Page images

Arabs (Monumenta antiquissimae Historie Arabum, post Schultensium collecta atque edita, cum animadversionibus), Gotha, 1775: and a treatise on the antient numismatical history of Arabia, Gotha, 1775. He next published a large collection of learned and valuable treatises, entitled a Repertorium of biblical and oriental literature (Repertorium für biblische und morgenländische Litteratur), 18 vols. Leipzig, 1777-86. After removing to Göttingen he devoted his attention almost exclusively to the archaeology of biblical literature, and the results of his studies appeared in a general repository of biblical literature (Allgemeine Bibliotek der biblischen Litteratur) 10 vols. 1788-1801; and in a disquisition on primitive history (Urgeschichte) 2 vols., Altdorf and Nurnberg, 1790–93, with an introduction and notes by the learned Gabler. This work contains a searching and bold criticism of the Mosaic Pentateuch. The two next are among the most important of the author's productions, namely, • the introduction to the Old Testament (Einleitung in das Alte Test.) of which a 4th and improved edition, in 5 vols., appeared at Gotha in 1824: and the introduction to the New Testament (Einleitung in das Neue Test.) new edition in 2 vols. 1827. These were accompanied with an introduction to the apocryphal writings of the Old Testament (Einleitung in die apokryphischen Schriften des Alten Test.) Leipzig, 1795, Götting, 1798; and a revised and uniform edition of the three, with the title of Critical Writings (Kritische Schriften) was published at Leipzig in 7 vols. 1804-14. The other works of Eichhorn on biblical criticism and philology are a commentary on Revelations (Commentarius in Apocalypsin Joannis) 2 vols., Gotting. 1791. A revised and enlarged edition of Professor Simon's Hebrew and Chaldaic Lexicon, Halle, 1793. A critical translation and exposition of the writings of the Hebrew prophets (Die Hebraischen Propheten), 3 vols. Götting. 1816-20. Commentaries on the prophetic poetry of the Hebrews (Commentationes de Prophetica Poesi Hebræorum), 4to., Götting., 1823. Preface to the “Nova Bibliotheca Hebraica' by Koecherus; and numerous critical treatises in a learned periodical work entitled Mines of the East (Fundgruben des Orients); and in the Commentaries of the “Göttingen Royal Society of Sciences' (Commentarii Societat. Reg. Scientiarium Gottingensis). In 1796 he published the plan of a comprehensive history of arts and sciences from their revival in Europe to the end of the 18th century, and wrote, as a part of the work, a eneral history of civilization and literature in modern urope (Allgemeine Geschichte der Cultur und Litteratur des neuern Europa), 2 vols., Götting., 1796-99. The History of modern Poetry and Eloquence, by Bouterwek, and the History of Military Science, by Hoyer, constituted other parts of the undertaking, which was left unfinished. The first three parts and the fifth part, of a similarly extensive and uncompleted work were written by Eichhorn, namely the History of Literature, antient and modern, from its commencement to the present time (Geschichte der Litteratur von ihrem Ursprunge bis auf die neuesten Zeiten), 6 vols., Götting., 1805-11. He also wrote Literary History (Literargeschichte), 2 vols., Gotting., 2nd edition, 1813-14. A History of all parts of the world during the last three centuries (Geschichte der drey letzten Jahrhunderte, &c.), 6 vols., Gotting., 3rd edition, 1818. An Historical Survey of the French Revolution (Uebersicht der franz. Revolution), 2 vols., Götting., 1797. And a Universal History (Weltgeschichte) on the plan of Gatterer's universal statistics (Weltstatistik) 4 vols., Gotting, 3rd edition, 1818-20. The two following laborious and judicious compilations have obtained a high repute in the schools of Germany, namely, a History of antient Rome, composed entirely of connected passages from the antient Roman writers (Antiqua Historia ex ipsis veterum script. Roman. narrationibus contexta), 2 vols., Gotting., 1811; and a History of antient Greece, constructed on the same plan, from the antient Greek historians (Antiqua Historia, &c.), 4 vols., Leipzig, 1812. His last historical work was a curious research on the early history of the illustrious house of the Guelphs, in which the ancestors of the present royal family of England are traced up to the middle of the 5th century. (Urgeschichte des erlauchten Hauses der Welfen, von 449-1055), 4to., Hanover, 1817. From the year 1813 to his death in 1827, Professor Eichhorn was the editor of the Göttingen Literary Gazette (Göttungische gelehrte Anzeigen.) His critical writings display extensive and exact learning, which in his biblical treatises

