Page images

made to communicate by a conducting stem, with a condenser which has acquired electricity from a very feeble source, they diverge from each other. They have been also employed to indicate atmospheric electricity. [METEORology.] Similar instruments have been constructed for the purpose of indicating the existence of electrical currents of but slight intensity, such for instance as those generated by inequality of temperature. [GALVANoMETER and THERMoELECTRICity.] ELECTRUM, from the Greek electron (#Aerrpov). Pliny says this term denotes two substances, namely, amber and a metallic alloy composed of four parts of gold and olie part of silver. “Ubicumque quinta argenti portio est electrum vocatur.” (Hist. Nat., lib. xxxiii., section 23; Hardouin, tom. ii., p. C19.) The term electron, in the Odyssey of Homer, is supposed to mean amber. The metallic electrum was in use in the Roman times: it is uncertain whether it was known to the Greeks. The Romans were partial to it for its brilliancy. Pliny, a few sentences lower down than the passage just quoted, says, “Electri natura estad Lucernarum lumina clarius argento splendere.” The Romans used it frequently for what we term plate. Lampridius, in his Life of Alexander Severus, remarks, that this prince caused coins to be struck in honour of Alexander the Great, both of electrum and gold. ‘Alexandri habitu nummos plurimos figuravit: et quidem electreos aliquantos: sed plurimos tamen aureos.” (Hist. Aug. Scriptores, p. 922.) Isidorus, in his Origines (li. xvi., c. 23), speaks of three sorts of electrum:—l, amber; 2, a metal so called, found in a natural state; and 3, a metal compounded of three parts of gold and one of silver. ELECTUARY, a term applied to a compound of various medicines, united by means of syrup, or wine, and formed into a soft mass, nearly of the consistence of honey. Substances in the state of powder or extract were thus combined, and rendered capable of being swallowed without their natural taste, j." might be unpleasant, being perceived. Formerly electuaries consisted of a great variety of ingredients, often very unsuitable to be taken together. In the present day the few electuaries which are prescribed are much simpler in their composition. Many compounds which were formerly preserved in a soft state are now kept in a hard dry condition, and termed confections. ELEDO'NE. [CEPHALOPop A; SEPIADAE.] ELE'GIT, so called from the entry of its award upon the roll, ‘quod elegit sibi executionem' (because the plaintiff hath chosen the writ of execution), is a writ of execution given by the statute 13th Edw. I., cap. 18, to parties recovering upon judgments for debt or damages, or upon the forfeiture of a recognizance in the king's courts. It is directed to the sheriff of the county where the defendant's property lies, commanding him to make delivery of a moiety of the debtor's lands and all his goods (except oxen and beasts of the plough) to the plaintiff. The sheriff, immediately upon the receipt of this writ, empanels a jury, who appraise the debtor's lands as well as his goods, and if the goods alone are insufficient to pay the debt, then the sheriff, upon the finding of the jury, sets out one-half of the lands by metes and bounds, and delivers them over to the party suing out the writ, who thereupon becomes what in law is termed a tenant by elegit, and continues to occupy them until the whole of his §: and damages are satisfied. The tenant's interest in the land is only a chattel, and as such goes to his personal representatives. In like manner every subsequent judgment creditor takes a moiety of what is left; the last moiety being reserved according to the feudal law for the lord to distrain for his services. Previously to the passing of the statute above referred to, a judgment creditor could only have obtained satisfaction of his debtor's goods by the writ of fieri facias, and of the F. profits of his lands by a levari facias; but as the atter writ did not extend to the possession of the lands themselves, a defendant might, if he thought proper, alien the property, and thus oust the plaintiff of his remedy. 3. lands are not liable to be extended under an elegit; but all estates in fee-simple in possession, all estates in reversion, expectation, leases for lives or years (in which case the creditor takes half the rents), an estate tail during

