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little cushion-like lobes on the under side of each joint of the tarsi. In the genus Chelonarium (Fabricius), the form approaches to an oval, the second and third joints of the antennae are larger than the following and of a flattened form, and these alone are received into the sternal grooves. The head is almost hidden by the thorax, which is semicircular, and the anterior legs are larger than the rest. All the species are from South America. Genus Throscus (Latreille). This genus is readily distinguished by the antennae being terminated by a treejointed knob : the penultimate joint of each tarsus is ifid; the mandibles are simple. The species of Throscus are very minute. Throscus dermestoides, an insect not uncommon in this country, is about one-eighth of an inch in length, of a brown colour, and obscurely covered with an ashy pubescence. The second section of the Elateridae comprises those species in which the antennae are free, or not lodged within grooves on the under part of the thorax. Cerophytum (Latreille). The principal characters of this genus are: terminal joint of the palpi larger than the following, and almost securiform; tarsi with the four basal joints short and triangular, the penultimate joint bilobed; antennae serrated in the female, and in the male branched internally. The Cerophytum Elateroides (Latreille), an European species, affords an example of this genus. Cryptostoma (Dejean). Tarsi simple, small, and slender; anterior, extremity of the præsternum projecting beneath the head; the apex of the third and seven following joints of the antennae prolonged; mandibles unidentate; maxillae with a single lobe; palpi very short. Cryptostoma denticornis (Lat.), the only species known, is from Cayenne. FNematodes (Latreille). Body nearly linear; antennae with the basal joint elongated; each of the five following joints in the form of a reversed cone; the remaining joints almost perfoliate, with the exception of the last, which is oval. Species of this genus have been found in Europe and North America. Hemerhipus (Latreille). In this genus the parts of the mouth are exposed, i.e., not as in the two last genera, hidden by the projecting process of the praesternum; the antennae are flabellate at the apex in the males. All the species of this genus are extra-European. In the genus Ctenicera (Latreille) the antennae are pectinated in the males, and deeply serrated in the females. The Ctenicera pectincarnis, an insect common in some parts of this country, affords an example of this genus. This species is rather more than half an inch in length, and of a brilliant metallic green or copper-like colour: the female is larger and broader than the male. In the genus Elater, as now restricted, the antennae are simply serrated. The Elater aneus of Linnaeus will serve to illustrate this #. This species, which is common in some parts of ngland, is generally found under stones on hills of but little elevation, and which are more or less covered with heath. It is about three quarters of an inch in length, and most commonly of a brilliant green colour; some specimens however are blue, and others are of a brassy or bronze hue. The Elater noctilucus, according to Latreille, also belongs to this genus. This species is well known in South America, where it is called the fire-fly.” It is rather more than an inch in length, of a brown colour, and covered with an ashy down: on each side of the thorax there is a round glossy yellow spot. These spots emit by night a light so brilliant as to enable a person to read by it, and it is a common practice to place several of the insects together in a glass jar or bottle for this purpose. This insect (with upwards of twenty other species, all of which emit light by night) is now included in Illiger's genus Pyrophorus. The species of this genus are, some of them, from each of the following localities:—Brazil, Peru, Buenos Ayres, Chile, Cuba, St. Domingo, and Guiana. In the genus Campylus (Fischer) the eyes are more prominent than in the other Elateridae, and the head is pro* Other insects having undoubtedly confoundes /ire-fly. P. C., No. 572

the same power of emitting a light by night are with the present species under the name of the

truded from the thorax: the antennae are inserted beneath a frontal projection on each side, and the body is long and almost linear. One species of this genus is found in England, the Campylis dispar, which is of a yellowish colour. In some specimens the head, legs, and antennae are black, and sometimes the elytra are black with a broad pale margin. ELATE'RIUM. [MoMoRDIcA.] ELATMA or YELATMA, the chief town of the most northerly circle in the Russian government of Tambof in Great Russia. It is situated at the confluence of the Mvksha and Oka, on the left bank of the latter, in 55° 5' N. lat., and 42° 34' E. long. Elatma is an old town, and contains ten churches, eight of wood and two of stone, several government buildings, about 800 houses and thirty-four wooden stores, and about 6000 inhabitants. It has manufactures of linens, vitriol, and sulphur, and a considerable trade in grain, hemp, wax, and honey, chiefly with Moscow, and the provinces on the banks of the Volga, to which parts the Oka gives the means of ready access. The extensive iron works of Yeremshink, which employ nearly a thousand hands, are in its immediate neighbourhood. ELBA, the Ilva of the Romans, called Æthalia (Aisaxia) by Strabo, p. 223, is an island in the Mediterranean sea, near the coast of Tuscany, and divided from it by the channel of Piombino, which is about five miles broad in its narrowest part opposite the town of Piombino, which lies on the main land. The shape of Elba is very irregular; its