he employs for the development of doctrines often the reverse of those which are generally regarded as orthodox. As a divine, his character, with reference to one of his principal works, is thus described in Orme's Bibliotheca Biblica (p. 166): “Professor Eichhorn is the Geddes of Modern Germany, and has performed for the Old Testament what Michaelis, whom he succeeded, did for the New. Possessing the erudition, the diligence, and all the bold free-thinking of his celebrated predecessor, he introduces the Old Testament by demolishing its authority, by denying its inspiration, and by calling in question the antiquity of its chief historical documents.’ It is added, that many of the author's opinions can meet with few supporters in England, except among those who arrogate the title of rational divines; and that the work is noticed only on account of its celebrity in Germany; a statement strangely inconsistent with the fact of its being in the hands of every learned student of divinity in Europe and America. Eichhorn applies to the Hebrew Scriptures the principles on which Heyne explained the mythology of the Greeks, and his name is conspicuous in the theological school commenced by Michaelis and Semler, and extended by Rosenmüller, Kuhnoel, Döderlein, Rohr, Teller, Schmidt, Henke, Ammon, Steinbart, Wegscheider, &c., as an ultra rationalist, and a promoter of the system of logical religion and morality, founded on the Kantian transcendental theory of ideology, so generally prevalent in the universities of Germany, and which in truth is a system of mere moral philosophy and philosophical theism, exhibited under the ostensible profession of Christianity; since all traditionary doctrines and statements are made to give way to the operation of ‘abstract, universal, and eternal principles of reason.’ By his superior knowledge of Oriental antiquities, and by his bold mode of thinking, Eichhorn established a new system of scriptural explication, in which he displays a degree of learned and philosophical scepticism much beyond that of his predecessor Michaelis. He denies all supernatural revelation to the Hebrew prophets, believing them to have been clever and experienced persons, who, from their peculiar abilities, were likely to foresee political and other events. He examines, questions, and rejects the authenticity of several books of the Old Testament, and of some of the epistles in the New, and asserts generally that miraculous appearances, visions, voices, &c., are explainable by the laws of nature and the principles of human physiology and psychology, and that supernatural communications are chiefly referable to the mysterious traditions and superstitious notions common to all people in a state of ignorance and barbarism. His theory of the origin of the canonical rospels which regards them as compilations from anterior i. has been adopted by many subsequent critics. (See Dr. Schleiermacher's work on the Gospels.) Many of the sceptical positions of Eichhorn have been attacked in Germany by the anti-rationalist class of divines. On this point see ‘The Present State of Protestantism in Germany,’ by the Rev. Hugh Rose, 2nd edition, 1829, and the controversial publications which it elicited.

EICHSTATT, a bailiwick in the circle of the Regen, and in the west part of Bavaria. It gives the title of Prince to the duke of Leuchtenberg, and forms a portion of his mediatised possessions in the Bavarian dominions. The country, which is mountainous and well wooded, is traversed by the Altmühl; it produces grain, flax and hemp, hops, timber, iron, potters' clay, slate, &c.

EICHSTATT or EICHSTADT, is a handsome town situated in a narrow but productive valley on the left bank of the Altmühl, across which four bridges have been built. It is the residence of the duke of Leuchtenberg, as well as of a bishop. It lies in 48° 53' N. lat., and 11° 10' E. long. The town is walled round, has four suburbs, about 900 houses, and a population of about 7800, distributed in three parishes. It has an ecclesiastical seminary, a Latin or grammar-school, a capuchin monastery, a nunnery, an hospital, an orphan asylum, and other charitable institutions, a cathedral church and chapter, and four other churches. Among the buildings of note are the ducal palace, with the celebrated Brazilian cabinet, a library and museum of antiquities, the fine arts, &c.; the cathedral church; and the burg or stronghold of St. Willibald, which overlooks the town from the summit of the mount of that name, and has a well 1200 feet deep. This burg is said to be on the site of Aureatum, a Roman castle, and was the abode of the

