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Here we see that the almost pyramidical form of the skull in the Indian species is strongly contrasted with the more rounded form and contour of that of the African species. The front of the head is concave in the Indian species, while in the African it is rather convex; there are esides other differences.

Internally we find a beautiful provision for increasing the surface necessary for the attachment of muscles combined with strength and lightness.

The other parts of the skull most worthy of note are the nasal bones, of which the elephant possesses only a kind of imitation: the lachrymal bones are entirely wanting. The cervical vertebrae form a short and stiff series, allowing hardly more than a limited motion of the head from side to side, a more extended action being rendered unnecessary by the flexibility of the trunk, and a firm support for the head being the principal object to be attained. The spinous processes of the anterior dorsal vertebrae are exceedingly long for the attachment of the great suspensory ligament of the neck (ligamentum nuchae or pax-wax). Blumenbach puts the number of ribs, and consequently of dorsal vertebræ, at 19 pairs, observing that this, at least, is

the case in the skeleton of the Asiatic elephant at Cassel Blair, he remarks, found the same number in the individuals of which he has given an account; and a manuscript Italian description of the elephant which died at Florence in 1657 confirms this statement. Allen Moulins, on the contrary (Anatomical Account of the Elephant burned in Dublin, London, 1682, 4to.), and Daubenton, represent the number of pairs as 20. The elephant in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons (Chunee, formerly of Exeter Change) has 19 pairs of ribs; and that in the British Museum has the same number, 14 true and 5 false; but Mr. Gray informs us that, in a second speci

men of a young one, the bones of which have not been separated, there are 20 pairs, 15 true and 5 false. There are only three lumbar vertebrae. The margin of the scapula, which is turned towards the spine, and is shortest in most of the proper quadrupeds, is the longest in the elephant, as it is in the Cheiroptera, most of the Quadrumana, and especially in man. There is no ligamentum teres, and cononly no impression on the head of the femur or thigh


Skeleton of Elephant.

Structure of internal soft parts.-The following internal soft parts are more particularly worthy of remark in the elephant. Brain, &c.—A portion of the dura mater from an Asiatic elephant may be seen in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, in London (Gallery No. 1346), where the termination of the falx and the commencement of the tentorium or process which separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum are shown. The two fibrous layers of the dura mater are separated by a softer cellular substance, in which the vessels ramify; and it may be observed that the thickness of the dura mater is in proportion to the size of the skull, and of the entire animal, but not to the size of the brain, which does not much exceed that of the human brain, as will be seen in the preparation of the brain of a young Asiatic elephant (No. 1331). For though the absolute size of the organ exceeds that of man, the proportion which the cerebrum bears to the rest of the brain, and especially that part of the hemisphere which forms the roof and sides of the lateral ventricle, is much less. The hemispheres are broad and short, with a considerable development of the natiform protuberance. The convolutions are comparatively small and numerous. A lateral section has been removed from the left hemisphere, which shows that the ansractuosities are also deep, extending in some cases more than two-thirds of an inch into the substance of the brain. The hippocampus is comparatively

smaller than in the ass, and the corpus striatum larger The ventricle is seen to be continued into the olfactory bulb. The cerebellum is of considerable width, and its surface, as shown by the lateral section, is increased by numerous and complex ansractuosities. The tuber annulare corresponds in size to the development of the lateral lobes of the cerebellum. The corpora olivaria are remarkably prominent. The origins of all the cerebral nerves are shown, among which the olfactory nerves of the fifth pair, which supplies the proboscis, are remarkable for their prodigious size; whilst the optic nerves, and those which supply the muscles of the eye, are remarkable for their small size. The pia mater is left on with the vessels at the base of the brain. A bristle is placed in the infundibulum. (Cat. Gallery, vol. iii.) The brain in man is from A, to h of the body, that of the elephant so. The stomach is simple, the intestines are very voluminous, and the calcum enormous. In the sanguiferous system the heart is worthy of note, and a section of the right auricle and ventricle of that of an Asiatic elephant may be seen in the museum last mentioned (Gallery, No. 924). In this animal, which, in some other respects, singularly resembles the Rodentia, three venae cavae terminate in the right auricle. Besides the Eustachian valve, which projects between the orifices of the inferior and left superior cave, there is also, as in the Porcupine, a rudiment of a superior valve, ex


tending from the posterior side of the orifice of the right superior cava. The tricuspid valve, and its chorda tendinee and columnae carnete, are also well displayed. (Cat. Gallery, vol. ii.)