length is about eighteen miles, from 10° 6' to 10° 25' E. long., and its greatest breadth, which is on its east side, is about ten miles, from Cape Calamita 42° 43' to Cape Vito 42° 52' N. lat. ; but in its west part it is six miles broad, and towards the middle of its length it is only three, owing to the coast being indented by gulfs both from the north and south. Its area is about 154 square miles. The island is mountainous; the highest summit, Monte della Capanna, in its west part, is 3600 feet above the sea. The mountains are mostly naked, but the lower ridges and the valleys between are planted with the vine, olive, and mulberry, and other fruit trees. The island produces also some wheat and Indian corn, vegetables, and water melons. Wine, both white and red, is made in considerable quantities; some of it, especially the rod sort, is very good, and forms an article of exportation. There is also a kind of muscadel, or dessert wine. Horned cattle and horses are rather scarce, but there are plenty of sheep, goats, pigs, and asses. Fish is plentiful on the coast, and the tunny fishery yields a considerable profit. The salt pans on the sea-shore produce about 50,000 cwts. of salt yearly. Elba is rich in iron, which is of the best quality, and was worked in the time of the Romans. It is found in a mountain, near Rio on the east coast, which is almost entirely a mass of ore, about two miles in circumference, and 500 feet in height. About 120 miners are employed in it, and the ore yields from 50 to 75 per cent. of ''. metal. Owing to the scarcity of fuel the ore is embarked and taken to the mainland to be smelted, as it was when Strabo wrote. The annual quantity of metal raised is about 40,000 cwts. The other mineral productions of Elba are loadstone, alum, vitriol, and marble of various kinds. The population of Elba is about 13,500, of which Porto Ferrajo, the capital, has about 3000. Porto Ferrajo lies on the north coast of the island, and is strongly fortified with two citadels on the hill above it, and has an excellent harbour. The town has two parish churches, one hospital, and a lazzaretto. It is the residence of the cancelliere, or political governor for the whole island, which is included in the province of Pisa; it has a garrison and military commander, a civil and criminal court, from which appeals are laid before the ruota, or high court of Grosseto. From Porto Ferrajo a good road, five miles in length, made by Napoleon, leads to Porto Longone on the east coast of the island, on a deep bay, where there is good anchorage for vessels. The castle of Porto Longone is on a steep hill, and is regularly fortified. The town or village is small, and reckons about 1000 inhabitants. The other principal villages in the island are Rio, Marciana, Campo, and Capo Liveri. The island of Elba has acquired considerable celebrity in our times, on account of it having been the residence of Napoleon after his first abdication, from May, 1814, to the 26th of February, 1815, when he set sail for Cannes. From that time it has been annexed to the grand duchy of Tuscany. The mountains of Elba form a conspicuous object as seen from Leghorn, which is about fifty Vol. IX.-2 U

miles north of the nearest point of the island. (Neigebaur, Gemälde Italiens ; Pini, Osservazione sulle Miniera di Ferro dell' Isola dell’ Elba.) ELBE, The, one of the largest rivers in Europe, flows like the Weser entirely within Germany. It originates in the confluence of a number of rivulets and brooks which fall down the western side of the Schneekoppe, or Snowcap, one of the highest mountains in the Riesengebirge, or Giant mountains, of Bohemia, and in that part of them which separates Bohemia from Silesia. , Some writers refer the source of this river to the Weissbach (Whitebrook), which springs from the White Meadow, at the foot of the Schneekoppe; others to the Elbe or Narvor Meadow, where eleven springs, called the Wells of the Elbe, are said to rise, and uniting in one stream, which takes the name of the Elbe or Mädelbrunn, fall over a lofty precipice into what is termed the Elbgrund, or region of the Elbe. Here the stream is increased by the Seifen and other rivulets which join it below Krausensbaude, whence it runs towards Hohenelbe under the universally admitted designation of the Elbe. From Hohenelbe, a mountain town in the northeastern circle of Bidschow, in Bohemia, it flows south-east to Arnau, thence south-west into the circle of Königsgrätz, where it is joined by the Aupa near Yarowitz, the Metau at Josephstadt, and the Adler or Orlitz at Königsgrätz, and afterwards passes into the circle of Chrudim, whence, after receiving the Chrudimka at Pardubitz, it takes a westerly direction. , Having passed Elbe-Teinitz, below which it is joined by the Dobrowa, and skirting the northern extremity of the circle of Czaslau, it traverses the most north-eastern part of that of Kaurzim, where it flows past Kolin, and there winding to the north-west re-enters the circle of Bidschow, and crosses its south-westerly districts past Podicbrad. It now pursues a course due west along the southern border of the circle of Bunzlau, re-enters that of Kaurzim, flows north-west from Taurzim past Brandeis, above which it receives the Iser and Elbe-Kostoletz, to Melnik, in the south-western extremity of the circle of Bunzlau, where it is increased by the waters of the Moldau, and from which place (in 50° 20' N. lat. and 14°28' E long.) it has an unobstructed navigation to its mouth. From Melnik it forms the boundary for a short distance between the circles of Rakonitz and Leitmeritz, then winds southwards to Kaunnitz, and after entering the last-mentioned circle by again flowing north-westwards from Kaunnitz, is joined by the Eger a few