first bishop, Willibald, who was the builder of the cathedral
church and the adjacent dwellings for his ... in the
middle of the eighth century. For this purpose e cleared
an area covered with oaks, whence the town derives its
name of Eichstädt, or town of oaks. In the romantic grounds
called Aumühlwald, near this place, is a tablet of cast-iron,
set in a block of marble, 198 feet square, and laid into a
mass of rock: it was erected by the citizens in memory of
Eugene Beauharnois, step-son of Napoleon, and yiceroy of
Italy. This prince was afterwards duke of Leuchtenberg,
and prince of Eichstädt. The town manufactures woollens,
earthenware, beer, iron ware, &c., and has quarries in the
EIDER-DUCK. [Fuliguli NAS.] -
EIGHTH (in music), the octave or eighth note of the
diatonic scale. It is a perfect concord [CoNcompl; and in
harmony is accompanied by the 5th and 3rd; but being
almost identical with the base note, it may form a part of
any chord, or be omitted at discretion.
EILENBURG, a town in the county or administrative
eircle of Merseburg, and in the minor circle of Delitsch,
which, before its transfer to the Prussian crown, formed part
of the circle of Leipzig in Saxony. It is situated on an island
of the Mulde, in 51°28' N. lat., and 12° 37' E. long. The
town is surrounded by walls and ditches, and has two gates
and a bridge over each arm of the river, four suburbs, an
old castle, two churches, an hospital, and infirmary, a civic
school, about 640 houses, and 6300 inhabitants. he ma-
nufactures consist of cottons, bleached wax, starch, vinegar,
brandy, woollen-yarn, crucibles, &c.
EIMBECK or EINBECK, the chief town of the former
principality of Grubenhagen, which is now incorporated
with the principality of Göttingen, a portion of the Land-
rostei or bailiwick of Hildesheim in Hanover. It is encircled
by two arms of the Ilm, and lies in 51° 48' N. lat., and 9° 51’
E. long. The walls which enclose it have five gates; the
streets are crooked and ill-paved; and the houses, about
780 in number, are old and originally built in the middle
ages. The number of inhabitants was 4995 in 1812, and is
at present about 5150. It has three churches (one of which,
St. Alexander's, contains the sarcophagi of the princes of
Grubenhagen, and has a chapter attached to it), an orphan
asylum, where woollen yarns are spun, two hospitals, a re-
fuge for the indigent, a gymnasium or high school, and six
elementary schools. The church of the Blessed Virgin
has likewise a chapter attached to it. Eimbeck, besides a
considerable traffic in agricultural products, possesses ma-
nufactories of woollens, cottons, tobacco, linens, leather,
beer, &c., and there are large bleaching grounds outside
the walls.
EIRE'NE. (Zoology.) [MEDUs A.]
EISENACH, a principality in the centre of Germany,
forming the western portion of the grand duchy of Saxe-
Weimar-Eisenach, from which it is disjoined by the inter-
vention of part of the Prussian province of Erfurt, and the
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha territory. It is bounded on the north
by Prussian Saxony, on the north-east by the principality
of Gotha, on the south-east by Saxe-Meiningen, on the
south and south-west by Bavaria, and on the north-west by
the electorate of Hesse-Cassel. The detached district of
Ostheim, also part of Eisenach, lies to the south within the
Bavarian confines, and there are likewise other small and
detached portions of the Eisenach territory within the boun-
daries of Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen. The principality is
of greater extent than it formerly was, since it now com-
prehends the bailiwics of Lichtenberg, Kaltennordheim,
Geiss, Dermbach, Vach, Frauensee, Völkershausen, and
some minor tracts, which have been acquired by cession or
exchange from the territories of Fulda, Henneberg, and
Hesse-Cassel. Its area is about 440 square miles, rather
less than a third part of the grand duchy of Saxe-Weimar-
Eisenach; and it has a population of about 78,500 souls;
in 1818, the numbers were 65,349, and in 1835, 77,729.
The greater part of this principality belongs to Thüringia,
and a considerable portion of it is traversed by the Thürin-
gian Forest mountains (Thüringer-Wald-Gebirge); be-
tween which and the Rhön mountains the principality
comprehends a tract about forty-two miles in length,
and from nine to fourteen in width. The country pre-
sents a succession of hills and mountain-heights, un-
interrupted by any extensive levels, and the soil is con-

sequently not very favourable to cultivation. It is watered
by the Werra, with its tributaries, the Nesse and Hör-
sel, Ulster, Fulda, Sulz, Suhl, and Vach. The climate
is pure and healthy, though, from the proximity of the
Thüringian heights, it is variable and not so mild as in
Franconia and on the Rhine. The products consist of
grain, which is not adequate to the consumption, timber,
potashes, and tar, rape-seed, flax, hemp, hops, fruit, &c.
Horned cattle and sheep are reared in great numbers, as
well as swine. Mining has been much neglected; copper,
iron, vitriol, alum, and coals, in small quantities, are ob-
tained; and there are quarries of stone and marble, as well
as salt-springs near Kreutzburg, from which about 500 tons
of salt are annually extracted. Potters' clay and fullers'
earth are found. There is more mechanical industry in
Eisenach than in Saxe-Weimar: its principal manufactures
are linens, woollens, cottons, iron and copper ware, yarn,
potashes, leather, earthenware, and articles of wood. Eise- .
nach is divided into eleven bailiwics, and contains eight
municipal towns, twelve market-towns, or villages with
markets, and 130 villages and hamlets. The chief towns
are Eisenach, Ruhla (3000 inhabitants, of whom 1800 are
subjects of Saxe-Gotha), Dermbach (800), Geisa (1700),
Berka (1000), Gerstungen (1300), Kaltonnordheim (1200),
Kreutzburg (1700), Lengsfeld (2100), Ostheim (2600),
Vacha (1600), and Völkershausen (1000). The principality
fell to the grand-dukes of Saxe-Weimar upon the decease of
the last duke of Saxe-Eisenach, who left no issue, in the
year 1741.
EISENACH, the chief town and seat of government of
the principality of Eisenach, is situated at the confluence
of the Hörsel and Nessel, which unite immediately north
of the town, and then flow through it in one channox: the
village of Fischbach touches it on the east; and the cele-
brated Wartburg, a mountain fastness, commands it on the
south. Eisenach lies in 50° 58' N. lat. and 10° 18' E. long.
It is surrounded by walls, has five gates, is well built, and
has broad, clean, well-paved streets. It contains about 1450
houses, and has about 9300 inhabitants; an increase of
about 1042 since the year 1818, when the number was
8258 independently of the military. The grand-ducal
palace, or house of princes (Fürstenhaus), a structure of the
last century, is a large and handsome edifice. Among
other public buildings there are five churches; a gymnasium,
founded in 1233, with an extensive library; a handsome
civic school which ornaments the spacious market-place,
and was erected in 1825; a seminary for the education of
schoolmasters; and an academy for young men designed
for the profession of superintendents of woods and forests,
an important branch of study in those countries where
wood supplies the place of coals. Eisenach has also an
agricultural institute for the instruction of youth intended
for husbandry, a school of design, a free-school, as well as
six elementary schools, a house of correction and orphan
asylum, two hospitals, an infirmary, a school of industry for
indigent girls, a bible society, and several philanthropic
associations. The chief manufactures are woollens, cottons,
linens, soap, white-lead, meerschaum heads of pipes, leather,
and carpets. The original name of the town was Ysenaha
or Ysenacha: it was the abode of Hilten, who preceded
Luther as a reformer of the church, and of Amsdorf (a
first bishop of Naumburg, and afterwards Luther's bosom
friend and fellow-labourer), who died here in 1565. A
steep ascent through a fine park leads to the well-known
stronghold called the Wartburg, which is about a mile and
a quarter from Eisenach, and at an elevation of 1318 feet
above the level of the sea. The original burg was built by
Lewis the Jumper in 1140, and was the residence of the
landgraves of Thüringia until the year 1406: a large
portion of it was rebuilt in the beginning of the present
century. On this spot, in the early part of the thir-
teenth century, the minnosinger, or minstrels of Ger-
many, used to contend; and it is still better known as
the place of refuge or “Patmos, as Luther styled it, to
which that great reformer was conveyed in 1521, on his
way back from attending the Diet of Worms: here he
found an aslyum for the ten succeeding months, which he
devoted principally to his translation of the Scriptures.
The little chapel in which he frequently preached, with its
altar-piece, a fine carving in wood representing the En-
tombment of Christ, and the gell which Luther inhabited,
have been carefully preserved in the same state as when
he used them. In the antient portion of the Wartburg are