Reproduction, &c.–Romantic stories were formerly told of the extreme modesty of elephants; but Mr. Corse has disproved these and others which asserted that they would only reproduce the species in a state of nature, by showing that captivity and numerous witnesses formed no obstacle: but it must be remembered that the experiments recorded by him were made in India. Copulatio more equino. The period of gestation is twenty months and some days. The female mentioned by Mr. Corse produced a fine male, which was thirty-five inches and a half high just twenty months and eighteen days after she was first covered. The breasts of the female are placed under the chest, and the young one sucks, not with the trunk, but with the mouth. ‘The young of the elephant, at least all those I have seen,' writes Mr. Corse, ‘begin to nibble and suck the breast soon after birth; pressing it with the trunk, which, by natural instinct, they know will make the milk flow more readily into the mouth while sucking. Elephants never lie down to give their young ones suck; and it often happens, when the dam is tall, that she is obliged for some time to bend her body towards her young to enable him to reach the nipple with his mouth; consequently, if ever the trunk was used to lay hold of the nipple, it would be at this period, when he is making laborious efforts to reach it with his mouth, but which he could always easily do with his trunk if it answered the purpose. In sucking, the young elephant always grasps the nipple (which projects horizontally from the breast) with the side of his mouth. I have very often observed this; and so sensible are the attendants of it, that, with them, it is a common practice to raise a small mound of earth, about six or eight inches high, for the young one to stand on, and thus save the mother the trouble of bending her body every time she gives suck, which she cannot readily do when tied to her picket.’ The maternal affection does not seem to be very strong in the female elephant, at least in captivity; for the same author states that tame elephants are never suffered to remain loose, as instances occur of the mother leaving her young and escaping into the woods; and he says that if a wild elephant happens to be separated from her young, for only two days, though giving suck, she never afterwards recognises or acknowledges it. ‘This separation,’ adds Mr. Corse, “sometimes happened unavoidably, when they were enticed separately into the outlet of the Keddah. I have been much mortified at such unnatural conduct in the mother, particularly when it was evident the young elephant knew its dam, and, by its plaintive cries and submissive approaches, solicited her assistance.”

Living Species.

Elephas Indicus. The Asiatic elephant differs from the African species, not only in its greater size and in the characters of the teeth and skull, but also in the comparative smallness of the ears, the paler brown colour of the skin, and in having four nails on the hind feet instead of three. The sagacity of this species is also supposed to be greater than that of the African elephants; but though many wonderful stories are told, and some of them are as true as they are wonderful, of the grateful remembrance which it long retains of benefits conferred, or of the tenacity with which it ‘treasures up a wrong, and though the instances of its docility, both antient and modern are very extraordinary, we agree, upon the whole, with Baron Cuvier, who observes, that after having studied these animals a long time, he never found their intelligence surpass that of a dog nor of many other carnivorous animals. It is imposing to see such a mountain of vitality obedient to the voice of its keeper and performing feats at his dictation; and the massive gravity of its physiognomy assists the impression.

The following is Mr. Corse's description of a perfect Asiatic Elephant. An elephant is said to be perfect when his ears are large and rounded, not ragged or indented at the margin; his eyes of a dark hazle colour free from specks; the roof of his mouth and his tongue without dark or black spots of any considerable size; his trunk large, and his tail long, with a tuft of hair reaching nearly to the ground. There must be five nails on each of his fore-feet, and four on each of the hind ones, making eighteen in all; his head