the life of the tenant in tail, who is the debtor, a rent charge, and a term of years, are liable to an elegit. When the judgment is satisfied out of the extended, that is, estimated value of the estate, the defendant may recover his lands either by an action of ejectment, or o a suit in equity. If the lands are recovered by ejectment, the plaintiff only accounts for the extended value of the land, which is usually below the real value; and he is not entitled to any interest on his judgment. If, on the other hand, a bill in equity is filed, the plaintiff is allowed interest, and accounts not merely for the extended value, but for the actual profits of the lands during his possession, and it is referred to a master of the Court of Chancery to ascertain the exact amount of such profits. (Reeves's History of the English Law; Archbold's Practice.) ELEGY, from the Greek, Élegos (EAoyoc, whence iMeystov), in English commonly means a short poem composed on some person's death; also, in a more general sense, any mournful or serious poem, as, for instance, Gray's ‘Elegy in a Country Church-yard. The Greek word, élegos, is properly a strain of lament; elegeion, the form of versification in which such strains were first composed by the Greeks; i.e., the combination of an hexameter and a pentameter (commonly called long and short) verse; elegeia, a poem made up of such verses. (Müller, Hist. of Lit. of Greece.) The elegiac was the first variation from the hexametral, or epic, measure; and this change of form corresponded with a change of subject: the poet in epic composition keeping himself and the workings of his own mind out of sight; while, on the contrary, the free and full expression of the poet's feelings, as affected by external circumstances, constituted the essence of the Greek elegy. Hence arises its variety; the elegies of Callinus and Tyrtaeus (the earliest) being political and warlike; of Mimnermus, contemplative and melancholy; of Theognis and Solon, moral and political, &c. It was at first more peculiarly appropriated to social meetings, and therefore equally fit for topics of political and local interest, and for those which refer to the common feelings of our nature, as love, regret for the perishableness of human things, exhortations to the enjoyment of the present hour, and the like. The elegiac was also a favourite measure for epigrams, that is, taking the word in its proper sense, inscriptions. [EPIGRAM.] Catullus is the first Latin elegiac writer of any note; he was followed by Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid, with many others of the Augustan age, whose poems are either totally lost, or have only come down to us in fragments. With them political and moral subjects find no place; the elegiac verses of Catullus (a small part of his poems) are, for the most part, either mournful or satirical ; those of the other poets above named are chiefly devoted to love, fortunate and unfortunate. Ovid, however, has taken a wider scope of personal feelings in his Epistles from Pontus, and of historical and mythological learning in his Fasti. ELEMI, a resin, of which there are two or more sorts, ". from different parts of the world, and apparently produced by different kinds of trees. The West Indian or American elemi is commonly referred to the Amyris elemifera (Linn.), but the very existence of such a species is doubtful, unless it be synonymous with the Amyris Plumieri. (Dec.) The East Indian elemi is obtained from the Amyris zeylanica (Retz.), while a third sort, called African, or elemi verum, is referred to the Eleagnus hortensis. . A substance resembling elemi, and capable of being applied to similar purposes, may be procured from several, plants. West inj elemi occurs in irregular-shaped small pieces, which run into masses, of a yellowish colour, of an agreeable odour, which is most perfectly developed by the application of heat. The consistence is at first soft, but it hardens with age, and even becomes brittle, losing some of its odour. Specific gravity 1.083. It seems to contain a principle termed Elemine. Elemi is recommended as an ointment, but it is chiefly used to form pastilles, or to burn as incense. ELEMENTARY ORGANS, in plants, are those minute internal parts out of which all the visible organs are constructed; they are always too small to be seen without the assistance of the microscope, and often require very high magnifying powers to be distinctly observed. When of a spheroidal figure 5000 of them have been sometimes computed to lie in half a square inch; and when tubular they are often not more than no of an inch in diameter; their size is however extremely variable, and their magnitudes are given only to convey an idea of their smallness.