miles above the town of Leitmeritz. From this place it flows northwards to Aussig, takes a winding easterly course past Tetschen where it receives the Pulznitz, bends gradually north-westwards, quits Bohemia near Hernkretschen, or Hirniskretschen, and enters the kingdom of Saxony. At this point the Elbe is 355 feet in width. It thence takes a north-westerly course past Schandau, between which place and Dresden it passes through the Lusatian and Ohre Mountains of Saxony, then flows to Pirna, Dresden, Meissen, Riesa, and Strehla, and enters Prussian Saxony at Loesnitz, about seven miles above Mühlberg. Its whole length from the south-eastern to the northern frontiers of Saxony is between 70 and 75 miles. From Mühlberg its course is north-westerly to Torgau, and thence to Wittenberg, above which it receives the Black Elster; here it takes a westerly direction, leaves for a while the Prussian states, traverses the Duchy of Anhalt from Koswig past Dessau to Barby, during its passage through which it receives the Saale and Mulde, and thence turning northwards, re-enters those states above Aacken, receives the Ohre, and flows on to Magdeburg until it reaches the point below Sandow, where it is joined by the Havel. Here it again has a north-westerly direction, forming first the boundary between Brandenburg and Prussian Saxony till it passes Schneckendorf, and next for a short distance between Brandenburg and Hanover: thence it separates Hanover from Mecklenburg until it enters the north-eastern districts of that kingdom between Dómitz and Hitzacker. After traversing them as far as Boitzenburg, it divides the Hanoverian dominions from the duchies of Lauenburg and Holstein and the Hamburg territory, until it discharges itself into the North Sea. Altogether it traverses Hanover or forms its north-eastern boundary for about 120 miles. Below Winsen, which lies to the south-east of Harburg in Hanover, the Ilmenau falls into it, and below Neuhauss somewhat above Altona, but on the left bank like the former, the Oste. From Hamburg and Altona downwards to Glückstadt in Holstein and thence to the North Sea it be

comes navigable for large ships. Its mouth lies north of Cuxhaven, about 85 miles below Hamburg. The Elbe first flows through a deep narrow valley to Josephstadt, the right bank being much higher than the left. This valley widens gradually until the Elbe has passed Nimburg, between Kollin and Brandeis, where it again becomes contracted. From Nimburg to Raudnitz, south of Theresienstadt its banks are lower, but from the last town until it reaches Lowositz they are much more elevated, and thence as far as to Pirna in Saxony its bed, lies in a deep confined valley. From Pirna the heights on its left bank subside, whilst those on its right accompany the Elbe at a little distance until it has passed Dresden and Meissen. From thence to Torgau a succession of low hills run parallel to both banks, and there entirely disappear. A range of hills approaches the left bank at Dömitz, and occasional heights the right bank near Wittenberg. From the mouth of the Saale until a little above Magdeburg the banks are flat, but in this part high hills command them at several points. From Magdeburg the Elbe flows through a level country into the North Sea, except between Hitzaeker and Bleckede on its left and about Altona on its right bank, where the adjacent ground rises to gentle elevations, In the lower parts of its course, namely, between Harburg on its left bank, and Hamburg and Altona on its right, the Elbe is divided into several arms by five large and seven small islands; these arms, however, unite again in a single channel at Blankenese, about five miles below Hamburg. The whole length of the Elbe is about 710 miles, j it is navigable for about 470 miles. Its mean depth is 10 feet and its average breadth 900 feet, but it widens at some points to 1000 feet and more, and near its mouth to several miles. The height of this river above the level of the sea is as follows: near its source 4151 feet; at Königsgrätz 618: at Melnik 426; at Schandau 320 ; at Pirna 287; at Dresden 262; at Wittenberg 204; at Magdeburg 128; at Tangermünde 87; at Losenrade 48; at Dömitz 26; at Hitzacker 19; at Bieckede 11, and at Boitzenburg 9 feet. There are 35 bridges across the Elbe between its source and Torgau, below which town the communication between both banks is by ferries. The principal bridges are those at Leitmeritz, which is of wood and stone, and 823 feet in length; Brandeis; Dresden, of stone, 1420 feet long and 36 broad; Meissen; Torgau; Wittenberg, of stone and wood, 1000 feet long; and Magdeburg, where there are three wooden bridges, one across the Old Elbe 76 roods long; another across the main arm of the river, 24 roods; and the third across a side arm 20 roods long. The waters of the Elbe are increased by the confluence of 17 rivers and upwards of 70 minor streams. Between the years 1801 and 1835 its depth has decreased nearly 8# inches at Dresden, and about 18} at Magdeburg. In Bohemia, where less attention has been paid to the clearing of woodlands and drainage of swamps and marshes than in the territories through which the Saale, Mulde, and Black Elster flow, the diminution has been far less. The basin is estimated to occupy about 58,800 miles, and lies between 50.2 and 53° 34' N. lat, and 8° 41' and 16°12' E. long. This river is well stocked with fish, particularly salmon, eels, and sturgeons. ELBERFELD, a circle in the eastern part of the county or administrative circle of Düsseldorf in the Prussian pro. vince of the Rhine. It contains an area of about 125 square miles, three towns (Elberfeld, Gemarke or BARMEN, and Mettmann, with about 2100 inhabitants), one marketvillage, 21 villages, and 135 hamlets, and has