well set on and carried rather high; the arch or curve of his back rising gradually from the shoulder to the middle, and thence descending to the insertion of the tail, and all his joints firm and strong. The following are the castes (Zat) or varieties of the Asiatic elephant noticed by Mr. Corse. Both males and females are divided into two castes, by the natives of Bengal, viz., the Koomareah (of a princely race) and the Merghee (hunting elephant, from mrigah a deer, or hunting, or from its slender make), and this without any regard to the appearance, shape, or size of the tusks in the male, as these serve merely to characterize some varieties in the species. The Koomareah is deep-bodied, strong, and compact, with a large trunk and short but thick legs. The Merghee is generally taller but is not so compact nor so strong: he travels faster, has a lighter body, and his trunk is both short and slender in proportion to his height. As a large trunk is considered a great beauty in an elephant, the Koomareah is preferred, but not only for this, but for its superior strength, and greater capability of sustaining fatigue. The mixed breed is held in greater or less estimation in proportion as it partakes of the qualities of the Koomareah or Merghee. A breed from a pure Koomereah and Merghee is termed Sunkareah (from sunkarah, a mixture), or Merghabauliah (for the most part Merghee); but a farther mixture or crossing of the breed renders it extremely difficult for the hunters to ascertain the variety. Besides the Koomareah, Merghee, and Sunkareah breeds, several varieties are generally to be found in the same herd; but the nearer an elephant approaches to the true Koomareah the more he is preferred, especially by the natives, and the higher will be his price; though Europeans are not so particular, and will sometimes prefer a female Merghee for hunting and riding when she has good paces and is mild and tractable. The variety of male termed Dauntelah (toothy, having large fine teeth,) produces the largest tusks and the finest ivory: his head is strongly contrasted with that of the Mooknah (probably from mookh, the mouth or face), which can hardly be distinguished in this respect from a female elephant, and the tusks of some of the females are so small as not to appear beyond the lip, while in others they are almost as large as in the variety of male called Mookmah. The Dauntelah is generally more daring and less manageable than the Mooknah; and for this reason, until the temper and disposition are ascertained, the Europeans prefer the Mooknah ; but the natives who are fond of show generally take their chance, and prefer the Dauntelah ; and though there is a material difference in their appearance as well as in the value of their tusks, yet, if they are of the same caste, size, and disposition, and perfect, there is scarcely any difference in . price. There are many varieties between the Mookmah and Daunte'ah, and these are varied according to the variation of the form of the tusks from the projecting horizontal, but rather elevated, curve of the Pullung-Daunt" of the true Dauntelah, to the nearly straight tusks of the Mookmah, which point directly downwards. Thus the Goneish or Ganesa, which is a Dauntelah that has never had but one tusk and this of the pullung sort, and which is so called from Ganesa, the Hindu god of wisdom, who is represented with a head like an elephant's with only one tooth, was sold in Mr. Corse's time to the Hindu princes for a very high price, to be kept in state and worshipped as a divinity. Another variety of the Dauzezelah has the large tusks pointing downwards and o in only a little beyond the trunk: he is then said to have Soor or Choordaunt (Hog's teeth). A third is the Putzezdauntee, whose tusks are straight like those of the Mookmah, only much longer and thicker. The Ankoos Dauntee is a fourth, and has one tusk growing nearly horizontal, like the Pullung-Daunt, and the other like the Puttul-Daunt, and there are other less distinct varieties. The term Goondah seems to be used to designate those wandering male elephants which are much larger and stronger than the males generally taken with the herd, the Goondah departing from it or returning to it according to his desire. The Goondahs are supposed to be rarely taken with the herd: when they are so taken, their violence and ferocity renders them most destructive. Mr. Corse relates an instance of the ungovernable passions and terrible havock

* Pullung signifies a bed or cot, and daunt teeth; and, from the tusks projecting so regularly, and being a little curved and elevated at the extremities. the natives suppose a man might lie on them at his ease, as on n bed. (Corse."


occasioned by the savage disposition of one, or at least a large male that was supposed to be one, when in the Keddah”. He was at length tied and led out, but his untaineable spirit could not brook restraint, and after languishing about 40 days he died.