These organs may be defined to be closed, transparent, thin-sided membranous sacs, varying in form according to the part of the plant in which they are placed, and the purpose they serve. If for the conveyance of fluid matter equally in all directions, and for the general purposes of digestion and respiration, they have a spheroidal figure shaped into a polygon by the pressure of the sacs upon each other, and constitute common cellular tissue; if fluid is to be conveyed more in one direction than another the spheroids are lengthened in that direction, and prismatical cellular tissue is the result, or muriform if they are placed horizontally and strongly compressed from the side ; sometimes instead of being prismatical they are lengthened into bags acute at each end, the clostres of some French botanists, and the tissue thus formed is named prosenchyma, in contradistinction to parenchyma, which is a collective name for all cel: lular tissue the ends of whose sacs are truncated. Now and then a fibre is generated spirally in the inside of a sac of cellular tissue, but for what purpose is unknown. If the elementary organs are for the conveyance of air they are lengthened into tubes, the sides of which are protected in the inside by a fibre, or fibres twisted spirally, so that the threads touch each other, thus forming a lining to the membrane and preventing the ingress of fluid through the sides. Such organs are called spiral vessels, and are exclusively (except in a very few cases) stationed around the pith of exogens, in the woody bundles of endogens, and in the veins of the leaves and of all the parts of the flower. They unrol with elasticity when stretched; and even uncoil with the growth of the membranous tube in which they have been generated so as to leave spaces between the threads through which fluid percolates; they then become ducts, and probably cease to convey air, but become passages for fluid. If they are required to serve the two purposes at once of conveying fluid along the plant and of strengthening and protecting the parts in which they are placed, the sacs become fine tubes, thick-sided, elastic, tough, and collected in bundles so as to bend any way without breaking; this occurs in wood, which is composed principally of them, and which gives them the name of woody tissue, in the liber, and in the veins of the leaves where they are placed around the spiral vessels. For an explanation of the many varieties of the elementary organs, and for a more particular account of their nature and uses, see Lindley’s Introduction to Botany, 2nd cdit., book i. ELENCHUS, the Latin form of the Greek elemchos (Asyyoc), and commonly translated by the words argumentum, inquisitio, confutatio, and demonstratio, is a term of frequent use in the Aristotelian system of logic, and signifies argument, replication, refutation, or the point, subject, or nature, of dispute or demonstration. (See the ... cited in Valpy's edition of Stephens's Greek Thesaurus under 'EX{yxw.) Aristotle defines elemchos as “a syllogism of contradiction,’ that is, an argument alleged in opposition to another; and Mr. Thomas Taylor, in his translation of the Organon, considers the Greek term to be precisely equivalent to Redargutio in Latin. By some of the early }. authors the noun elench is used in a similar sense, and also the verb elemchize, meaning to argue with captious or sophistical opposition. (Johnson's Dict.) In the two last books of the Organon, entitled IIspi rāv Softwarikov 'EX&Yxov, Aristotle minutely classifies and discusses the various kinds of sophistical elemchi, or modes of argument used by contentious sophists. The sophism which, in scholastic phraseology, is designated Ignoratio elemchi, that is, a real ignorance of, a mistaking, or sinister deviation from, the argument, or question under discussion, consists in proving something irrelevant, and which, as it may be true without affecting the truth of the real proposition, with which it has no necessary connexion, does not determune, though it may seem to determine, the question. Aristotle includes under this designation the introduction of anything extraneous to the point in dispute (How row rpáyHaroc); the disproving of what is not asserted, as well as the proving of what is not denied. Examples of this species of sophism are of very frequent occurrence in discourses which display the rhetorical artifice of appealing to passions and prejudices, and resort to injurious imputations, or ludicrous and satirical illustration; especially in religious, political, and forensic disputations, which affect individual in

[ocr errors]