a population of about 93,500; which is an increase of 22,750 since the year 1816. About one-fifth are Roman Catholics, and the remainder Protestants. The circle is traversed in all parts by offsets of the Sauerland hills, and is well wooded. Extensive beds of alum lie between Velbert and Langenberg in the northern part of the circle, where a number of alum works are established. Elberfeld is watered by the Ruhr, Wipper or Wupper, Düssel, and 26 minor streams and brooks. The soil is in general but of middling quality: in some of the more elevated districts it is light, and calculated for the cultivation of rye, oats, and potatoes only In the others, wheat, rye, barley, oats, peas, and flax are raised. There are excellent meadow and grazing lands. The vicinities of Elberfeld, Barmen, Hardenberg, and Kronenberg are crowded with manufactories of cotton yarn and cloths, silks, woollens, linens, ribbons, lace, velvets,

stockings, iron and steel wares, leather, &c. The stock of cattle in 1831 was composed of 1901 horses, 8201 horned cattle, 4386 sheep, 28 l l goats, and 1837 swine. ELBERFELD, the chief town of the circle, lies in a romantic situation upon the right bank of the Wupper, which is 200 feet higher at this spot than at its junction with the Rhine below Opladen: in 51° 16' N. lat. and 7°8' E. long. It is an open well-built town, and stands at an elevation of 405 feet above the level of the sea. The streets are long, but few of them are of any great breadth, as the place is built partly between hills and F. upon them. It is divided into two quarters, the Island and the Liberty, and contains three churches, one of which is Roman Catholic, a gymnasium, a school of trade, a mechanics' school, 15 elementary schools, two orphan asylums, three hospitals and infirmaries, about 650 manufactories, large and small, 2500 private houses, and about 24,200 inhabitants. This is a great increase since the year 1801, when their numbers were 11,720 : from which they rose to 15,595 in 1819; 21,027 in 1828, and 23,398 in 1831. Among other establishments in Elberfeld are a museum, a society of the arts and sciences, a bible, a missionary, and a tract society, a savings' bank and loan bank, and a German American mining society. There is no town in the Prussian dominions which carries on such extensive manufactures and none which has a more flourishing trade. The chief manufactures are thread-lace, of which above 20,000l. in value are annually made; silks, for the weaving of which with upwards of il 00 looms mote than 28,000l. a year are paid in wages; cotton cloths, plain and printed, in which 45 factories and above 3600 looms are employed; coverlids to the extent of 30,000 per annum; thread linens, damask cloths, tapes, iron-ware and cutlery, ribbons, stockings, leather, potashes, furniture, &c. There are several bleachgrounds and establishments for dyeing; nearly 300 merchants and manufacturers; and the yearly amount of bills passed on the exchange of the town is said to be upwards of 1,500,000l. sterling, in which sum the large manufacturing districts of Barmen, Kronenberg, Langenberg, &c., are cornprise(1. The earliest historical record of Elberfeld is of the twelfth century, when a burg occupied a small portion of its site, which belonged to the Elverfelds, a family whose descendants established the first manufactures. The Reformation was introduced here in the year 1552. It is the seat of a tribunal of commerce and two courts of arbitration. Elberfeld is also a township (Bürgermeisterei) with 32 hamlets, and contained, at the close of the year 1836, 34,257 inhabitants. In that year the births were 1650, the deaths 1132, and the marriages 353. It lies about 19 miles east of Düsseldorf. ELBING, a circle of the county or administrative circle of Danzig, in Western Prussia, is bounded on the north by the Frisches Haff, the south and west by the circle of Marienburg, and the east by the province of East Prussia. It contains about 268 square miles, two towns, 222 villages, and 5532 dwelling-houses, and had in 1831 a population of 44,406. The north-western part is traversed by a chain of hills, which are connected with East Prussia. The soil is exceedingly fertile, and has luxuriant pastures; it produces an abundance of grain, and fruits and vegetables of the finest sorts, especially in the south-western part. Elbing is well watered by the navigable rivers the Nogat and the Elbing, besides numerous smaller streams and canals. The fishery is productive. Owing to the great scarcity of wood, except in the forest near the town of Elbing, the inhabitants are obliged to use turf. Next to Danzig, Elbing has the most manufactures in the government; the chief are those of tobacco, soap, sugar, vitriol, woad, &c. It also carries on a considerable trade in corn, wood from the Upper Vistula districts, horse-hair bristles, packing cloth, fustian, butter, fruits, woad, potash, &c The circle, besides Elbing, contains the town of Tolkemit, on the Haff, with 1800 inhabitants. ELBING (Elbinga, Polish Elbiag or Elblag, also called Urbs Drusinia), chief town of the circle, and a place of considerable commercial importance, is situated on the navigable river of the same name, which is united to the Nogat by the Kraffuhl canal about four miles north of the town. It lies in 54° 10' N. lat., and in 19°25' E. long, in a very fertile valley, and is surrounded by high walls, towers, and ditches. It is divided into the old and new town, three inner and eleven outer suburbs, and has five land