Mr. Hodgson in his paper ‘ on the Mammalia of Nepāl’ (Zool. Proc. 1834) suggests that there are two varieties, or perhaps rather species of the Indian elephant, Elephas Indicus, viz., the Ceylonese, and that of the Saul Forest. The Ceylonese has a smaller, lighter head, which is carried more elevated; it has also higher före-quarters. The eleot of the Saul Forest has sometimes nails on its hinder eet.

The height to which the Asiatic elephant will attain has been variously stated: but upon a strict examination of alleged great heights, the natural disposition among men to exaggerate has generally been detected.

A maie elephant recorded by Mr. Corse was at its birth 35 inches i.

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A female elephant was six feet nine inches high at the time she came to Mr. Corse's possession, and was supposed to be 14 years old according to the hunters; but, according to the belief of Mr. Corse, she was only 11 years of age. During the next five years, before she was covered, she grew only six inches, but, while pregnant, she grew five inches in 21 months, and in the following 17 months, though again pregnant, she grew only half an inch. Mr. Corse then lost sight of her. She was at this time about 19 years old and had perhaps attained her full growth. Her young one was then not 20 months old, yet he was four feet five inches and a half high, having grown 18 inches since his birth. It thus appears that no certain standard of growth, for captive elephants, at least, can be depended on : nor do there seem to be any satisfactory data for defining the age at which the animal ceases to grow. Mr. Corse conJectures that elephants attain their full growth between the ages of 18 and 24. With regard to the height, the East India Company's standard for serviceable elephants was, in Mr. Corse's time, seven feet and upwards, measured at the shoulder in the same manner as horses are. At the middle of the back, they are considerably higher; and the curve or arch, particularly in young elephants, makes a difference of several inches. The lessening of this curve is a sign of old age when not brought on by disease or violence. During the war with Tippoo Sultaun, of the 150 elephants under the management of Captain Sandys, not one was ten feet high, and only a few males nine feet and a half. Mr. Corse was very particular in ascertaining the height of the elephants employed at Madras, and with the army under Marquis Cornwallis, where there were both Ceylon and Bengal elephants, and he was assured that those of Ceylon were neither higher nor superior, in any respect, to those of Bengal; nay, some officers asserted that they were considerably inferior in point of utility.

The only elephant ever heard of by Mr. Corse as exceeding 10 feet, on good authority, was a male belonging to Asaph U1 Dowlah, formerly vizier of Oude. The following were his dimensions:—

Feet, Inches.

From foot to foot over the shoulder . . . . 22 10} From the top of the shoulder, perpendicular height 10 6 From the top of the head, when set up as he ought

to march in state . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 From the front of the face to the insertion of the

tail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ll

And yet the Madras elephants have been said to be from 17 to 20 feet high. Now let us see how dimensions shrink before the severity of measurement. Mr. Corse heard from several gentlemen who had been at Dacca, that the Nabob there had an elephant about 14 feet high. Mr. Corse was desirous to measure him, especially as he had seen the elephant often at a former period, and then supposed him to

Keddah is the name of the enclosure into which the wild elephants are driven aud thea captured,