terests and feelings, and in which the predominant desire is not the exhibition of truth, but merely the obtaining of victory; for a disingenuous disputant when excited, and conscious of the superiority of his adversary's argument, strives to elude conviction by the stratagem of deploying, and seeks to gain a sinister advantage and triumph, by proving or disproving, not the real proposition in question, but one or more which in some way are apparently involved or implied, so as to create the assumption of identity. The following instance is given by Dr. Kirwan (Essay on Logic, vol. ii., p. 440) : “Paschal arguing against atheism insists that it is more dangerous than theism, whereas the point in debate is the truth, and not the prudence of either system. Some Christian sects use similar arguments. Mistake or misrepresentation of the question to be determined, and the consequent proving of what is not to the purpose, are also common in didactic and conversational discussions, and the sophisms of Petitio principii and non causa pro causa are frequently combined with the Ignoratio elenchi. In all cases of irrelevant conclusion, when semething is proved which does not in reality contradict the adversary's proposition, the latent fallacy is best exposed by showing that both propositions may be equally true (Archbishop Whateley's Logic, p. 235, 5th ed. 1834); and the best means of preventing sophistical deception of this nature is to keep the attention constantly fixed upon the precise point of dispute, neither wandering ourselves, mor suffering our opponent to wander or make any substitution. (Dr. Watts's Logic.) In dramatical writing the Ignoratio elemchi, or as it is otherwise called, the quid pro quo, is frequently adopted as a very effective expedient for the production of laughter. Numerous and long continued instances of consistent dialogue, displaying the most ingenious and amusing équivoque or cross-purposes, are to be found in the comedies of Molière, the source of amusement being in each party’s “ignorance of the question’ about which the other is concerned. ELEPHANT, in Latin Elephas and Elephantus ; in Greek {\{q|ac; in Spanish Elephante; in Italian Elefante, in French Elephant; in German Olyphant; the name of the well-known genus which forms the only living type of the family of true Proboscidians or Pachydermatous Mammifers, with a proboscis and tusks, and presents the largest of existing terrestrial animals. The proboscis or trunk, from which the name of the family is derived, demands some attention previous to our inquiry into the rest of the structure, habits, and history of the elephants. The great size of the alveoli necessary for the lodgment of the tusks renders, as Cuvier observes, the upper jaw so high and shortens the nasal bones to such a degree, that in the skeleton the nostrils are placed towards the upper part of the face; but in the living animal they are prolonged into a cylindrical trunk or proboscis composed of thousands” of small muscles variously interlaced, so as to bestow on it the most complicated powers of mobility in all the varieties of extension, contraction, and motion in every direction. It is of a tapering subconical form, and has internally two perforations. On the upper side of the extremity, immediately above the partition of the nostrils, is an elongated process, which may be considered as a finger; and on the under edge is a sort of tubercle, which acts as an opposable point; in short, as a thumb. Endowed with exquisite sensibility, nearly 8 ft. in length, and stout in proportion to the massive size of the whole animal, this organ, at the volition of the elephant, will uproot trees or gather grass—raise a piece of artillery or pick up a comfit —kill a man or brush off a fly. It conveys the food to the mouth and pumps up the enormous draughts of water, which by its recurvature are turned into and driven down the capacious throat, or showered over the body. Its length supplies the place of a long neck, which would have been incompatible with the support of the large head and weighty tusks. A glance at the head of an elephant will show the thickness and strength of the trunk at its insertion; and the massy arched bones of the face and thick muscular neck are admirably adapted for supporting and working this powerful and wonderful instrument. The following cuts will convey some idea of the form and action of the termination of the proboscis:

• Cuvier gives the number of muscles having the power of distinct action

as not far short of 40,000.
Vol. IX.-2 Y

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]


}= 10. Asiatic elephant, incisors 0’ molars #= 6.

Dentition and osseous Structure.—The succession of molar teeth in the elephants takes place in a direction from behind forwards; and the tooth last developed pushing against that which preceded it, and in time replacing it, gives as a result that there are never more than two molar teeth on each side of each jaw, and that sometimes there is only one. The last case happens immediately after the shedding of the anterior tooth, which has been pushed out by its successor, and which, in its turn, is to be replaced in like manner. This succession happens many times during the life of the animal, and Mr. Corse noticed it eight times in an Asiatic elephant. Now, as these teeth show their anterior extremity first, long before the other extremity appears, and as they begin to be worn down anteriorly, it föllows that the anterior tooth, when it is shed, is infinitely smaller in size than it once was, and that its form is entirely changed.

In the molar teeth of most graminivorous quadrupeds there is, besides the bony substance and enamel, a third component part, differing in appearance from both the others, but resembling the bone more than the enamel. Blake and others have distinguished this substance by the name of crusta petrosa; Cuvier calls it cement. The distinction of these three substances is, perhaps, better seen in the molar tooth of an elephant than in any other animal.