and two water gates, five Lutheran churches, one reformed, and one Roman Catholic, one synagogue, five hospitals, one convent for elderly females, an orphan asylum, workhouse, house of correction, house of industry, the Pott and Cowle Institute, founded by Richard Cowle, who died in 1821, a savings' bank, a Lutheran gymnasium, with a large library, besides other establishments for the education of the poor. The various benevolent institutions are admirably conducted. Elbing was founded by the Teutonic knights about the year 1229; in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries it was a member of the Hanseatic league, but afterwards declined when Danzig engrossed the trade with Poland, and the frequent wars between Poland, Prussia, and Sweden, stopped the intercourse. It however revived during the occupation of West Prussia by Frederick II., and now ranks in the second class of towns in the Prussian monarchy. The population in 1817 was 18,534, of whom 225 were Jews; in 1831 it was 17,761, of whom 3500 were Roman Catholics, 350 Menonites, and 380 Jews, besides the garrison. The inhabitants carry on manufactures of tobacco, sail-cloth, soap, starch, caviar, stockings, oil, and linen; there are also tan-yards, ship-building, &c. It has a brisk trade with Poland, from which corn, potash, woad, linen, wood, tallow, and wax are obtained; and iron, wine, manufactured and colonial goods, &c., are sent in exchange. The shipping business too is considerable; the townsmen are owners of a great number of large vessels and coasters; and many vessels are built here. By the Kraffuhl canai small vessels can come up to the wharfs, but the larger ones are obliged to unlade in the depth of Pillau, which is the harbour of Elbing. About 1400 vessels enter the port every year; but the greater portion of these are vessels of small burden. There is likewise a considerable fishery, particularly in sturgeon. ELBCEUF, a town in France, in the department of Seine Inférieure. It is on the left bank of the Seine, seventy-nine miles from Paris by Mantes, Vernon, Louviers, and Pont de l'Arche. The town is situated in a pleasant valley, and may be recognized afar off by the chimneys of its numerous steam-engines. Elboeuf appears to possess little that is worthy of notice, except the choir of the church of St. Etienne. The population of the town in 1832 was 99.51, that af the whole commune 10,258: the inhabitants have been engaged since the latter part of the seventeenth century in the manufacture of woollen goods; tapestries were long included in their productions, but this branch of industry has been nearly or quite given up; woollen cloths are now the staple manufacture; and Elboeuf is the centre of a prosperous branch of industry. There were at the publication of M. Dupin’s ‘Forces Productives et Commerciales de la France,’ (Paris, 1827,) in and round the town 1200 looms, furnishing employment to 2700 weavers, and 4300 workmen of other kinds employed in the various branches of the woollen trade. The cloth is purchased of the small manufacturers by wholesale houses of extensive business (by which the cloths of Louviers are also purchased), and by them sold and sent into various parts of France, especially to Paris, Lyon, Limoges, and Bordeaux. The wool formerly employed by the clothiers of Elboeuf was Spanish; latterly, the wool of the neighbouring country, owing to the improvement of the native sheep by crossing the breed with the Merinos, has to a considerable extent replaced that of Spain. Elboeuf has a large charity-school, in which, in 1823, 400 girls were taught. ELBORUS, ELBURZ, or ELBROOZ. . 382. p Rida, A, an Arabian plant, whose fruit is said to poss sess emetic properties. Botanists call it Trichilta emetica Forskahl describes it as a large tree, with villous shoots, pinnated leaves, with entire oval-oblong pedicellate leaflets, clustered flowers with five greenish-yellow petals, ten monadelphous stamens, and a downy capsular fruit about an inch long, with three valves, three angles, and three cells, having two plano-convex seeds in each cell. The tree is said to be called Roka, and to be common on the mountains of Yemen. The fruit is sold at Beit el fakih, for mixing with fragrant materials with which the Arab women wash their hair. The fruit called Djour elkai is reputed an emetic. The ripe seeds mixed with Sesamum oil are formed into an ointment as a cure for the itch. ELCHE, the Illici of the Romans, is a * town 2

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in the kingdom of Valencia in Spain, situated on the river Segura, in a fertile plain covered with vines and palm-trees. The latter is the date-palm, with a thick wood of which the town is surrounded to the distance of half a league. Though there are several good streets and squares, the town has on the whole a melancholy aspect. Among the most remarkable buildings is a ducal palace, which is evidently the work of a very remote age. The great church is a beautiful edifice, with a noble dome. The barracks are well built and extensive. There are besides many convents and charitable institutions for the poor. Population, 15,000. ELDEN HOLE. [DERbyshire.] ELDER TREE. [SAMBUCUs.] EL DORA'DO, literally the golden country, was the name given by the Spaniards in the 16th century to an imaginary region somewhere in the interior of South America, south of the Orinoco and between that and the Amazon river, where gold and precious stones were supposed to be as common as rocks and pebbles in other countries, and to be had for merely picking them up. The first notion of this story was communicated by an Indian Cacique to Gonzalo Pizarro, brother of the conqueror, who sent his companion, Francisco Orellana, down the Amazon river to discover this wonderful land. Orellana followed the course of the Amazon down to the sea; but though he did not find El Dorado, still he countenanced the report of its existence. The temper of mind of the Spanish conquerors and discoverers of America