be 12 feet high. He accordingly went to Dacca. At first he sent for the mahote or driver, who without hesitation assured him that the elephant was from 10 to 12 cubits, that is from 15 to 18 feet high; but added that he could not bring the elephant for Mr. É." examination without the Nabob's permission. Permission was asked and granted. Mr. Corse measured the elephant exactly, and was rather .." to find that the animal did not exceed 10 feet in eight. Variety. The white elephants so much esteemed by the Indian sovereigns are merely Albinos. Geographical Distribution—The Asiatic elephant inhabits the greater part of the warm countries of Asia, and the large islands of the Indian archipelago. Mr. Corse states that the elephants for the service of the East India Company are generally taken in the provinces of Chittagong and Tiperah; but from what he had heard, those to the southward of Chittagong, in the Burmah territories and kingdom of Pegu, are of a o breed. In confirmation of this opinion, he observes that the elephants taken to the south of the Goomty river, which ai. the province of Tiperah from east to west, were generally better than those taken to the north of that river; and though elephants were taken at Pilibet as far north as lat. 29° in the vizier of Oude's territories, yet the vizier, and also the officers of his court, gave those taken in Chittagong and Tiperah a decided preference, they being much larger and stronger than the Pilibet elephant. Till the year 1790 Tiperah was a part of the Chittagong province; and so sensible was the Bengal government of the superiority of the southern elephants, for carrying burdens, enduring fatigue, and being less liable to casualties, that in the then late contracts * for of the army, the contractor was bound not to send any elephant to the military stations taken north of the Chittagong province. Hence Mr. Corse concludes the torrid zone to be the natural clime, and the most favourable for producing the largest, the best, and the hardiest elephant; and that when this animal migrates beyond the tropics the species degenerates. He speaks of elephants being taken on the coast of Malabar as far north as the territories of the Coorgah rajah ; but adds that these were much inferior to the Ceylon elephant, and that from this circumstance the report of the superiority of the Ceylon elephant to all others probably originated. He remarks that most of the previous accounts respecting the Asiatic elephant had been given by gentlemen who resided many years ago on the coast of Malabar or Coromandel, where, at that time, they had but few opportunities of seeing the Chittagong or the Pegu elephant. Mr. Hodgson, in the paper above noticed, states that Elephas Indicus and Rhinoceros unicornis are both abundant in the forests and hills of the lower region of Nepāl, whence, in the rainy season, they issue into the cultivated parts of the Tarái to feed upon the rice crops. Habits, Utility to Man, &c.—In a state of nature the Asiatic o, in great herds, which are generally said to be under the conduct of the old males, or bulls, as they are sometimes termed. From time immemorial the species has been brought under the dominion of man + and trained to swell the pomp of pageants, and add to the terrors of war, as well as to perform the more useful offices of a beast of burthen and draught, and the more dreadful one of executing the sentence of death on criminals. It has been long made the companion of the sports of the Orientalist in the great hunting parties; and from the same early period has been made to minister to the wanton and cruel pleasures of Eastern princes by being stimulated to combat not only with other elephants but with various wild animals. Our limits will not allow us to enter into the highly interesting detail of the mode of capturing this enormous animal, &c., &c.; and we must refer the reader to the second volume of the Memories f, where he will find an abundant and amusing collection of anecdotes connected with this subject, as well as a complete history of the elephant, both in the wild state and as the servant of man. The tusks of both species still form, as they did from the earliest periods, a valuable article of commerce. The ivory which is now sought for useful purposes and ornaments of minor importance, was in great request with the antient

• Mr. Corse's paper was read before the Royal Society in 1799.

+ The earliest extant account in any European language of the mode of capturing the Indian elephant is in Arrian, Indike, chap. 13.

# Library of Eatwiwining Kuowledge,' 8vo., Lou” 1891.

Greeks and Romans for various domestic uses, as well as for the Chrys-elephantine statuary rendered so famous by Phidias. Of these rich statues the Minerva of the Parthenon, and especially the Olympian Jupiter, appear to have been the master-pieces.

- Elephas Indicus—Asiatic Elephant. Elephas Africanus.-The African elephant is less than

the Asiatic. The head is rounded; the front convex instead of concave; the ears are much larger than those of the Asiatic species; and the general number of nails on each hind foot is only three instead of four. Geographical Distribution.—From Senegal to the Cape of Good Hope. Cuvier says that it is not known whether the species is found up the whole oriental side of Africa, or whether it is there replaced by the preceding species. Habits, Utility to Man, &c.—The flesh is relished by the inhabitants of many districts of Africa. Major Denham speaks of it as being esteemed by all, and even eaten in secret by the first people about the sheikh; and he says that though it looked coarse it was better flavoured than any beef he found in the country. The antient Romans considered the trunk as the most delicious part; but Le Vail..ant speaks of the foot as a dish for a king. The disposition of this species is supposed to be more ferocious than that of the Asiatic elephant: though its habits in a state of nature do not greatly differ. It is not now tamed ; but

Elephas Africanus." African Elephant.

there is good ground for believing that the Carthaginians availed themselves of the services of this species as the Indians did of those of the Asiatic elephant. The elephants exhibited in the Roman arena by Caesar and Pompey appear to have been Africans; and from them principally, if not entirely, the ivory for ornamental purposes and the statues above alluded to, seems to have been taken. The tusks of this species are of great size.