If a longitudinal vertical section be made and the surface be polished, the crusta petrosa will be distinguished by a greater yellowness and opacity, as well as by a uniformity of appearance, there being no apparent laminae nor fibres. “The grinding teeth of the elephant,’ writes Lawrence in his “Additions' to Blumenbach, “contain the most complete intermixture of these three substances, and have a greater roportion of crusta petrosa than those of any other animal. #. pulp forms a number of broad flat processes lying parallel to each other, and placed transversely between the inner and outer laminae of the alveoli. The bone of the tooth is formed on these in separate shells, commencing at their loose extremities and extending towards the basis, where they are connected together. The capsule sends an equal number of membranous productions, which first cover the bony shells with enamel and then invest them with crusta petrosa, which latter substance unites and consolidates the different portions. The bony shells vary in number from four to twenty-three, according to the size of the tooth and the age of the animal; they have been described under the name of denticuli, and have been represented as separate teeth in the first instance. It must, however, be remembered that they are formed on processes of one single pulp. When the crusta petrosa is completely deposited, the different denticuli are consolidated together. The bony shells are united at the base to the neighbouring ones; the investments of enamel are joined in like manner; and the intervals are filled with the §. substance, which really deserves the name bestowed on it by Cuvier of cement. The pulp is then elongated for the purpose of forming the roots or fangs of the tooth. From the peculiar mode of dentition of this animal, the front portion of the tooth has cut the gum and is employed in mastication before the back part is completely formed; even before some of the}. denticuli have been consolidated. The back of the tooth does not appear in the mouth until the anterior part has been worn down even to the fang. A horizontal section of the elephant's tooth presents a series of narrow bands of bone of the tooth, surrounded by corresponding portions of enamel. Between these are portions of crusta petrosa; and the whole circumference of the section is composed of a thick layer of the same substance. A vertical section in the longitudinal direction exhibits the processes of bone upon the different denticuli, running up from the fangs; a vertical layer of enamel is placed before and another behind each of these. If the tooth is not yet worn by mastication, the two layers of enamel are continuous at the part where the bone terminates in a point; and the front layer of one denticulus is continuous with the back layer of the succeeding one, at the root of the tooth. Crusta petrosa intervenes between the ascending and descending portions of the enamel. As the surface of the tooth is worn down in mastication, the processes of enamel, resisting by their superior hardness, form prominent ridges on the grinding surface, which must adapt it excellently for bruising and commi muting any hard substance. The grinding bases, when worn sufficiently to expose the enamel, in the Asiatic species, represent flattened ovals placed across the tooth. In the African they form a series of lozenges, which touch each other in the middle of the tooth.” In the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons are a series of preparations (Nos. 350 to 354, both inclusive) illustrative of the structure and physiology of the molar teeth of elephants, preceded by an interesting extract from the Hunterian MS. catalogue. No. 375 B. is a portion of the camentum of an elephant's grinder, which has been steeped in an acid, dried, and preserved in oil of turpentine, for the purpose of showing she proportion of animal matter which it contains. Nos. 362 to 264, both inclusive, show the interarticular ligamentous substance from the joint of the lower jaw of the elephant, and the adaptation of the structure for applying two convex surfaces to each other, More than one molar tooth and part of another are never to be seen through the gum in the elephant. When the anterior tooth is gradually worn away by mastication, the absorption of its fangs and alveolus takes place, while the posterior tooth advances to occupy its |..." then comes a third to take the place of the second tooth, which undergoes the same process, and so on as we have stated for at least eight times. Each succeeding tooth is larger than its predecessor. Thus the first or milk grinder, which cuts the gum soon after birth, has but four transverse plates (denticuli); the second is composed of eight or mine, and appears completely