also the Baronial Hall (Rittersaal), in which the minstrels held their poetic contests; and the Armoury, built in 1810, which contains reliques of the paraphernalia of Pope Julius II., the Princess Cunigunda, and other personages. This hold is still protected by external works, and is now made use of as a prison. In the grounds between the Wartburg and the town is the remarkable rock in which the hand of nature has sculptured the representation of a monk and Ilull. EISENBURG, or in Hungarian Was Vármegye, and Sclavonian Zelezne Mesto, a large county in the western part of Hungary, bounded on the north-west by the Austrian province ‘below the Ens’ (or Lower Austria), on the south-west and west by Styria, and on the east by the counties of Oedenburg, Vezprim, and Szalad. It contains an area of about 2037 square miles, which is divided into 6 circles, and has 1 royal free town (Güns or Koeszoeg), 1 episcopal town (Stein), 41 market towns, 612 villages, 57 praedia or privileged settlements, and about 301,000 inhabitants. The southern and western parts of Eisenburg are very mountainous; for here the Alpine chains which traverse Styria and the duchy of Austria terminate. The northern districts are hilly; but extensive and highly productive plains lie on both sides of the Kemenes, an clevated plateau on the right bank of the Raab. This river is the principal stream in the county, and flows through its southern parts, whence it takes a direction to the northeastern: the three lesser rivers, the Pinka, Sorok, and Güns, which water the centre and western districts, fall into the Raab on its left bank. Eisenburg, though it has many forests, is on the whole a fertile and productive land: and it has been estimated that of the 1,039,000 acres availa ble for useful purposes, 530,700 are already under the plough ; 48,000 F. been converted into vineyards; and 358,300 are occupied by woods and forests. Wheat, oats, barley and maize, peas and beans, and flax, are grown in abundance; the Yánoshāza tobacco is in repute; and much wine is made. There are many rich pasture lands, and the extensive forests, particularly the Farkas, afford plenty of timber and fuel. }. herds of horned cattle are kept, along the banks of the Raab especially; more pains are now bestowed on the breeding of sheep; poultry is extensively fed for the Vienna market; and there is much game. Near Bernstein, a mining district in the north-west of Eisenburg, large quantities of sulphur are dug : quicksilver, also vitriol, ironstone, and copper, are obtained here on a small scale. Coals are dug at Mariadorf. Marble and alum, are likewise among the products of this county. The majority of the inhabitants are Roman Catholics, of whom there are about 170,000, and of Protestants about 60,000. They are as much distinguished by their mechanical as their agricultural industry, and have a good trade with various parts of Austria. The most remarkable spot in Eisenburg is Stein-amAnger (Szombathely), the Sabaria of the Romans, an episcopal town, lying between the Perenth and Güns, in 47° 13' N. lat., and 16° 37' E. long., with about 3800 inhabitants. This town, where the states of the county hold their meetings, as well as its environs, abounds in remains of Roman art, in columns, sepulchral tablets, votive stones, inscriptions, &c. The cathedral is a handsome modern edifice: the town has three other churches, an episcopal residence, seminary, and chapter-house, three monasteries, a Roman Catholic gymnasium, college of philosophy, county-hall, and other handsome buildings. At Tatzmannsdorf (Tarcza), a beautifully situated village in the north-western part of the county, there are excellent and much-frequented chalybeate springs. The dignity of Obergespan (or Headman of the county) is hereditary in the Bathyáni family. EISENSTADT (in Hungarian Kis-Martony), a royal free town in the Hungarian county of Oedenburg, finely situated in a noble expanse of country bounded by the Leitha mountain range, in 47° 33' N. lat., and 16°24' E. long. It lies about 26 miles south-east of Vienna, and contains about 5400 inhabitants. The town itself is walled round, has two gates, and three main streets, a church, and a Franciscan monastery, in which is the sepulchral vault of the Esterházy family, a monastery, and hospital of the Brothers of Charity, a town-hall, and the offices for the administration of the Esterházy domains. The “Schlossgrund,' or palace-domain, is an extensive suburb, containing about 2600 of the population, and comprising the ‘Judenstadt’ or Jew's Town, where 500 of that community P. C., No. 571.

