of the Nile and the Delta, is reckoned at 17,000 square miles. The resident population has been generally stated at two millions and a half, but a recent traveller thinks it does not exceed two millions at the utmost, of whom 1,750,000 are Mohammedan Egyptians, including the fellabs or peasants and the townspeople; 150,000 are Copts or Christian Egyptians; 10,000 are Osmanlees or Turks and Albanians, as yet the ruling race; 5000 Syrians, 5000 Greeks, 5000 Jews, and 2000 Armenians, and about 70,000 are black slaves, Nubians, Moghrebins, &c. (Lane's Modern Egyptians.) In this calculation the nomadic Arabs of the neighbouring deserts, whose number cannot be ascertained, are not included. The language of the natives is Arabic; but Turkish is still the language of the government. For the Copts and Coptic language see those articles. The reat bulk of the Mohammedan natives is of Arab stock, ut many Copts or aborigines have at different times embraced Mohammedanism, and numerous intermarriages have taken place between the Arab settlers and

the Copts, Nubians, &c. The fellalls of Fgypt have lost much of their original Arabian character; they are become proverbially tame and servile, and are despised by the neighbouring Beduins, who never give them their daughters in marriage. The townspeople may be considered as having attained as high a degree of civilization as any in the East; and “Cairo,' says Mr. Lane, ‘must be regarded as the first Arab city of our age. There is no other place in which we can obtain so complete a knowledge of the most civilized class of the Arabs.' The men are generally well proportioned and muscular, their height about five feet eight or five feet nine; the women beautifully formed, and not too fat. Their complexion in Cairo and the northern provinces is clear, though yellowish, and their skin soft; the lower classes are darker and coarser. The people of middle Egypt are of a more tawny colour, and those of the southern provinces are of a deep bronze complexion. Their countenance in general is of a fine oval form ; the nose is straight though rather thick, the lips rather full, the eyes black and brilliant, the beard commonly black and curly, but scanty. For the dress and habits of the various orders, see Lane's Modern Egyptians, vol. i. The climate of Egypt, during the greater part of the year, is salubrious. The khamseen, or hot south wind, which blows in April and May, is oppre-sive and unhealthy. The exhalations from the soil after the inundation render the latter part of the autumn less healthy than the summer and winter, and cause ophthalmia and dysentery, and other diseases. The summer heat is seldom very oppressive, being accompanied by a refreshing northerly breeze, and the air being extremely dry. This diyness however causes an excessive quantity of dust, which is very annoying. The thermometer in Lower Egypt in the depth of winter is from 50° to 60° in the afternoon and in the shade; in the hottest season it is from 90° to 100°, and about ten degrees higher in the southern parts of Upper Egypt. . The climate of Upper Egypt, though hotter, is more old, than that of the lower country. The plague seldom ascends far above Cairo. Ophthalmia is also more common in Lower Egypt : it generally arises from checked perspiration, but is aggravated by the dust and other causes, and by the neglect and filth of the natives, so that great numbers of Egyptians are blind in one or both eyes. The houses of the wealthier classes in the principal towns are substantially built, roomy, and commodious, but the dwellings of the lower orders, especially of the peasants, are of a very mean description, being mostly built of unbaked brick., cemented with mud. Many of them are mere hovels. Most of the villages of Egypt are situated upon eminences of rubbish, the materials of former buildings, and thus rise a few feet above the reach of the inundation: they are surrounded by palmtrees. The agricultural produce of Egypt consists of the following winter plants, which are sown after the inundation and reaped in about three or four months after: wheat, barley, beans, peas, lentils, vetches, lupins, clover, flax, coleseed, lettuce, hemp, cummin, coriander, poppy, tobacco, watermelons, and cucumbers; and of the following summer plants, which are raised by artificial irrigation by means of water-wheels and other machinery: doorah, Indian corn, onions, millet, henneh, sugar-cane, cotton, coffee, indigo, madder. Rice is sown in the spring and gathered in October, chiefly near Lake Menzaleh. Of the fruit trees, which grow mostly in gardens near the principal towns, the mulberry and Seville orange ripens in January, apricots in May, peaches and plums in June, apples, pears, and caroobs at the end of June, .. at the beginning of July, figs in July, prickly pears end of July, pomegranates and lemons in August, dates in August, citrus medica in September, oranges in October, sweet lemons and banana in November. The poor fellah or farmer who cultivates the soil derives but little benefit from the prodigality of nature; he is compelled to pay a heavy land-tax, another tax to government for the use of the