Fossil SPEcies.

The third and fourth divisions of the tertiary fresh-water deposits (Pliocene period of Lyell) abound in extinct species of recent genera, and among them the remains of fossil elephants are very numerous. The alluvium, the crag, the ossiferous caverns, the osseous breccias, and the subappenine formations afford the most numerous examples. Cuvier (“Régne Animal,’ last edit.) observes that there are found under the earth, in almost all parts of both continents, the bones of a species of elephant approximating to the existing Asiatic species, but whose grinders have the ribands of enamel narrower and straiter, the alveoli of the tusks longer in proportion, and the lower jaw more obtuse. An indivi. dual, he adds, found in the ice on the coasts of Siberia appeared to have been covered with hair of two sorts, so that it might have been possible for this species to have lived in cold climates. The species has, he concludes, long since disappeared from the face of the globe. This species he characterizes (Ossemens Fossiles) as having an elongated skull, a concave front, very long alveoli for the tusks, the lower jaw obtuse, the grinders larger, parallel, and marked with closer set ribands of enamel, and he designates it as The fossil Elephant, Elephas primigenius of Blumenbach, El Mammonteus, Fischer, The Mammoth of the Russians.

Skull of Elephas Primigenius.

Mammoth's, or elephant's bones and tusks occur throughout Russia, and more particularly in Eastern Siberia and the Arctic marshes, &c. The tusks are very numerous, and in so high a state of preservation that they form an article of commerce, and are employed in the same works as what may be termed the living ivory of Asia and Africa, though the fossil tusks fetch an inferior price. Siberian fossil ivory forms the principal material on which the Russian ivory-turner works. The tusks most abound in the Laichovian Isles and on the shores of the Frozen Sea; and the best are found in the countries near the Arctic circle, and in the most eastern regions, where the soil in the very short summer is thawed only at the surface; in some years not at all. In 1799 a Tungusian, named Schumachoff, who generally went to hunt and fish at the peninsula of Tamut, after the fishing season of the Lena was over, had constructed for his wife some cabins on the banks of the lake Oncoul, and had embarked to seek along the coasts for Mammoth horns, (tusks). One day he saw among the blocks of ice a shapeless mass, but did not then discover what it was. In 1800 he perceived that this object was more disengaged from the ice, and that it had two projecting parts; and towards the end of the summer of 1801 the entire side of the animal and one of his tusks were quite free from ice. The summer of 1802 was cold, but in 1803 part of the ice between the earth and the Mammoth, for such was the object, having melted more rapidly than the rest, the plane of its support became inclined, and the enormous mass fell by its own weight on a bank of sand. In March, 1804, Schumachoff came to his mammoth, and having cut off the tusks, exchanged them with a merchant for goods of the value of fifty rubles. We shall now let