reside: hero are Mount Calvary, laid out in conformity with the supposed disposition of the site in Palestine, and enriched in the eyes of the Roman Catholics by a miraculous effigy of the Virgin; and the palacc called KisMartony, a splendid quadrangular structure, erected in 1805 by Prince Esterházy, to whose family the whole suburb belongs. The park is large, rises in terraces towards the Leitha hills, and is embellished with temples, a canal and cascades, an avenue of rose-trees, 262 paces in length, an orangery of 400 trees, nine large conservatories, containing nearly 70,000 plants, water-works impelled by steam, &c. Eisenstadt possesses a head-school, a Protestant public school, a town-hospital, and an institute for forest economy. Much wine is brought here for sale. EISLEBEN, formerly the capital of the earldom of Mannsfeld, the chief town of the Mannsfield circle of the Lake, in the administrative circle or county of Merseburg, in Prussian Saxony. It is situated on an eminence on the banks of the Böse, in 51° 33' N. lat., and 11° 32' E. long, and in the vicinity of two lakes. The town has two subdivisions; the Old Town, which is surrounded by walls and ditches, and has seven gates, and the New Town; besides these it has five suburbs. Eisleben contains altogether four churches, a Protestant gymnasium, several elementary schools, two hospitals, and has about 7500 inhabitants: between the years 1817 and 1831 the number increased from 6330 to 7230. The chief manufactures are potashes and tobacco; and there are copper and silver mines in the neighbourhood, with two smelting works. The town has a brisk inland trade. Luther was born here on the 10th of November, 1483, and died here on the 13th of February, 1546; but neither his parents nor himself had a permanent residence in Eisleben. The object of greatest attraction in it was the house in which he was born. After escaping several extensive conflagrations, it was at last destroyed by fire in June, 1689; and nothing was saved but a wooden table on which Luther's portrait was carved, an old engraving which also represented him, and a window, on the glass of which he and Melanchthon were pourtrayed in the old style. On the site of this house a more solid building of stone was soon afterwards erected, and on the 31st of October, 1693, it was solemnly consecrated to the purposes of a poor-house and free-school. This is the structure which is at present shown to visitors as Luther's house. A stone bust of the reformer stands over the entrance, with the well-known saying inscribed beneath it: Gottes Wort ist Luthers Lehr, Drum vergeht sie nimmermehr. The old portraits of Luther and Melanchthon on glass have been introduced into one of the windows. Over the door of one of the rooms is the portrait of Luther in wood, and beneath it is the distich, Hostis eram Papa Sociorum pestis et hujus; Vox mea cum scriptis nil nisi Christus erat. Anno post R. S. 1594, meuse Majo renovata. This inscription refers to the verse, “Pestis eram vivens; moriens ero mors tua, Papa!" which Luther is said to have written at Altenburg in the year 1530, and was fond of quoting. Several articles are exhibited, such as what is called Luther's table, which in fact never were his. At St. Andrew's, the principal church in the town, the little pulpit in which Luther preached is still preserved. Sermons to his memory are regularly delivered from this pulpit on the days of his birth and decease, and on the first day of public catechizing. There are busts of Luther and Melanchthon in the same church. On the day of the jubilee of the Reformation in 1817, several additions were made to Luther's house, at the expense of the present king of Prussia, who bestowed a sufficient endowment to preserve it against future decay, and perpetuate its benevolent obect. EISTEDDFOD, from eistedd to sit'; a meeting or assembly. This term was more especially used as the name for the session of the bards and minstrels which was held in Wales for many centuries. [BARD.] EJECTMENT is the name of an action at law of a nature ". real and partly personal, and therefore called a mixed action, by which a party entitled to tho immediate possession of lands or other corporeal hereditaments may recover that possession from the party wrongfully withholding it. §ce the disuse of real actions, and under the provisions of the 3rd and 4th Will. IV., c. 27, for the abolition of real Vol. IX.-2T

The word of God is Lut" er's say, And it shall never pass away.