water-wheels, besides additional taxes and exactions of the local sheikh, the Copt scribe, and the Turkish officers, and then he is obliged to sell a portion or the whole of the produce of his land to the government at a fixed price, and to carry it to the granary at his own expense. The fellah, to supply the bare necessaries of life, is often obliged to steal and convey secretly to his hut as much as he can of the produce of his own labour. He may either himself supply the seed for his land, or obtain it as a loan from the government; but in the latter case he receives hardly threefourths of what he pays for, the remainder being stolen by the subordinate officers. The pacha has dispossessed all the private proprietors throughout his dominions, giving to each, as a partial compensation, a pension for life, so that the farmers are now his own tenants and entirely at his mercy. (Lane, vol. i., c. 4, and Wilkinson's Thebes, pp. 268 and foll.) The government of Mohammed Ali, too extravagantly praised by some, is certainly much more rational, orderly, and humane, than that of the memlooks or that of the old pachas in the other dominions of the Porte. He administers impartial justice to all his subjects, without regard to race or religion; has cstablished regular judicial courts and a good police; has done away with tortures and other barbarous punishments; has encouraged instruction to a certain extent; has removed most of the ignorant prejudices which existed among his subjects against the arts and learning of Europe; and has introduced European manufactures and machinery; he keeps a printing-oslice and a journal; has formed schools and colleges for the arts and sciences and for military and naval tactics. All this is much more than it may seem at first sight to a person unacquainted with the state of Egypt and other Turkish provinces forty years ago. But the pacha’s ambition and the difficulties of his situation have obliged him to resort to two violent expedients, an enormous taxation and an oppressive conscription. The pretended legislative assembly sitting at Cairo is a mere fiction of enthusiastic panegyrists. The government of Egypt is still absolute in the strictest sense of the word, though the present pacha has chosen to govern according to forms and regulations which he has himself established. He has formed a council consisting of his chief officers and of the provincial and local governors and sheikhs, whom he occasionally consults. Many of the subordinate agents of the government in the provinces still exercise occasional acts of capricious tyranny, which seldom reach their master's ears, but whenever they do he is not slow in punishing the offenders and redressing the grievances of the oppressed. Of what Mohammed Ali has really done a good sketch may be found in Planat, Histoire de la Régénération de l'Egypte, 8vo., Paris, 1830, and in a notice of the same work in No. xiv. of the Foreign Quarterly Review, April, 1831. The reforms effected by Mohammed Ali are far more complete and effective than those of Sultan Mahmood in Turkey, and are directed by a keener sagacity and with a steadier purpose. Mengin, ‘Histoire de l'Egypte sous le gouvernement de Mohammed Ali,’ 2 vols. 8vo. with an atlas, Paris, 1823, gives a full account of the carcer of this extraordinary man. At the end of the atlas there is a ‘Tableau du Commerce de l'Egypte avec l’Europe.' . For the various arts and manufactures of Egypt see Lane's vol. ii. 1. The present dominions of the ruler of Egypt extend on one side to Sennaar and Kordofan, and on the other over all Syria to Adana, a part of Cilicia at the foot of Mount Taurus. He is likewise possessed of the fine island of Candia. In Arabia he is protector of Mecca and Medina, and lord of the Hedjaz. He is possessed of at least as extensive a tract of country as any of his predecessors of the Fatimite, Ptolemaic, or Pharaoh dynasties. Whether this empire will survive his death is a very doubtful question. His power is founded on a strong military force, which consists of between fifty and sixty thousand regular troops, the officers of which are mostly proud Osmanlees, aliens to o and the soldiers are the sons of the poor, oppressed, despised fellahs. No Arab officer, says Planat, is raised above the rank of lieutemant. The Osmanlees fill likewise the principal offices of the government. But the native Egyptians are said to be quick at learning, hardy, frugal and persevering; they make excellent soldiers; they divest themselves of old prejudices more easily than the Turks, and in their intercourse with Europeans they exhibit none of the jealousy and pride of the latter. Whatever therefore may be the consequence of Mohammed Ali's reforms, with regard to the stability of his dynasty, there is some reason to hope that the impulse which he has given to the native population will not be lost, and that the seeds of improvement scattered about Egypt will spread in course of time to other parts of the Arab world, of which Egypt forms the central and so important a part. EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. This was not included under the head of Civil ARCHITECTURE, for the reason that it is purely monumental or historical, and not at all the object of study to the architect except as belonging to the archaeology of his art, and as matter of curiosity; so P. C., No. 570,