when the animal is two years old; the third consists of twelve or thirteen, and comes at the age of six years; and in the fourth up to the eighth grinder both inclusive, the number of plates varies from fifteen to twenty-three. It would seem that every new tooth takes at least a year more for its formation than its predecessor. As the tooth advances gradually, a comparatively small portion only is through the gum at once. A molar tooth, composed of twelve or fourteen plates, shows only two or three of these through the gum, the others being imbedded in the jaw, and in fact the tooth is complete anteriorly, where it is required for mastication, while, posteriorly it is very incomplete. As the laminae advance, they are successively perfected. An elephant's molar tooth is therefore never to be seen in a perfect state; for if it is not worn at all anteriorly, the posterior part is not formed, and the fangs are wanting; nor is the structure of the back part of the tooth perfected until the anterior portion is gone. Elephants have no canine teeth; but in the upper jaw there are two incisors better known by the name of tusks. These enormous weapons are round, arched, and terminating in a point, and their capsule is always free, so that the tusk continues to grow as long as the animal lives. The structure of the ivory of which it is composed differs from other tusks; and a transverse section presents striae forming the arc of a circle from the centre to the circumference, and, in crossing each other, curvilinear lozenges which occupy the whole surface. The tusk is hollow within for a great part of its length, and the cavity contains a vascular pulp, which supplies successive layers internally as the tusk is worn down externally. Blumenbach, in his ‘Comparative Anatomy,” observes, that not to mention other peculiarities of ivory, which have induced some modern naturalists to consider it as a species of horn, the difference between its structure and that of the bone of teeth is evinced in the remarkable pathological phenomenon resulting from balls, with which the animal has been shot when young, being found, on sawing through the tooth, imbedded in its substance in a peculiar manner. Haller employed this fact, both to refute Duhamel's opinion of the formation of bones by the periosteum, like that of wood by the bark of a tree, as well as to prove the constant renovation of the hard parts of the animal machine. It is still more important in explanation of that “nutritio ultra vasa,’ which is particularly known through the Petersburgh prize dissertation. Blumenbach further states that the fact above mentioned may be seen in Buffon (4to. ed., tom. xi., p. 161); in Galandat over de Olyphants Tanden; in the Verhandelingen der Genootsch, te Vlissingen, p. 352, tom. ix.; and in Bonn. descr. thesauri Hoviani, p. 146. In all these cases, according to Blumenbach, the balls were of iron; and he adds that he possesses a similar specimen. In the cases we have seen the balls were also of iron. “But,’ continues Blumenbach, “there is a still more curious example in my collection, of a leaden bullet contained in the tusk of an East Indian elephant, which must have been equal in size to a man's i. without having been flattened. It lies close to the cavity of the tooth; its entrance from without is closed, as it were, by means of a cicatrix; and the ball itself is surrounded apparently by a peculiar covering. The bony matter has been poured out on the side of the cavity in a stalactitic form.” Upon this Lawrence well remarks that the facts here recounted have been sometimes brought forward in order to prove the vascularity of the teeth; a doctrine which is refuted by every circumstance in the formation, structure, and diseases of these organs. When a bullet has entered the substance of the body, the surrounding lacerated and contused parts do not grow to the metal and become firmly attached to its surface, but they inflame and suppurate in order to get rid of the offending matter. If the ivory be vascular, asks Mr. Lawrence, why do not the same processes take place in it? “We can explain very satisfactorily,’ writes Mr. Lawrence in continuation, “how a bullet may enter the tusk of an elephant, and become imbedded in the ivory without any opening for its admission being perceptible. These tusks are constantly growing during the animal's life by a deposition of successive lamina within the cavity, while the outer surface and the point are gradually worn away; and the cavity is filled for this purpose with a vascular pulp, similar to that on which teeth are originally formed. If a ball penetrate the side of a tusk, cross its cavity, and lodge in the slightest way on the opposite side, it will become covered towards the cavity by