and some mixed actions, it has become the only legal mode of trying the title to lands and tenements. The remedy by ejectment is founded almost entirely upon a succession of legal fictions, and it is therefore necessary to give a short account of its history and the proceedings under it. Originally this action was brought by any person having a lease for years of lands, &c., to repair an injury done him by dispossession; but gradually it became the means of indirectly bringing in question the title to the lands, which was thus collaterally tried with the supposed trespass. For this purpose it was necessary that the claimant should enter upon the lands in order to empower him to constitute a lessee for years who would be capable of receiving the injury of dispossession. A lease for a term of years is therefore stated in the declaration (for there is no other process in this action) to have been made by the party claiming title to the plaintiff, who is generally a fictitious person. It is also stated that the lessee, in consequence of the demise to him, entered into the premises, and that the defendant, who is also a fictitious person, and called the casual ejector, entered thereupon and ousted the plaintiff, for which ouster the plaintiff brings his action. Under the declaration is a notice in terms professing to be written by the casual ejector to the tenant in possession of the premises, advising him to appear in court at a certain time and defend his title; otherwise he, the casual ejector, will suffer judgment to be had against him, by which means the actual tenant would inevitably be turned out of possesslon. The declaration, as well as the notice, is then served upon the tenant in possession of the premises, who has thus an opportunity of defending his title. If he omits to do so within a limited time, he is supposed to have no right; and upon judgment being obtained against the casual ejector, the real occupier is turned out of possession by the sheriff. If the tenant apply to be made a defendant, he is allowed upon condition that he enters into a rule of court to confess at the trial of the cause four of five requisites for the maintenance of the plaintiff’s action—the lease of the lessor, the entry of the plaintiff, the ouster by the tenant himself, and the possession by the tenant. These requisites (except in certain cases, as of vacant possession, &c.) are wholly fictitious; and if the plaintiff should put the defendant to the proof of them, he would of course be nonsuited at the trial; but the stipulated confession of lease, entry, and ouster being made, the case then rests upon the merits of the title only. The eause goes to trial under the name of the fictitious lessee on the demise of the lessor, who is the person claiming title against the defendant. The lessor is bound to make out on the trial his title to the premises; and if he do so in a satisfactory manner, judgment is given for the nominal plaintiff, and a writ of possession goes to the sheriff to deliver up the possession to him, under which process it is in fact delivered to his lessor, the real claimant. If it appears that the person claiming title to the lands has no right of entry, that is, no right to the immediate possession, he cannot maintain this action. A mortgagee may maintain an action of ejectment against the mortgagor to gain possession of the mortgaged premises without giving any notice, unless, the mortgagor is protected by the covenant for quiet enjoyment until default. He may also eject the lessee, to whom the mortgagor has made a lease subsequent to the mortgage, without giving him notice to quit. Where the right of the tenant to retain the possession has ceased by effluxion of time, by a legal notice to quit, or by the commission of an act of forfeiture, a landlord may bring an ejectment against his tenant; and various other persons who have a right of entry in law upon the premises may take advantage of the same remedy. The time within which an action of ejectment may now be brought is regulated by the 3 and 4 Wm. IV. cap. 27, which enacts that no person shall bring an action to recover any land or rent (the meaning of which terms is explained by the first section of the act) but within twenty years next after his right to bring such action, or that of the person through whom he claims, shall have first accrued. The third section fixes the time at which the right shall be deemed to have first accrued. (Runnington On Eject

onent; Adams On Ejectment; Blackstone's Com.)