totally distinct is it in its taste from what is termed classical antiquity. Indeed, until of comparatively very late years, hardly any thing was known of the Egyptian style, or the edifices executed in it, with the exception of the pyramids; for previously to the French expedition to Egypt, at ths close of the last century, no satisfactory delineations had been taken of the temples and their détails; but merely such views as were calculated to convey some general idea of their enormous masses and colossal grandeur. Hence it has been—we may say even still continues to be—regarded as wonderful both for the gigantic vastness of its structures, and the prodigious solidity of the materials and mode of construction employed, but at the same time as utterly devoid of beauty in its forms and proportions,—uncouthly sublime. Yet as the first impression of strangeness wears off-when the eye, so long habituated to Grecian and modern architecture, becomes more accustomed to it, and the first prejudices against it are overcome, it will be found to possess much elegance in some of its forms, together with powerful and legitimate architectural effect. In character, the Egyptian is the very reverse of the Gothic style; for although both are distinguished by grandeur and solemnity, the one aims at ponderous massive. ness, and affects low proportions, and great extent of unbroken horizontal lines; while the other affects exactly the contrary—slenderness and loftiness, forms aspiring upwards, and extreme diversity of outlines. Notwithstanding, too, that Egyptian architecture has much in common with that of Greece, it exhibits, together with what stamps the affinity between them, many striking points of difference. While they agree in having columns supporting a horizontal epistylium, or entablature, and in the general proportions resulting from such a disposition, they disagree in almost all their other subordinate Partieulars. It will, therefore, not only be interesting in itself, but facilitate explanation, to compare the Egyptian style with the Greek, as described in the articles Civil ARCHITECTURE and Column. Although, in the massiveness of its proportions, in simplicity and breadth of effect, its character partakes more of that of the earlier Doric—the latter being, in fact, the first remove from it, there is one remarkably striking difference between them; for Egyptian columns are as frequently cylindrical as not; whereas those of the earlier Doric taper very suddenly, owing to the difference between their upper and lower diameter, and the shortness of their shafts. In Egyptian buildings, on the contrary, the profile of the columns is vertical, or nearly so, while that of the walls is sloped; thus producing the same degree of contrast between the two which is observable in the Greek Doric, although the mode adopted in the one case is just the reverse of that pursued in he other. It may further be remarked that in both sy les, the general outline was nearly the same, it being sloped in each : in the Egyptian, by the walls; in the Doric, by the external peristyle of columns enclosing them'; whereby, in the latter case, as well as in the former, the base is wider than a horizontal line on the level with the upper part of the columns. Or if we take the ground-line formed by the lowest of the steps on which the columns are placed, we find that it accords very nearly with that of the cornice, or uppermost line of the building, similarly as in Egyptian edifices. This will be tolerably well understood from the view, in the next page, of the front of the temple at Denderah, which exhibits the sloping or tapering profile we have been describing, and to which we shall have occasion again to refer in explanation of various other particulars. From what has been stated as to Egyptian columns being cylindrical, it is not to be understood that they were either invariably or perfectly so, but that such was their general form; because there is occasionally a slight difference between the upper and lower diameter; or else the shaft is cinctured at intervals by bands consisting of three or more rings encircling it, and thereby increasing the diameter in those parts. In addition to this species of ornament, the shaft was variously decorated in other respects, the spaces between the bands being sometimes sculptured with hieroglyphics; at others, reeded, that is, its surface was divided into a series of upright mouldings, or staves, so as to have the appearance of a bundle of smaller pillars bound together, of which mode, as well as that of encircling the shaft with ring mouldings, frequent examples occur in Gothic, buildings. The kind of striating, or striping, just described, is the reverse of that practised in the Doric and other Grecian orders, since in the latter it was produced by concave channels, or flutings, but in this by convex, surfaces. The diverVol. IX-2 S

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