the newly-deposited layers of ivory, while no opening will exist between it and the surface to account for its entrance. If it have only sufficient force to enter, it will probably sink by its own weight between the pulp and the tooth, until it rests at the bottom of the cavity. It there becomes surrounded by new layers of ivory; and as the tusk is gradually worn away and supplied by new depositions, it will soon be found in the centre of the solid part of the tooth. Lastly, a foreign body may enter the tusk from above as the plate of bone which forms its socket is thin: if this descends to the lower part of the cavity, it may become im. bedded by the subsequent formations of ivory. This must have happened in a case where a spear-head was found in an elephant's tooth. The long axis of the foreign body corresponded to that of the cavity. No opening for its ai. mission could be discovered, and it is very clear that no human strength could drive such a body through the side of a tusk.’ “Phil. Trans.” 1801, part 1.

The great size to which these tusks grow may be judged of by examining the table published by Cuvier in his ‘Ossemens Fossiles,' tome i., p. 57. It is generally considered that the tusks of the African elephant are the largest; but with regard to the table, Cuvier observes that the African tusks could not be distinguished from those of the Indies, and that there is not the certainty that could be wished in the measures employed. According to Mr. Corse the tusks of the Indian elephant seldom exceed 72 lbs in weight, and do not weigh beyond 30 lbs. in the province of Tiperah, which produces thousands of elephants. There are however, in London, tusks which weigh 150 lbs., probably from Pegu ; for it is from Pegu and Cochin China that the largest Indian elephants and tusks are brought. The largest recorded in Cuvier's table was a tusk sold at Amsterdam, according to Klokner, which weighed 350 lbs.: this is stated on the authority of Camper; and one possessed by a merchant of Venice, which was 14 feet in length, and resting on the authority of Hartenfels, in his Elephantographia. The largest in the Paris Museum is nearly 7 feet long, and about 5% inches in diameter at the large end. These tusks have different degrees of curvature.

r. Corse, speaking of the Asiatic elephant, states that

the first or milk tusks of an elephant never grow to any size, but are shed between the first and second year. These as well as the first grinders, are named by the natives dood-kau-daunt, which literally signifies milk teeth. The tusks which are shed have a considerable part of the root or fang absorbed before this happens. The time at which the tusk cuts the gum seems to vary. Mr. Corse knew a young one which had his tusks when about five months old, while those of another did not cut the gum till he was seven months old. Those tusks, which are deciduous, observes the same author, are perfect and without any hollow at the root, in a foetus which is come to its full time, and at this period the socket of the permanent tusk begins to be formed on the inner side of the deciduous tusk: he gives the following examples of the progress of this part of the dentition. A young elephant shed one of his milk tusks on the 6th of November, 1790, when near thirteen months old, and the other on the 27th of December, when about fourteen months old; they were merely two blackcoloured stumps, when shed; but, two months afterwards, the permanent tusks cut the gum, and on the 19th of April, 1791, they were an inch long, but black and ragged at the ends. When they became longer and projected beyond the lip, they soon were worn smooth by the motion and friction of the trunk. Another young elephant did not shed his milk tusks till he was sixteen months old. The permanent tusks of the female are very small in comparison with those of the male, and do not take their rise so deep in the jaw; but they use them as weapons of offence in the same manner as the male named Moaknah, that is by putting their head above another elephant, and pressing their tusks down into the animal.

In the lower jaw there are neither incisors nor canines, and the molar teeth resemble those to which they are opposed.

Cuvier comes to the conclusion that the females of the African species have large tusks, and that the difference between the sexes in this respect is much less than in the Indian elephants; but Burchell attributes the want of success of the elephant hunters whom he met with to their having only fallen in with females whose tusks were small.

Pursuing our inquiry into the general structure of the skeleton, we shall find a marked difference in the external appearance of the skulls of the African and Indian species.

Teeth of African Elephant, from F. Cuvier.

a, Upper jaw; b, lower jaw; c, original state of the teoth when the laminar which compose it are free; d, the lamina as they are attached in parallels one $o the other by the cortical substance in a subsequent state of dentition, but before the crown of the tooth has been worn by mastication, and when it only presents on its surface blunt tubercles.

Section of the Skull of Indian Elephant.

a, shows the opening ef the nostrils; b, the cellular sinus which separates the external from the internal table of the skull; c, the cavity where the brain is lodged.

Teeth of Asiatic Elephant, from F. Cuvier.
o, Upper molar tooth; b, lower molar tooth.

« EelmineJätka »