Mr. Adams, from whose account these particulars are abridged, speak for himself. ‘Two years afterwards, or the seventh after the discovery of the mammoth, I fortunately traversed these distant and desert regions, and I congratulate myself in being able to prove a fact which appears so improbable. I found the mammoth still in the same place, but altogether mutilated. The prejudices being dissipated because the Tungusian chief had recovered §: health,” there was no obstacle to prevent approach to the carcase of the mammoth; the pro}. was content with his profit from the tusks, and the akutski of the neighbourhood had cut off the flesh, with which they fed their dogs during the scarcity. Wild beasts, such as white bears, wolves, wolverines, and foxes, also fed upon it, and the traces of their footsteps were seen around. . The skeleton, almost entirely cleared of its flesh, remained whole, with the exception of one fore-leg. The spine from the head to the os coccygis,'t one scapula, the basir and the other three extremities were still held together by the ligaments and by parts of the skin. The head was covered with a dry skin; one of the ears well preserved was furnished with a tuft of hairs. All these parts have necessarily been injured in transporting them a distance of 11,000 wersts (7330 miles); yet the eyes have been preserved, and the pupil of the eye can still be distinguished.1. This mammoth was a male, with a long mane on the neck, but without tail or proboscis.” (The places of the insertion of the muscles of the proboscis are, it is asserted, visible on the skull, and it was probably devoured as well as the end of the tail.) ‘The skin, of which I possess three-fourths, is of a dark grey colour, covered with a reddish wool and black hairs. The dampness of the spot, where the animal had lain so long, had in some degree destroyed the hair. The entire carcase, of which I collected the bones on the spot, is four archines (9 feet 4 inches) high, and seven archines (16 feet 4 inches) long from the point of the nose to the end of the tail, without including the tusks, which are a toise and a half (9 feet 6 inches, measuring along the curve; the distance from the base or root of the tusk to the point is 3 feet 7 inches) in length; the two together weighed 360 lbs. avoirdupois; the head alone, with the tusks, weighs 11 poods and a half (41.4 lbs. avoirdupois.) The principal object of my care was to separate the bones, to arrange them, and put them up safely, which was done with particular attention. I had the satisfaction to find the other scapula, which had remained not far off. I next detached the skin of the side on which the animal had lain, which was well preserved. This skin was of such extraordinary weight that ten persons found great difficulty in transporting it to the shore. After this I dug the ground in different places to ascertain whether any of its bones were buried, but principally to collect all the hairs which the white bears had trod into the ground while devouring


Mammoth found in Siberia.

+ An error, as of 28 or 30 caudal vertebite only 8 remained,

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the flesh. Although this was difficult from the want of proper instruments, I succeeded in collecting more than a pood (36 pounds) of hair. In a few days the work was completed, and I found myself in possession of a treasure which amply recompensed me for the fatigues and dangers of the journey, and the considerable expenses of the enterprise. The place where I found the mammoth is about 60 paces distant from the shore, and nearly 100 paces from the escarpment of the ice from which it had fallen. This escarpment occupies exactly, the middle between the two points of the peninsula, and is three wersts long (two miles), and in the place where the mammoth was found this rock has a perpendicular elevation of 30 or 40 toises. Its substance is a clear pure ice; it inclines towards the sea; its top is covered with a layer of moss and friable earth, half an archine (14 inches) in thickness. During the heat of the month of July, a part of this crust is melted, but the rest remains frozen. Curiosity induced me to ascend two other hills at some distance from the sea; they were of the same substance, and less covered with moss. In various places were seen enormous pieces of wood of all the kinds produced in Siberia; and also mammoths' horns (tusks) in great numbers appeared between the hollows of the rocks; they all were of astonishing freshness. How all these things could become collected there, is a question as curious as it is difficult to resolve. The inhabitants of the coast call this kind of wood Adamschina, and distinguish it from the floating pieces of wood which are brought down by the large rivers to the ocean, and collect in masses on the shores of the frozen sea. The latter are called Noachina. I have seen, when the ice melts, large lumps of earth detached from the hills mix with the water, and form thick muddy torrents which roll slowly towards the sea. This earth forms wedges which fill up the spaces between the blocks of ice. The escarpment of ice was 35 to 40 toises high; and, according to the report of the Tungusians, the animal was, when they first saw it, seven toises below the surface of the ice, &c. On arriving with the mammoth at Borchaya, our first care was to separate the remaining flesh and ligaments from the bones, which were then packed up. When I arrived at Jakutsk, I had the good fortune to repurchase the tusks, and from thence expedited the whole to St. Petersburg.’ The skeleton is now in the Museum of the Academy, and the skin still remains attached to the head and feet. A part of the skin and some of the hair of this animal were sent by Mr. Adams to Sir Joseph Banks, who presented them to the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. The hair is entirely separated from the skin, excepting in one very small part, where it still remains attached. It consists of two sorts, common hair and bristles, and of each there are several varieties, differing in length and thickness. That remaining fixed on the skin is of the colour of the camel, an inch and a half long, very thick set, and curled

Reduced from the lithographic plate above mentioned. * He had fallen sick from alarm, on first hearing of the discovery, as it was considered a bad omen.

; This is doubted; a dried substance is visible.

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