EKATARINBURG or YEKATARINBURG (Cathe rine's borough), the chief town of a circle in the govern ment of Perm (Permia), in the western part of Asiatic Russia, was founded by Peter the Great, in the year 1723, who gave it the name which it bears in honour of his consort. It is situated on both sides of the Iceth or Iset, the western quarter of the town being built along the slope of a gentle acclivity of the Ural mountains. It is at an elevation of about 860 feet above the level of the sea: in 56° 50' N. lat, and 60° 41' E. long. It is fortified and regularly constructed: the streets are long and straight, but they are unpaved, and have planks laid on each side of them by way of a foot-pavement. The greater part of the houses are of wood, but there are many handsome stone buildings; the chief of them form three sides of a square, the fourth side of which is the right bank of the Iceih: this range of buildings is composed of the Mining Department (for Ekatarinburg is the seat of administration for the Ural mines), a museum of mineralogy, a public library, an excellent chemical laboratory, an imperial mint, works for cleansing and amalgamating metals, as well as for eutting and polishing precious stones, a school for educating miners, a hospital, storehouses, a guardhouse, &c. A handsome bridge unites both quarters of the town, and on the acclivity on the left bank of the river is a long range of wooden tenements where the work-people reside, with the stone residences of the public offices between them and the bridge. The merchants and dealers’ houses in the town are also of stone, and would be an ornament to any city in Europe. Besides five churches, there are a Greek monastery, a public school for 300 pupils, a German school, a large bazaar, a magazine for grain, a house of correction, and several district and elementary schools. At the northwestern end of Ekatarinburg are remains of the fortifications where the garrison is quartered. The number of houses is upwards of 1200, and of inhabitants about 1 1,000. By the official return of the year 1830 they amounted to 10,695. The population consists of a motley assemblage of Asiatics and Europeans, the latter principally Russians and Germans, among whom are numbers of persons exiled for public offences. There is a public hall for drugs and che micals, and a botanic garden attached to the hospital. The greater part of the inhabitants depend upon the Ural mining concerns for their subsistence; and as Ekatarinburg lies on the high road from Russia into Siberia, it is a place of transit and of brisk trade. In the neighbourhood lie the gold mines of Beresoff and the iron mines of Niviansk, which extend over a surface of nearly forty square miles; there is also a chalybeate well, which is much used by invalids. A wood of pines encircles the north-western extremity of the town, and about half a mile beyond lies lake Iset. EKATARINOSLAF, one of the three southern provinces of Russia in Europe, which since 1822 have constituted the government of New Russia. It is bounded on the north by the provinces of Pultava, the Slobodsk-Ukraine, and Voronesh; on the east by the territory of the Don-Cossacks; on the south by the sea of Azof, and the government of Tauria; and on the west by the government of Cherson. There is an isolated district of this province, of which Taganrog is the chief town, lying at the northwestern extremity of the sea of Azof, and separated from the remainder of Ekatarinoslaf by the territory of the Don Cossacks. The area of this province is estimated by some at 23,700 square miles; but according to Arsenief, at 28,980. Upwards of two-thirds of this area are an open steppe, destitute of wood, and adapted to pasturage only: this is 'peculiarly the case with that large tract which is situated east of the Dnieper. The districts west of that river are much more fertile, and are skirted by a range of hills which run northwards from Alexandrofsk along the Dnieper. Here it is principally that the arable lands of Ekatarinoslaf, occupying about one-fourth of the soil, are situated. The whole extent of the woods and forests does not exceed 256,000 acres. The principal river is the Dnieper, which enters the province at its north-western extremity, and, winding through the western parts of it, quits it below Alexandrofsk. The immense blocks of granite which obstruct the course of the river at and below Kidak, give rise to thirteen beautiful falls, here called ‘paroghi;’ and below them the river is divided by islands into several channels. The Don skirts Ekatarinoslaf only at its mouth; but its tributary, the Donecz, waters it partially in the east. The other streams in this province, such as the Samara, Kalmius, &c., are of no great importance. There are several lakes, the water of which is often much impregnated with salt: swamps are of frequent occurrence. The climate is mild, and not exposed to much variation, and the winter is of short duration. The quantity of grain produced is scarcely adequate to the consumption; in some years it is so scanty that the supply is drawn from foreign parts. Hemp and flax, peas, beans, lentils, vegetables, and fruit, particularly melons, are cultivated. The grape ripens, and some wine is made, but the fruits of the mulberry and walnut do not attain to maturity. The forests do not furnish sufficient timber or fuel; and straw, rushes, and even dung, are substituted for the latter. The chief kinds of trees in the forests west of the Dnieper are the oak, linden, and poplar. In consequence of the scarcity of timber, the houses are built of clay, and roofed with rushes. Cattle-breeding is carried on upon an extended scale, for the steppes are one vast expanse of pastureground. The stock of horses, horned cattle, goats, and swine is immense; and numerous flocks of sheep are also kept, the breed of which has been so much ameliorated that 336,835 pure Merinos alone were in stock in the year 1832 all these animals are left to graze in the open fields throughout nearly the whole twelve months. There were, in 1832, between 1480 and 1500 establishments for breeding oxen and cows, and 232 for rearing horses. Cheese and butter are made of sheep's milk. In the same year Ekatarinoslaf possessed 86,100 hives, from which much honey and wax were obtained. The culture of the silkworm is a favourite pursuit with the Greeks at Mariapol and the Armenians at Nakitshevan, and this branch of industry is rapidly on the increase. The chase forms a means of livelihood, as wild animals and game are plentiful: under this head we may enumerate the jerboa, wolf, fox, buffalo, antelope-goat (saiga), wild cat, tiger-martin, musk-rat, pelican, wild duck, and partridge. The fisheries on the Dnieper, Don, Kalmius, and Sea of Azof are very productive, and are estimated to bring in upwards of 20,000l. per annum. Among the mineral products of the province, which are few and not of much importance, are lake salt, of which little advantage is taken on account of the scarcity of fuel, granite, chalk in large quantity, clay, and bog iron. The garnet is occasionally met with. The population is a mixed race, principally of colonists who have gradually transformed a wilderness into a habitable and productive region during the last eighty or ninety years; they are composed of Great and Little Russians, Cossacks, Servians (who migrated hither between the years 1754 and 1760, by thousands at a time,) Walaks, Magyárs, Albanians, Greeks, Armenians, Tartars, Germans, and Europeans in general. Of Greeks and Armenians, the numbers are about 30,000 of each; the Germans amount to about 10,000. The inhabitants are classed as follows in the returns for the year 1830:

Hereditary nobles - - - 2555
Superior officers and servants of the crown 2363
Clergy (including six monks) - 4427
Soldiers on furlough and their families 3498
Merchants and dealers, mechanics, *: 9355

Free peasantry and others attached tol. os;
the o lands - - } 285,777
Peasantry belonging to crown donations 1956
Peasantry and others, the property o! 236,684

individuals - - > Total . - 546,615

Arsenief considers this return as much below the real number, and estimates the population at 610,000 for the year in question; but Schubert, in his recent statistics of the Russian empire, states it to have been 826, 100 even so far back as the year 1829. Hörschelmann, in his new edition of Professor Stein’s ‘Geography and Statistics,” states it to be 860,000. The numbers given by the two last writers appear to justify Hassel's estimate for 1820, of 761,600. All but the Cossack part of the population, which is semi-nomadic, have fixed abodes. We have no official account of their increase or decrease, excepting for the year 1832, when the births amounted to 40,218, and the deaths to 27,053, showing an increase of 13,165 in that year (Schnitzler). The religion of the majority is Russo-Greek: the province contains 690 parishes, and the ecclesiastical head is the archbishop of Ekatarinoslaf, Cherson, and Tauria.