seems to have been singularly fitted for credulous belief in all wonderful reports. The story of El Dorado continued to be accredited; a Spanish adventurer was said to have reached the capital of this enchanted region, called Manoa, and wonderful tales were told of its splendour and its wealth, far surpassing those of Peru. The Spanish governor of Guiana was also styled governor of El Dorado, because the latter country was reckoned to belong to his jurisdiction. Raleigh was so persuaded, or pretended to be o of the existence of this wonderful country, that e fitted out several expeditions for the purpose of discovering and conquering it for England: his last attempt in 1617 involved him in hostilities with the Spaniards of Guiana, which ultimately led to his death on the scaffold. [RALEIGH, WALTER.] ELEATIC PHILOSOPHY has its name from Elea (called by the Romans, Velia), a Grecian colony on the western coast of Lower Italy, where Xenophanes of Colophon settled in his old age (about 530 B.C.), and founded a school distinguished by its bold attempt to construct a system of the universe upon metaphysical principles. The theory was brought to perfection by Parmenides, but it also reckons among its members Zeno, Melissus, and Empedocles, who however only gave a further development to particular principles; the labour of Melissus being mainly confined to the defence of those positions which were opposed to the Ionian physics, while Zeno and Empedocles exhibit the opposite aspects of the theory, the former confining himself to its doctrine of the supra-sensible, the latter to a detailed application of its physiological views. In its formation it was subsequent to the Ionian and Pythagorean schools, and was so far a consequence of them as it thought necessary to submit to investigation the legitimacy of the principles upon which they had proceeded. The problem which they had proposed to themselves was, assuming the possibility of a beginning of motion and of production and decay, to determine the first ground or grounds of all that comes into being. This assumption the Eleatae attacked as irreconcilable with that idea of the reason which involves the law of causality, the Eleatic expression for, which was, “out of non-being being cannot come,' and its later and more general formula, ‘ex nihilo nihil;’ and as no distinction had as yet been made between the efficient and material causes, they necessarily arrived at the conclusion that the world had not a beginning. With the founder of the school religious considerations predominated, and in order to refute the unworthy conseptions of the Deity to which polytheism had given rise, he showed from the very notion of God that he is neces. sarily one. . The notion of Deity, he argued, implies his Infinity and eternity, but there cannot be many infinite beings; the eternal and infinite God is therefore one. But from tho denial of production it followed that the world is eternal. Now an eternal world would equally limit the eternal God: the co-existence, therefore, of the two, separately and independently of each other, is impossible con

sequently the world and the Deity are one. This result is the foundation of the so-called error of Pantheism; but it was only by such an error that man could arrive at a right and worthy conception of the Deity, which it is the merit of the Eleatae to have distinctly propounded. From the position that God or the world is one, it necessarily followed that our conceptions of sensible things singly are imperfect and insufficient to bring us to a knowledge of the All or of God. . Man, consequently, is placed in a painful situation, desiring on the one hand to know God, on the other to look to individual phenomena. Attention was thus awakened to the opposition which exists between the pure truth and the sensible appearance, and the Eleatae were the first to advance a systematic theory of human knowledge; and although its object was to deny the validity of the testimony of sense and experience, and to ascribe to the reason exclusively the merit of arriving at the truth without any attempt to reconcile appearance and reality, it nevertheless constituted a most important advancement of the philosophy of the period, and so comleted its edifice as a system by contributing the diaectical or logical portion; the Ionians and Pythagoreans having respectively constructed the physical and moral arts. p In conclusion, we must observe that the history of this as well as of the other early schools of Grecian philosophy is both obscure and imperfect, since of the written works of its several members we only possess a few and unconnected fragments. ELECAMPANE, the "herbalist's name of the plant called Inula Helenium. Mr. Burnett speaks of it thus — It is by some persons esteemed as a grateful stomachic; its leaves are aromatic and bitter, but its root much more so. The former were used by the Romans as pot-herbs, and it would appear were held in no mean repute in after times, from the monkish line, “Enula campana, reddit praecordia sana.’ When preserved, it is still eaten as a cordial by Eastern nations, and the root is used in Europe to flavour certain sorts of confectionary that bear its name; and it enters into the composition of several continental carminatives. It is seldom used in England except in veterinary practice, or by fraudulent druggists to make an emetic powder, by the addition of tartrate of antimony, and then sold as a substitute for ipecacuanha. A peculiar proximate lo, something resembling starch, was first detected in the roots of this plant, and hence called Inulin; it has since been dis covered in the tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke, the roots of the common pellitory, the angelicum, the cormus of the colchicum, &c. [INULA.] ELECTION (Lat. electio), in divinity, is a doctrine which, on the authority of Scripture, and as a consequence of the omniscient and prescient attributes of God, teaches that from all eternity the destiny of every individual of mankind was determined by an immutable decree, some (the elect) being ordained to eternal salvation, while others (the reprobate) are left to inevitable and eternal damnation The term election is often considered as but another name for the doctrine of predestination, both implying that man is subject to a certain predetermined fate. This doctrine in modern times is associated constantly with the name of Calvin, though similar notions were maintained or opposed among the philosophical and religious sects of the antient Gentiles, Jews, and Christians. The Essenes were believers in absolute preordination. The Sadduces rejected it, and adopted the doctrine of moral freedom. The Pharisees, in a theory of syncretism, endeavoured to reconcile and combine the two extremes. (Josephus, Antiq. Jud.) The Stoics insisted upon the doctrine of predestination or necessarianism; while the rival sect of Epicureans maintained that of the perfect free agency of man and the contingent nature of events. The Gnostics taught that human souls, according as they emanated from the good or bad principle, were destined to happiness or misery. In the systems of Manes (Manichaeism), Marcion, Cerdon, and others of the second century, similar doctrines were enforced concerning the fixed inevitable fate of men. Throughout the first four centuries the pagan philosophers, especially those of the Stoical school, opposed the dogmas and miracles of Christianity by alleging the principle of necessity as exhibited in the immutable series of causes and effects, or antecedents and consequents, in the physical and mental phenomena of nature, and the ignorant populace were confirmed believers in the influence of fortune and

fatality. Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and most of the Greek fathers, in defending the Christian system, resorted therefore to arguments tending to establish anti-predestinarian doctrines. Origen, in the third century, had taught that man, in his moral and religious agency, is not necessitated by omniprescient decrees of God. His tenets were adopted in Palestine, and throughout the East, especially by Chrysostom, Isidorus, Theodoret, and the other Greek fathers; and Pelagius, an English monk, proceeding on their authority, promulgated in the first half of the fifth century the sectarian theory designated Pelagianism, which asserts free agency, moral responsibility and perfectibility, making good works meritorious, and denouncing the predestinarian doctrine of imputed guilt and inherited depravity. (Pelagius in Pluquet’s Dict, des Hérésies.) St. Augustin was among the most strenuous opponents of Pelagius, and adduced abundance of scriptural authority to show the absolute omnipotence, the omniprescience, and consequently the preordination of God, with respect to the characters and destiny of men; showing some to be elected by the divine will as objects of especial grace, and others to be abandoned to the perdition which through Adam is merited by all. (St. Augustin, De Gratia, De Peccat. orig., De lib. arbitr., De Dono Perseverantiae.) The arguments of St. Augustin occasioned the formation in the fifth century of a sect in Africa called Predestinarians, the tenets of which were zealously propagated in Gaul by a priest named Lucidus, who was excommunicated and anathematized by the church in council. (See the treatise of Père Sirmond on this heresy, and the replies of the Jansenists and divines of Port Royal.) In the ninth century, the Predestinarian controversy was revived with great enthusiasm by Gottescalque, a French Benedictine monk, who was condemned, and terminated his life in a dungeon, for teaching the ‘five points’ concerning election, which subsequently gained for Calvin so much celebrity. Gottescalque was answered by Scotus Erigena, and many others. (Dufresnoy, Tablettes Chronolog.) This incomprehensible subject formed one of the great points of subtle disputation in the scholastic theology; it was discussed by “the Angelic Doctor, Thomas Aquinas, and others, in the thirteenth century. Whether God's election was before or after the prevision of human merits was a standard thesis for the exercise of syllogistic skill (electio ante vel post praevisa merita). Aquinas sustained the doctrines of Augustin, and the controversy was subsequently carried on in the sixteenth century between his followers (the Thomists) and the adherents of Louis Molina (the Molinists). When Luther began to form his opinions, he perceived that nothing could so effectually demolish the Catholic doctrine of justification by works as the predestinarian theory of St. Augustin, which he therefore enforced in his writings; but finally he was induced by Melanchthon to mitigate the rigour of his opinions concerning man's passive subjection to God's eternal decrees. By the Socinians the certain prescience of future events by the Deity is denied, and the divine decrees are maintained to be merely general, and not specially relative to particular persons. The system of Calvin is set forth in his great work entitled “Institutes of the Christian Religion’ (Institutiones, &c.), in which he states that “no one desirous of the credit of piety can dare to deny God’s predestination of some to eternal happiness, and of others to eternal damnation;' that “every man is created for one or the other of these purposes,” God having from all eternity fixed the destiny of every individual of the human race, all of whom, in consequence of Adam's offence, have been, are, and