The 30,000 original Greeks have a bishop of their own at Feodosia; and the Armenians are under the bishop of Nakitshevan. There are a few Mohammedans and Jews. Ekatarinoslaf is divided into the seven circles of Ekatarinoslaf, on the west side of the Dnieper; Verchne-Dniaprofsk, north of Ekatarinoslaf, also on the west side of the Dnieper; Novo-Moskofsk, on the east side of the Dnieper; Alexandrofsk, on the east side of the Dnieper, which separates it from Ekatarinoslaf; Paulograd, northeast of Ekatarinoslaf; Bakmut, east of Ekatarinoslaf; and Slarenoserfsk, the north-easternmost circle of the province, independently of the isolated district of Rostof, on the Sea of Azof. The principal towns are Ekatarinoslaf; Alexandrofsk, on the left bank of the Dnieper (about 4000 inhabitants); Novo-Moskofsk, on the Samara (3000); Paulograd, on the Voltsha, east of Ekatarinoslaf (900); Verknébiaprofsk, on the right bank of the Dnieper, (about 250 houses); Bakmut, on the Bakmuta, (about 4500 inhabitants); Slavenoserfsk, on a tributary of the Donecz ; and Taganrog, on the Sea of Azof (about 14,000). Besides these towns, which are the capitals of the seven circles, there are several others, the most important of which are Azof, on the sea of that name; Mariapol, at the efflux of the Kalmius into the Sea of Azof, with about 3500 inhabitants: Nakitshevan, on the Don (about 9200); and St. Dmitria Rostofskaye, a fortress at the confluence of the Temernik and Don (about 2500). The manufactures of Ekatarinoslaf, although gradually extending, are not yet of much importance; in fact, there is still need for a much greater number of hands for the cultivation of the soil. The returns of 1830 show that in the 30 larger manufacturing establishments there were not more than 648 hands employed: these establishments consisted of 3 manufactories of woollen cloths, 6 of tallow and 7 of candles, 10 tanneries, 1 bell foundry, 2 breweries, &c. There were at that time not less than 225 brandy distilleries. The district of Rostof however is not comprised in this enumeration; and here there were 49 manufactories in the year 1832. The principal articles exported are fish, tallow, and other animal products. The revenue collected by the crown in 1830 amounted to 7,439,704 paper rubles, or about 340,990l. sterling. About fifteen years before it was not more than 1,540,000 rubles, or about 70,580l. The province of Ekatarinoslaf was first constituted by the empress Catherine in the year 1784, and was composed of the districts lying next the southern banks of the Dnieper, which were before this held by the Cossacks, of se– veral large districts wrested from the Turks, and of Crimean Tartary as far as the shores of the Sea of Azof. In 1797 the emperor Paul augmented it by the addition of other lands between the Bog and Dniester, which had been ceded by Turkey, and the peninsula of Tauria; and he designated the whole of this extensive country New Russia. In the year 1822, however, the emperor Alexander, his son and successor, reorganised these possessions, and forming them into the governor-generalship of New Russia, divided it into the three provinces of Ekatarinoslaf, Cherson, or Nikolaieff, and Simferopol, or Tauria. EKATARINOSLAF, the capital of the province, is situated on the right bank of the Dnieper, at the junction of the Kaidak with that river, in 43° 27' N. lat., and 35°2' E. long. The first stone was laid by the empress Catherine II. in 1787. The town is close to the foot of a mountain, and is built according to an extended and regular plan adapted for a much greater number of inhabitants than the 12,000 which it at present contains. In 1833 they amounted to 1 1,648. The streets are broad, and laid out in straight lines, but in an unfinished state. There are three churches, a gymnasium, and an ecclesiastical seminary, an imperial manufacture of woollens, and several hospitals. Silk stockings are made, and some retail trade is carried on. The houses are about 900 in number. The navigation of the Dnieper terminates at Ekatarinoslaf, in consequence of the ‘peroghi,” or falls, which obstruct its navigation at Kaidak just below it. Prince Potemkin has some gardens and grounds in the vicinity. ELAEAGNA'CEAE, a small natural order of Apetalous Exogens, consisting of trees or shrubs, whose leaves are either opposite or alternate, destitute of stipules, and always protected more or less by scurfy scales, which usually give the plants a leprous aspect. The genera of this order have a tubular 4-lobed calyx, the inside of which is lined with a

« EelmineJätka »