to the end of time will be, under the curse and wrath of God, and justly subject to everlasting punishment; that salvation depends wholly on God's will; that particular persons, without any regard whatever to their merits or demerits, are elected, or rejected for ever; and that God is an absolute, tremendous, and incomprehensible Judge. Such propositions, it must be confessed, are sufficiently mysterious and fearful to overwhelm the timid with despair, and excite the bold to inquire if they are founded in truth. One of the ablest works in confutation of Calvin is Dr. Whitby's discourse on the five points of his system, which are as follows:–1. God, before the creation, was pleased to choose, without prevision of merit, some of mankind to enjoy everlasting happiness, and others to suffer everlasting misery. What was certainly foreseen must certainly come to pass, as the prescience of the omnipotent and omniscient Being must be coincident with,

and not by possibility antecedent to, his decrees. 2. Atonement was made by Christ only for the sins of the elect. His death did not make the salvation of all possible, and dependent on the performance of certain conditions; for if God intended salvation for all, doubtless all must be saved; and if Christ died for all, he died in vain for many, which is a supposition absurd and impious. 3. By original sin, that is, the imputation of Adam's guilt, all are by nature in total depravity, which justifies the consignment of the whole human race to eternal misery, and makes the election of some to happiness an act of God's especial grace and good pleasure. 4. All the elect are effectually called at some point of time in life when the influence of the divine grace is first communicated. 5. As all who are not elected must be damned, so all those who are elected must be saved: irremissible grace necessitates all their actions, and inevitablé salvation must terminate their “final perseverance.” The following are some of the scriptural authorities al leged in support of these doctrines: Ephesians i. 4, 5, 11, some chosen before the foundation of the world; predesti nated according to God's pleasure: Acts xv. 18. God's foreknowledge: Rom. viii. 29, 30, 33, those foreknown, predes tinated, called, justified, and glorified, are God's elect Math. xxv. 34, to inherit a kingdom eternally prepared for them: Acts xiii. 48, those ordained to eternal life believe Rom. ix. 11, 18, 21, 22, 23, election before birth, and not according to works; God's power absolute; mercifully favours some and hardens others. Divine election is considered to be shown in the acceptance of Abel, and the re jection of Cain; in God's love of Jacob, and hatred of Esau (Malachi i. 2, 3); in the two men in the field; the two women at the mill; and the two in a bed, of whom one was taken and the other left (Luke xvii. 34; Matth. xxiv. 40). Arminius, a professor in the University of Leyden, became, at the commencement of the seventeenth century, the chief of Calvin's opponents, who were thence called Arminians, and Remonstrants, from the remonstrance which they addressed to the Dutch government against Calvinistic intolerance. But the rigid Calvinists, headed by Goar (Goarites), being by far the most powerful party, Arminius and his adherents were condemned at the géneral synod of Dordrecht, convened for the purpose in 1619. (Scott's Synod of Dort, pp. 112-124.) At this synod the standard points of strict Calvinism, with respect to election. were determined upon and established. That the homilies and articles of the English church, especially the seventeenth, are confirmatory of the Calvinistic views of election, is beyond dispute, though many Arminian expositors have made laborious efforts to explain away their obvious original purport. Bishop Burnet, in his exposition of the articles, observes, that the seventeenth, on Election and Predestina tion, has given occasion to one of the longest, the subtilest, and the most intricate of all the questions in divinity.' It displays in fact the medulla of Calvin's Institutes, précisely involving all the doctrinal particulars of his ‘five points,’ and asserting that, to the elect predestination ‘is full of sweet, pleasant, and unspeakable comfort; while to the reprobate it is a most dangerous downfall, whereby the devil doth thrust them into desperation and wretchedness.’ Baxter endeavoured to reconcile the doctrines of Calvin and Arminius. Arnauld, in his treatise on the subject, contends that the Calvinistic predestination directly overthrows all the principles of morality; though many others, including Dr. Chalmers, in his recent course of lectures on Predestination, assert the contrary. To enumerate the various modifications of this doctrine, which at different times have been maintained by distinguished theologians, would be endless. Some, as Origon and the Catabaptists, have denied that any one is predestined to perdition, and contended that salvation will be finally extended to every one of God's creatures, including the devil and all his angels. (Bullinger, Contra Catabap.) The following references, in addition to those already given, may be useful to the studious inquirer.— (Cudworth's Free Thoughts on Election; Diderot, Encyclop., articles Predestination, &c.; Bossuet, Hist. des Variations, liv. 14; Westminster Assembly's Confession of Faith (Calvinistic); Mosheim's Eccles. Hist, vols. iii. and iv.; Authentic Documents relating to the Predestinarian Controversy under Queen Mary, by Archbishop Lawrence, 1819; Finch's Earamination of Cudworth's Free Thoughts on Elect., 1755. - A list of numerous treatises on Election, written in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and of

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